Jawaharlal nehru technological university anantapur



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JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ANANTAPUR

(Established by Govt. of A.P., Act. No. 30 of 2008)

ANANTHAPURAMU – 515 002 (A.P) INDIA
Course Structure for B. Pharmacy. - R15 Regulations

B. Pharmacy
I-II Semester


S.No

Course code

Subject

Th

Tu/Drg/Lab

Credits

1.

15R00201

Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry - II

2

1 - -

2

2.

15R00202

General & Dispensing Pharmacy

3

1 - -

3

3.

15R00203

Pharmaceutical Biochemistry

3

1 - -

3

4.

15R00204

Pharmacognosy – I

2

1 - -

2

5.

15A52201

English for Professional Communication

3

1 - -

3

6.

15R00205

Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry – II Lab

-

- - 4

2

7.

15R00206

General & Dispensing Pharmacy Lab

-

- - 4

2

8

15R00207

Pharmaceutical Biochemistry Lab




- - 4

2

9

15R00208

Pharmacognosy – I Lab




- - 4

2

13 5 16

21


2015-2016
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ANANTAPUR

ANANTHAPURAMU

B.Pharmacy. I - II Sem. T Tu C

2 1 2


Subject

PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY-II

Course Code

15R00201

Course year

B. Pharmacy I year

Semester

II

Theory

2 hrs/week

Tutorial

1hr/week

End exam

70 marks

Internal exam

30 marks

Credits

2








Objectives:

  1. To understand the reactivity of various functional groups.

  2. To understand the recent advances in organic synthesis by knowing safe technologies.


UNIT - I:
Alcohols: Nomenclature, classification, general methods of preparation, physical properties,hydrogen bonding, characteristic nucleophilic substitution reactions (replacement of -OH by -Cl), elimination reactions, and relative reactivities of 1o, 2o and 3o alcohols, Meerwein Pondorff Verley reduction.

Phenols: Nomenclature, general methods of preparation, physical properties, acidity of phenols,stability of phenoxide ion, reactions of phenols, Kolbe-Schmidt reaction, Fries rearrangement, and Reimer-Tiemann Reaction.
UNIT - II:
Carbonyl Compounds: Nomenclature, two important methods of preparation, polarity of carbonylgroup, relative reactivities of carbonyl compounds, nucleophilic addition and addition-elimination reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, benzoin condensation, Perkins reactions, Reformatsky reaction and Oppenauer oxidation.
UNIT - III:

Carboxylic acids: Nomenclature, intermolecular association, stability of carboxylate anion, twoimportant methods of preparation, decarboxylation, functional groups reactions and reduction of carboxylic acids.
Acid derivatives: (acid chlorides, anhydrides, esters and amides): Nomenclature, reactions likehydrolysis, reduction of esters and amides, Hofmann’s degradation of amides. Brief account of preparation and properties of malonic and acetoacetic esters, their importance in organic synthesis.
UNIT – IV:
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, basicity of amines, relative reactivity, Hinsberg method ofseparation, acylation reactions. Diazotisation and reactions of diazonium salts.

Nitro compounds: Nomenclature, acidity of nitro compounds containing- hydrogens, reductivereactions of aromatic nitro compounds.
Nitriles and isonitriles: Nomenclature, two methods of synthesis, reactivity and functionalreactions.
UNIT – V:
Ethers: Nomenclature, Williamson’s synthesis, action of hydro iodic acid on ethers (Ziesel’smethod).

Basic Principles & Applications of Green chemistry, Green solvents.



TEXT BOOKS

  1. Advanced pharmaceutical organic chemistry, Bahl & Bahl, S.Chand.

  1. Organic chemistry, T.R.Morrison and R.N.Boyd, Pearson Education India , New Delhi.


REFERENCES

  1. Organic chemistry, Bruice 6th Edition, Pearson Publisher, 2010.




  1. Reactions and Mechanism, Jerry March, 4th edition Wiley Publication.




  1. Organic chemistry, Carey, 8th Edition, Mc Graw-Hill.

  2. Organic chemistry, Pillai Orient Longman Publisher.




  1. The Fundamentals Principles of Organic Chemistry Vol.I & Vol. II, I.L.Finar, ELBS/Longman.

Course outcomes:

  1. The graduate can understand nomenclature and chemistry of various functional groups and chemical properties with their mechanisms.

Student can apply green chemical methods for the synthesis of new chemical entities in the view of environment protection.

2015-2016

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ANANTAPUR

ANANTHAPURAMU

B.Pharmacy. I - II Sem. T Tu C

3 1 3


Subject

GENERAL AND DISPENSING PHARMACY

Course Code

15R00202

Course year

B. Pharmacy I year

Semester

II

Theory

3 hrs/week

Tutorial

1hr/week

End exam

70 marks

Internal

30 marks

Credits

3








Scope and objectives: This course is designed to impart a fundamental knowledge on the art and science of formulating different dosage forms. It prepares the students for most basics of the applied field of pharmacy.

UNIT I Origin and History

Development of pharmacy, Evolution of Pharmacy education &Pharma industry in India.Origin anddevelopment of the Pharmacopoeias, History of Ayurveda, salient features of IP, USP and BP.



UNIT II Dispensing Pharmacy

Drug - Definition, Essential characteristics. Dosage form – Definition, Classification, Formulation andpurpose. Principles of dispensing, parts of prescription, handling of prescription, general dispensingprocedures, source of errors in prescription and care required in dispensing procedures includinglabeling of dispensed products.



UNIT III Pharmaceutical calculations

Weights and Measures, introduction to Latin terms, Percentage calculations, alligation method, proofspirit calculations, displacement value and calculations of isotonicity adjustment. Posology-factorsaffecting selection of dose & dosage form and calculations of doses.



UNIT IV Principles involved and procedures adopted in dispensing of the following

classes of preparations:

i) Powders ii) Solutions iii) Mixtures iv)Lotions& liniments v) Suspensions vi) Emulsions and vii) Ointments.



UNIT V Incompatibilities

Introduction, classifications, methods to overcome incompatibility.



TEXT BOOKS

1 Dispensing Pharmacy, Cooper &Gunns CBS, Publ. and Distributors New Delhi – (2008).

2 Dispensing Pharmacy, R.M Metha, 2006 Vallabh Publication, New Delhi.

REFERENCES

1. Text Book of Pharmaceutics, E.A. Rawlins, Bentleys ELBS publ.

2. Essential dosage calculations -Hospital Pharmacy. Lorria& William, William Hassan.

OUTCOME
Upon the completion of the course the student should be able to:

a. recognize the formulation aspects of different dosage forms;

b. do different pharmaceutical calculation involved in formulation;

c. formulate different types of dosage forms; and

d. appreciate the importance of good formulation for effectiveness.

2015-2016

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ANANTAPUR

ANANTHAPURAMU

B.Pharmacy. I - II Sem. T Tu C

3 1 3


Subject

PHARMACEUTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY

Course Code

15R00203

Course year

B. Pharmacy I year

Semester

II

Theory

3 hrs/week

Tutorial

1hr/week

End exam

70 marks

Internal

30 marks

Credits

3








Scope and objectives: This course is designed to impart a fundamental knowledge on the biochemistry. It prepares the students for most basics of life and chemistry of living.
UNIT I:Cell Processes, Bioenergetic and Cellular Reactions

Bio chemical organization of the cell, molecular constitutents of membrane, active & passivetransport process, sodium and potassium pumps, osmoregulation and heamostatis. The concept of freeenergy, determination of change in free energy from equilibrium constant & reduction potential.

Production of ATP and its biological significance.Redox reactions, redox potential, the respiratorychain & its role in energy capture & its control.Oxidative phosphorylation & its energetics & E.T.Cmechanism.

UNIT II

Introduction to Bio-Molecules: Structure, classification, cell and biological functions of

carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids (DNA & RNA) vitamins & minerals.

Enzymes & Co-Enzymes: Classification, Structure, mechanism of action, properties, factors

affecting enzymes action, enzyme kinetics and enzyme inhibitions, repressions with reference to drugaction, Isoenzymes, Coenzymes from Vitamins, Nucleotides and non-nucleotides. clinical importanceof enzymes in treatment and diagnosis.



UNIT III : Metabolism of carbohydrates

Metabolic pathway, regulation and significance of the following pathways and cycles: Metabolism ofCarbohydrates: Glycolysis (aerobic and anaerobic), glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, Kreb’s cycle,HMP &uronic acid pathways, Cori cycle.



UNIT IV : Metabolism of Lipids and Proteins

Lipids : Alpha, Beta, Gama & Omega oxidations of fatty acids, bio-synthesis of fatty acids,

cholesterol, ketogenesis, Utilization of ketone bodies, Regulation and energetics of Lipid metabolism,Metabolic disorders of lipid metabolism.

Proteins: Structure, classification of protein. Classification of aminoacids, concept of essential andnonessential amino acids and their importance in deamination, Trans-amination, de-carboxylation,Urea cycle. Metabolism of Valine, cystine, cystein, tryptophan, tyrocine, methionine.Biosynthesis ofpurines, pyrimidines, proteins.Metabolic disorders of Carbohydrate and protein.



UNIT V: Clinical Biochemistry

Introduction to clinical biochemistry, Normal values of various biochemical parameters (Blood / orUrine: Glucose, VLDL, LDL etc. total proteins, urea, Minerals, Hormones… etc.) and their abnormalvalues in diagnosis.Liver function test and kidney function test, OGTT.



TEXT BOOKS:

1. A.L.Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry; CBS Publishers and distributors.

2. Harper, Biochemistry McGraw Hill Medical, 28th Edition.

3. Text Book of Biochemistry by Satyanarayana Oxford University Press.

4. J.L.Jain, Fundamentals of Biochemistry S.Chand

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. Biochemistry, C.B.Powar&G.R.Chatwal, Himalaya publishing house

2. L.Stryer, Text Book of Bio Chemistry. W.H.Freemann& Co. Ltd. 6th Edition.

3. West, Edward Text Book of Biochemistry; Freeman and company, Sanfransisco.

4. E.E.Conn and PK Stumpf, Outlines of Biochemistry; John Wiley and sons, New York.


OUTCOME
Upon the completion of the course the student should be able to:

a. Understand the chemistry involved in life.

b. Understand biochemical reactions in the human body.

c. Understand the metabolic pathways of various biomolecules.



2015-2016

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ANANTAPUR

ANANTHAPURAMU

B.Pharmacy. I - II Sem. T Tu C

2 1 2

Subject

PHARMACOGNOSY-I

Course Code

15R00204

Course year

B. Pharmacy I year

Semester

II

Theory

3 hrs/week

Tutorial

1 hr/week

End exam

70 marks

Internal exam

30 marks

Credits

3








Objectives: This subject has been introduced for the pharmacy course in order to make the student aware of medicinal uses of various naturally occurring drugs its history, sources, distribution, method of cultivation, active constituents, medicinal uses, identification tests, preservation methods, substitutes and adulterants.
UNIT I

  1. Definition, history, development and scope of Pharmacognosy

  2. Brief introduction to natural sources of drugs with examples: plants, animals, minerals, marine and microorganisms

UNIT II

  1. Classification of drugs of natural origin: Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemotaxonomic, pharmacological and chemical classification with suitable examples.

  2. Cultivation, collection, processing, drying, and storage of medicinal plants.

  • Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants.

  • Plant hormones and their applications.

  • Improved methods of cultivation techniques: polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants.

  • WHO guidelines on Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) for medicinal plants


UNIT III

  1. Introduction, definition, classification, different chemical tests for the carbohydrates and derived products. Systemic Pharmacognostic study of the following carbohydrates and derived products: Acacia, Tragacanth, Agar, Starch, Guar gum, Pectin, Isabgol and Honey.



UNIT IV


  1. Definition, classification and properties of tannins. Study of tannin containing drugs-Gambir, Black catechu, Galls, Myrobalan and Arjuna.

  2. Study of source, preparation and identification of fibres used in pharmacy like cotton, silk, wool, nylon and polyester.


UNIT V

Introduction, definition, classification, different physical, chemical properties, extraction methods, chemical tests for the lipids. Systemic Pharmacognostic study of the following lipids: castor oil, cod liver oil, shark liver oil, linseed oil, cocoa butter, kokum butter, bees wax, wool fat, hydnocarpus oil, Rice bran oil and Lard.




TEXT BOOKS:

  1. Kokate C.K., Purohit A.P., Gokhale S. B. Pharmacognosy, Nirali Prakashan, New Delhi.

  2. Text book of Pharmacognosy by Handa and Kapoor.

  3. Pharmacognosy by Robert, Tyler.


REFERENCE BOOKS:

  1. WHO guidelines on good agricultural and collection practices (GACP)-WHO, Geneva

  2. Cultivation & utilization of medicinal plants by Atal CR and Kapoor BM.

  3. Text book of Pharmacognosy by Wallis.

  4. Pharmacognosy by Trease and Evans, latest edition.

  5. Swain T; Chemical Plant taxonomy, Academic Press London.


Upon completion of the course student shall be able to:

a. understand the basic principles and improved techniques of cultivation, collection and storage of crude drugs.

b. know the scientific name, geographical distribution, chemical nature and uses of crude drugs;

c. know the significance of carbohydrates, tannins, lipids and fibres in pharmacy.



2015-2016

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ANANTAPUR

ANANTHAPURAMU

B.Pharmacy. I - II Sem. T Tu C

3 1 3


Subject

English for Professional Communication

Code

15A52201

Course year

B. Pharm. I year

Semester

II

Theory

2 hrs/week

Tutorial

1 hr/week

End exam

70 marks

Internal exam

30 marks

Credits

2




















1. INTRODUCTION:

English is a global language and has international appeal and application. It is widely used in a variety of contexts and for varied purposes. The students would find it useful both for social and professional development. There is every need to help the students acquire skills useful to them in their career as well as workplace. They need to write a variety of documents and letters now extending into professional domain that cuts across business and research also. The syllabus has been designed to enhance communication skills of the students of engineering and pharmacy. The prescribed book serves the purpose of preparing them for everyday communication and to face the global competitions in future.

The text prescribed for detailed study focuses on LSRW skills and vocabulary development. The teachers should encourage the students to use the target language. The classes should be interactive and learner-centered. They should be encouraged to participate in the classroom activities keenly.

In addition to the exercises from the text done in the class, the teacher can bring variety by using authentic materials such as newspaper articles, advertisements, promotional material etc.



2. OBJECTIVES:

  1. To develop confidence in the students to use English in everyday situations.

  2. To enable the students to read different discourses so that they appreciate English for science and technologies.

  3. To improve familiarity with a variety of technical writings.

  4. To enable the students to acquire structure and written expressions required for their profession.

  5. To develop the listening skills of the students.

3. SYLLABUS:

UNIT –I

Topics: Group discussion, cause and effect, events and perspectives, debate, if conditional, essay writing.
Text: LESSONS FROM THE PAST from MINDSCAPES

Importance of History - Differing Perspectives - Modern Corporatism - Lessons From The Past



UNIT-II

Topics: Idioms, essay writing, power point presentation, modals, listening and rewriting, preparing summary, debate, group discussion, role play, writing a book review, conversation
Text: ‘ENERGY’ from MINDSCAPES

Renewable and Non-Renewable Sources - Alternative Sources -Conservation -Nuclear Energy


UNIT-III
Topics: Vocabulary, impromptu speech, creative writing, direct and indirect speech, fixed expressions, developing creative writing skills, accents, presentation skills, making posters, report writing
Text: ‘ENGINEERING ETHICS’ from MINDSCAPES

Challenger Disaster - Biotechnology - Genetic Engineering - Protection From Natural Calamities


UNIT-IV

Topics: Vocabulary, Conversation, Collocation, Group discussion, Note-making, Clauses, Interpreting charts and tables , Report writing.
Text: ‘TRAVEL AND TOURISM’ from MINDSCAPES

Advantages and Disadvantages of Travel - Tourism - Atithi Devo Bhava - Tourism in India


UNIT-V

Topics: Vocabulary, phrasal verbs, writing a profile, connectives, discourse markers, problem-solving, telephone skills, application letters, curriculum vitae, interviews (telephone and personal)
Text: ‘GETTING JOB-READY’ from MINDSCAPES

SWOT Analysis - Companies And Ways Of Powering Growth - Preparing For Interviews




Prescribed Text

MINDSCAPES: English for Technologists and Engineers, Orient Blackswan, 2014.
REFERENCES:
1. Effective Tech Communication, Rizvi,Tata McGraw-Hill

Education, 2007.

2. Technical Communication, Meenakshi Raman, Oxford University Press.

3. English Conversations Prcatice, Grant Taylor, Tata Mc GrawHill publications,2013.

4.Practical English Grammar. Thomson and Martinet, OUP, 2010.
Expected Outcomes:
At the end of the course, students would be expected to:

1. Have acquired ability to participate effectively in group discussions.

2. Have developed ability in writing in various contexts.

3. Have acquired a proper level of competence for employability.



2015-2016

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ANANTAPUR

ANANTHAPURAMU

B.Pharmacy. I - II Sem. P C

4 2


Subject

PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANICCHEMISTRY-II LAB

Course Code

15R00205

Course year

B. Pharmacy I year

Semester

II

Practical

4 hrs/week

Tutorial

NIL

End exam

50 marks

Internal

25 marks

Credits

2







  1. Experiments:



  1. Preparation of organic compounds (each involving a specific organic reaction covered in theory- any 10 synthesis)




1.

Sulphonation

: Preparation of Toluene para sulphonic acid from toluene.

2.

Bromination

: Tribromoaniline from Phenol or Aniline.

3.

Addition/Elimination

: Preparation of phenyl hydrazone or oxime from Benzaldehyde.

4.

Addition

: Preparation of 2,3-dibromo-3-phenyl propionic acid from cinnamaldehyde.

5.

Dehydration

: Preparation of acetonedicarboxylic acid from citric acid

6.

Condensation

: Preparation of dibenzalaetone from benzaldehyde


B. Identification of the following organic compounds by systematic qualitative analysis including acidic/basic/neutral character, aromatic/aliphatic, saturated/unsaturated, test for special elements and functional group identification tests.


  1. Phenols




  1. Amides

  2. Amines




  1. Carboxylic acids




  1. Aldehydes and Ketones




  1. Alcohols




  1. Anilides and nitrocompounds

  2. Esters

II. Demo / work shop
Crystallization by using various solvents, atomic models emphasizing organic molecules & TLC for synthesized compounds.

  1. Seminar/assignment/group discussion

Exercise on nomenclature of compounds, Knowledge on Protection of groups by green chemical methods, microwave assisted synthesis.



REFERENCES

  1. Text Book of Practical Organic Chemistry, Vogel’s, 5th Edition Pearson.

  2. Laboratory Manual of Organic Chemistry, R.K. Bansal, New Age International 5th Edition 2007.




  1. Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry, O.P. Agarwal, 3rd Edition Goel Publication.

  2. Practical Organic Chemistry, F.G.Mann & B.C. Saunders, Pearson 4th Edition.

LIST OF MINIMUM EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

  1. Triple beam balances

  2. Physical balances




  1. Melting point apparatus

  2. Suction pumps

  3. Oven




  1. Hot plates

  2. Water baths




  1. Distillation unit

  2. Refrigerator

Adequate glassware

2015-2016

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ANANTAPUR

ANANTHAPURAMU

B.Pharmacy. I - II Sem. P C

4 2


Subject

GENERAL AND DISPENSING PHARMACY LAB

Course Code

15R00206

Course year

B. Pharmacy I year

Semester

II

Theory

4hrs/week

Tutorial

Nil

End exam

50 marks

Internal

25marks

Credits

2








I. EXPERIMENTS

a) Dispensing of prescriptions falling under the categories: Mixtures, syrups, solutions, emulsions, ointments, powders, lotions, liniments (minimum two prescriptions from each class).

b) Identification of physical, chemical and therapeutic incompatabilities in a prescription, and dispensing ofsuch prescriptions (3 Exercise).

c) Dispensing procedures involving pharmaceutical calculations, and dosage calculations for

paediatric and geriatric patients

II. DEMO/WORKSHOP

Demo on homogenizer and identification test for emulsions.



III. SEMINAR/ASSIGNMENT/GROUP DISCUSSION

a) Current status of Indian pharma industry.

b) Applications of various dosage forms.

REFERENCE:

a) Dispensing Pharmacy, Cooper &Gunns CBS, Publ. and Distributors New Delhi – (2008).

b) Dispensing Pharmacy, R.M Metha, 2006 Vallabh Publication, New Delhi.

LIST OF MINIMUM EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

Adequate number of the following, such that each student gets

1. Mortars and pestles.

2. Analytical balance and weight box.

3. Percolators.

4. Dispensing containers.

5. PH meter.

6. Electronic balance.



7. Adequate quantities of chemicals and glassware.

2015-2016

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ANANTAPUR

ANANTHAPURAMU

B.Pharmacy. I - II Sem. P C

4 2

Subject

PHARMACEUTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY LAB

Course Code

15R00207

Course year

B. Pharm I year

Semester

II

Theory

3 hrs/week

Tutorial

1hr/week

End exam

70 marks

Internal

30 marks

Credits

2








I. EXPERIMENTS:

1. To prepare standard buffers (citrate, phosphate & carbonate) and measure the pH.

2. Separation of amino acids by gel / paper electrophoresis.

3. Identification of carbohydrates

4. Identification of amino acids.

5. Identification of lipids.

6. Estimation of glucose in urine and blood.

7. Estimation of creatinine in urine.

8. Estimation of creatinine in blood.

9. Estimation of cholesterol in blood.

10. Estimation of Urea in Blood

11. Estimation of Serum protein.

12. Estimation of bile pigments in serum.

13. Estimation of alkaline phosphatase, SGOT, SGPT in serum

14. Effect of temperature on the activity of alpha-amylase.

NOTE:Collection of blood samples from human should be carried out by trained pathologist andsubject as per norms from the human subject.

II. WORKSHOP / DEMO

Different diagnostic methods in diagnostic lab, Blood Glucose estimation by Glucometer



III. SEMINAR / ASSIGNMENT/GROUP DISCUSSION

Various diagnostic tests for different diseases, Gene therapy and gene targetting



LIST OF MINIMUM EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED

1. Colorimeter

2. Table top centrifuge

3. Digital balance

4. Physical/chemical balance

5. pH meter

6. Water bath

7. Folin-Wu tubes

8. Autoanalyser

9. Adequate glass wares



2015-2016

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ANANTAPUR

ANANTHAPURAMU

B.Pharmacy. I - II Sem. P C

4 2

Subject

PHARMACOGNOSY-I LAB

Course Code

15R00208

Course year

B. Pharmacy I year

Semester

II

practical

4 hrs/week

Tutorial

NIL

End exam

50 marks

Internal

25 marks

Credits

2








EXPERIMENTS:

  1. Collection and preparation of herbarium/laminated photos/ specimens of natural drugs.

  2. Study of microscope.

  3. Study of various morphological characters of the drugs mentioned in theory under carbohydrates.

  4. Study of various morphological characters of the drugs mentioned in theory under lipids.

  5. Study of various morphological characters of the drugs mentioned in theory under tannins.

  6. Study of various morphological characters of the drugs mentioned in theory under fibres.

  7. Chemical tests for Acacia, Tragacanth, Guar gum, Agar and Starch.

  8. Chemical tests for Castor oil, Linseed oil, Shark liver oil, Cod liver oil.

  9. Chemical tests for Gambir, Black catechu.

  10. Chemical test for fibres mentioned in theory.

  11. Determination of swelling factor of mucilage containing herbal drug.

Seminar/ Assignment:

Seminar/ Assignment related to theory:


Workshop/Demo

Cultivation of medicinal plants



References

  1. Practical Pharmacognosy, C K Kokate, Nirali Prakashan

  2. Practical Pharmacognosy, Khandelwal, Nirali Prakashan

  3. Practical Pharmacognosy Iyengar, Manipal Press Ltd.

  4. Brain KR and Turner TD. The practical Evaluation of Phytopharmaceuticals, Wright-Scientechnics, Bristol.

  5. Peach K and Tracey MV, Modern methods of Plant analysis, Narose publishing house, New Delhi.


LIST OF MINIMUM EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED

  1. Microscopes with stage

  2. Heating mantle

  3. Water baths

  4. Adequate glass wares







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