Words, Terms and People to Know



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Words, Terms and People to Know

  • Acropolis
  • Polis
  • Agora
  • Perioeci
  • Assembly
  • Aristocrat
  • Constitution
  • Oligarchy
  • Democratic
  • Helots
  • Sparta
  • Athens
  • Cleisthenes
  • Marathon
  • Delian League
  • Pericles
  • Thebes

Classical Greece While empires were forming in Africa and Asia, the ancient Greeks were building city-states on the lands surrounding the Aegean Sea. Over several centuries, these city-states (particularly Athens) produced a civilization that would have a profound impact on the rest of the world. What were Greeks of the classical period concerned with?

  • Philosophy, Beauty, Human Form, The Individual
  • “Sword of Damocles”-and Civic Responsibility a duty of all--
  • these are Greek innovations that have become part of our cultural fabric.
  • http://www.learner.org/resources/series58.html

The Sword of Damocles

  • Moral of the story: Virtue is sufficient for
  • living a happy life.
  • Don’t envy those in power.
  • What does the relief panel suggest about the role of democracy in Greek society?
  • What special qualities do heroes and athletes possess?
  • Why would the Greeks carve a statue of a lovely woman onto a building
  • column or decorate their pottery with a heroic scene?
  • It was considered of paramount importance. It was worthy of the people’s respect and protection.
  • Greek heroes are usually superhuman in their abilities but essentially human in their outlook and short comings. .People should strive to be like the gods and honor the gods with their efforts—Choices of Hercules.
  • The ancient Greeks considered the healthy human form the most beautiful of all the gods creations and used it in many different ways including as architectural elements, called caryatids, and as aspects of design motifs.

Greek society was shaped by environmental factors and resources during ancient times. 7:43

The City-State 700 B.C.—335 B.C.

  • Chapter 10 pages 162-177
  • Section One: discusses the development of the Greek polis.
  • I. The Polis
  • A. fortified town called an acropolis
    • 1. temple dedicated to the local god
    • 2. Cities tended to develop around the area at the foot of the hill known as the agora
  • Athens
  • Sparta
  • Corinth
  • Delos
  • Knossos
  • Rhodes

life revolved around the farmer and dependency on trade. 5:30

I. Continued

    • 3. each city-state had its own government and laws
    • 4. average city contained between 5-10,000 citizens
    • 5. workers and slaves were not citizens. Usually only free adult men born in Greece could be citizens
    • 6. civic and personal honor were one and the same
    • 7. good of the polis placed above all else
    • 8. two greatest Greek city-states were Sparta and Athens
  • Sparta in ruins. Ruins of the theater in Sparta.

I. Cont.

  • Sparta stronger army—military strength was of central interest
  • Athens stronger navy and was also concerned with philosophy, art and architecture
  • (A)'thranites'
  • (B)'zevgites'
  • (C )'thalamites'
  • Part of the ancient gate to the harbor
  • and part of the fortification of Piraeus
  • The “Long Walls” of Pericles

There were many different forms of Greek government. 5:39

Section Two: Summarizes the way of life in Sparta

  • II. Sparta
    • A. South-central Greece
      • 1.) by 500 B.C. had become the greatest military power in Greece (after revolt of helots around 600 the reforms of Lycurgus est. an Oligarchy) “What’s your profession?” You Tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gI6sARmxEuc&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
      • 2.) around 800 B.C. aristocrats take over the govt.—from that time onward Sparta had two kings with limited power
      • 3.) led the army and conduct religious services
      • 4.) only aristocrats could be citizens and ran the govt. and army
      • 5.) citizens over 20 were members of the Assembly
      • 6.) each year Assembly chose five managers known as ephors
        • a.) Council of Elders helped the ephors (from the Greek ἐπί, epi, "on" or "over", and ὁράω, horaō, "to see", i.e. "one who oversees")
        • b.) Council made up of men over 60 who were chosen for life and served as a high court

II. Cont.

  • B. Aristocrats, Helots, and Perioeci
  • land worked by helots (slaves)
  • perioeci (merchants) Spartans used iron rods as money
  • helots and perioeci worked while aristocrats (who dominated the army and government) trained for war
  • By 750 B.C. there were 20x as many helots and perioeci
  • C. Spartan Way of Life pg. 167-68 (self-denial and simplicity)
    • 1. infanticide practiced on unhealthy babies (children were more of the state than of their parents)
    • 2. at 7 boys entered military camps (the agoge was compulsory and a pre-requisite for citizenship, (Crypteia) even Spartan women could read and write which contributed to the high rate of Spartan literacy when compared to other Greek city-states) (Spartan education and the Laconic answer to Philip II)
    • 3. life of depravation
      • a. (ancient “slim fast”) every 10 days check to see if they were getting fat.
      • b. expected to marry at 20
      • c. could retire from army at 60
      • d. Sparta was more egalitarian than other city-states
      • e…”come home with your shields—or on them.” Straight Dope
      • f. New ideas not welcomed
      • g. One goal—military supremacy (a militarized society)

Section Three: describes the growth of democracy in Athens and its dominance in the Delian League

  • Athens
    • 750 B.C. Athenian nobles, merchants and manufacturers took over government establishing an oligarchy
    • To avoid civil war governmental changes were made
          • 1.) Draco’s laws too harsh
          • 2.) 594 B.C. Solon undertakes the task of reforming Govt.
          • 3.) writes a constitution
          • a.) political power of rich limited
          • b.) limited how much land a person could own
          • c.) Assembly governs & had power to make laws.
          • d.) Erased all debts
          • e.) Offered citizenship to artisans who were not Athenians
          • f.) Ordered every father to teach his son a trade
  • Under Draco’s code the death penalty was the punishment for even minor offenses. Concerning the liberal use of the death penalty in the Draconic code, Plutarch states:
    • It is said that Drakon himself, when asked answered that he ”…considered lesser crimes to deserve it, and I had no greater punishment for more important ones.”

III. continued

    • 4.) Solon’s reforms were resisted by both rich and poor. However, as a result more Athenians could take part in government
    • 5.) 560 B.C. Peisistratus takes power (Tyrant)
        • a.) part of the lower class (weakened upper class)
        • b.) divided estates among farmers who owned no land
        • c.) person no longer had to own land to be a citizen
        • d.) encouraged building, sculpture and the arts (gave jobs to the poor)
  • C. A Democratic Constitution
    • 1.) When Peisistratus died his sons took over as leaders.
    • 2.) Government overthrown by Sparta and Athenian Isagoras
    • 3.) the Spartans and Isagoras are overthrown by the ordinary people , in 508 B.C. and were replaced by Cleisthenes (how to break the cycle?). Democracy!
  • This bust, titled 'Solon' (National Museum, Naples) is technically more sophisticated than anything produced in Solon's own time. Most of the ancient literary sources, from which history derives its knowledge of Solon, were similarly constructed long after the event.

in 508 B.C., the people of Athens revolted brought back Cleisthenes to help form a democratic government. time1307

III. continued

      • 4. Cleisthenes put into effect world’s first constitution.
        • a. Athenians had right of freedom of speech
        • b. Reforms of Cleisthenes lasted almost 300 years
        • c. Opened Assembly to all males over 20 years old
        • d. Assembly elected 10 generals to run the Athenian army and navy
        • e. One general named Commander-in-chief
        • f. After Cleisthenes, the daily business of govt. was run by a Council of 500 (see flowchart to follow)
          • 1.) names drawn from a pot
          • 2.) no one could serve for more than two terms
        • g. citizens required to educate their sons either with a tutor or private school
        • h. at 18 Athenian males became citizens
          • 1.) take oath of citizenship at the temple of Zeus (pledge of allegiance )
  • The Civic Oath of Chersonesos ----Translated by T. Lytle I swear by Zeus, Gaia, Helios, Parthenos, the Olympian gods and goddesses, and all the heroes who protect the polis, chora, and forts of the people of Chersonesos (Greek for "peninsula".) . I shall act in concord with my fellow citizens on behalf of the protection and freedom of the polis and its citizens. I shall not betray to anyone whomsoever, whether Greek or barbarian, Chersonesos, Kerkinitis, Kalos Kimen, the other forts, and the rest of the chora, which the people of Chersonesos inhabit or inhabited. But I shall carefully guard all of these for the demos (democracy) of the people of Chersonesos. I shall not put down the democracy. I shall neither rely upon nor help conceal either traitor or subverter, but I shall reveal them to the magistrates in the city. I shall oppose anyone who plots against, betrays, or revolts from Chersonesos, Kerkinitis, Kalos Limen, the forts, and the chora of the people of Chersonesos. I shall hold the office of damiorgos; I shall be, to the best of my ability and with the greatest fairness, a councilor to the city and its citizens. I shall guard carefully the saster for the demos; and I shall not reveal to either a Hellene or a barbarian any secret that is likely to harm the city. I shall neither offer nor accept a gift to harm the polis and its citizens. I shall not contrive wtih evil intention against any citizen who has not revolted from Chersonesos; I shall neither rely upon one who plots against the city nor conceal anything from anyone, but shall lay an impeachment and determine the matter by vote according to the laws. I shall pledge my oath to a conspiracy against neither the commonwealth of the people of Chersonsesos nor any citizen who has not been shown to be an enemy of the demos. If I conspire with anyone and am bound by oath or solemn curse, may it be better for me and my possessions if I am reconciled to the state, but the opposite if I stand fast to the conspiracy. I shall report to the magistrates and conspiracy that I perceive to exist already or to be forming. Neither shall I sell grain suitable for exportation that comes from the plain, nor export grain from the plain to another place, except to Chersonesos. Zeus, Gaia, Helios, Parthenos, and the Olympian gods, as long as I abide by these covenants, may it be better for me, my family, and my possessions. But if I do not abide, may it be ill for me, my family, and my possessions; may neither the earth nor the sea bear their fruit for me; may the women not be happy in children [...]
  • Our democracy is a representative democracy—a republic. Traceable
  • To Rome.
  • From bondage to spiritual faith;
  • From spiritual faith to great courage;
  • From courage to liberty (rule of law);
  • From liberty to abundance;
  • From abundance to complacency;
  • From complacency to apathy;
  • From apathy to dependence;
  • From dependence back into bondage (rule of men- tyranny ).
  • The Problem with Democracy—keeping it!
  • In 1943 a work was published called, "Industrial Management in a Republic“ by Henning Webb. In this work Webb summarized the Cycle of Democracy, sometimes called either the “Tytler Cycle” or the “Fatal Sequence”, saying…
  • Paradoxically enough, the release of initiative and enterprise made possible by popular self-government ultimately generates disintegrating forces from within. Again and again after freedom has brought opportunity and some degree of plenty, the competent become selfish, luxury-loving and complacent, the incompetent and the unfortunate grow envious and covetous, and all three groups turn aside from the hard road of freedom to worship the Golden Calf of economic security. The historical cycle seems to be:
  • The point being that a democracy (a government of the people) requires many things from the citizens but first among them would be civic virtue ( cultivation of habits of personal living that are claimed to be important for the success of the community.) and a belief in something greater than mere physical comfort or acquisition of goods.

D. The Persian Wars

      • 1. In 545 B.C. Persians conquer Ionia in Asia Minor
      • 2. 565 B.C. Ionians revolt and ask for help from the city-states on the mainland
      • 3. Revolt put down and Darius inscriptions on tomb decides to punish the Greeks
      • 4. 490 B.C. 600 ships and army land on plain of Marathon
      • 5. Battle of Marathon— important victory for Athens over the Persians. A runner cries out Nike!, and dies. (of course the moral of this story is always walk—don’t run!)
      • 6. Athenians (new silver mines) build Triremes with three levels of rowers
      • 7. Persians return in 480 B.C. when Darius’s son Xerxes (ruler in movie 300) conquers Northern Greece.
      • 8. Battle at the pass of Thermopylae “We will fight in the shade” You Tube Leonidas and Xerxes

Battle of Thermopylae

  • 1. Marathon.
  • narrow mountain pass at Thermopylae (2)
  • (3) Salamis,
  • (4). Platea
  • http://www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID=226989

III. Continued http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072957549/student_view0/chapter10/interactive_map_quiz.html

      • 9. Greeks trick Persian fleet and destroys it at Salamis
      • 10. Follow up victory at Battle of Plataea in 479 B.C. Final battle speech from 300
    • The Delian League and the Athenian Empire
      • 1. Defensive league of city-states headquartered on the Island of Delos led by Athens
      • 2. Sparta did not join
      • 3. common navy crewed by Athenians
      • 4. Delian League turns into a method by which Athens dominates other Greek city-states and becomes foundation of Athenian Empire
  • Piraeus: Athens’ Port City
  • Part of the ancient gate to the harbor
  • and part of the fortification of Piraeus the walls were nearly 60 feet high
  • And 550 feet wide with a filled double wall construction

5. Pericles, first citizen of Athens, made Athens a center of art, philosophy, and architecture. He rebuilt palaces, temples with money from Delian League

      • A. builds long walls around Athens protecting city and its avenues to seaport of Piraeus map
      • B. Pericles’ 30 year rule marked by new heights in philosophy, literature, architecture and the arts
      • F. Decline of Athens
        • 1. resentment of Athens grows
        • 2. Peloponnesian War map begins—lasts nearly 30 years—ends 404 B.C. Pericles' funeral oration
        • 3. Plague strikes Athens and she loses ¼ of her people (see reading)
          • a.) young Athenian men become mercenaries in Persian army
          • http://www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID=346883 (Triemes at war)
  • Thucydides (c. 460 BC – c. 395 BC)
  • Greek historian and author of the
  • History of the Peloponnesian War
  • map of the Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B.C. From their beginnings, the Greek city-states had tenaciously protected their individual independence, and only with reluctance had they formed an alliance against the Persians. After their defeat of the Persians, Athens and others broke with tradition and formed a permanent union, the Delian League (green areas), to prevent further Persian attacks. In a few years, the more powerful Athens turned the league into its own empire, which changed forever the ancient Greek political ideal. Sparta and its allies (yellow areas) looked on such a coalition as a threat to their safety which, according to the Athenian historian Thucydides, “…drove them to war." The result was a drain on the resources of both sides, and the beginning of a series of destructive, internecine wars. The weakened cities easily succumbed to King Philip of Macedon when he invaded Greece in 338 B.C.
  • Thucydides is our primary source for this war. He was an upper-class Athenian and lived through the war (or nearly through it -- it is unclear when he died, but he left his work unfinished). While serving as general he was exiled for coming late to an engagement, and as a result he spent much of the war in exile in the northern Aegean where his family had land -- the same territory in which the doctors who composed the Epidemics were traveling. He was highly aware of the intellectual currents of the time, and both medicine and rhetoric have influenced his presentation of the war.
  • 4. According to Thucydides, at first enthusiasm for the war was high. Large numbers of young men on both sides who had no experience of war saw it as an adventure and a potential source of profit. But even the first year of the war brought losses and hardship to the Athenians, much of it caused by the radical strategy advocated by the Athenians' current political leader, Pericles, to rely mainly on Athenian naval supremacy: bring all the people in Attica into the city and abandon the outlying countryside to destruction by the Spartans, relying upon the navy to supply the city with food and other necessities that would be carried through the fortified corridor from the port of the Pireus into the city itself (the Long Walls).
  • . In the winter following the first year of the war, morale had fallen considerably in Athens. It was at the year's public funeral (held annually for men who had fallen in battle in the course of the year) that Pericles pronounced the famous funeral oration that is so often quoted as summing up the greatness of Periclean Athens (Thuc.2.34-46). Pericles' speech was an encomium (celebration) on Athenian democracy and it provided the high point of Thucydides' account of the war. It is immediately and dramatically followed in his account by the description of the plague which struck the city in the following summer, as the Spartans again invaded Attica.
  • 6. Crowded together in the city as the result of Pericles' strategy, the Athenians fell victim to the virulent sickness that was spreading throughout the eastern Mediterranean. People died in large numbers, and no preventive measures or remedies were of any avail. It has been estimated that a quarter, and perhaps even a third, of the population was lost. The plague returned twice more, in 429 and 427/6, and Pericles himself died during this time, probably as a result of the disease.
  • 7. By 415 the military rolls were full again (Thuc. 6.26), but the thirty-plus generation that filled offices and provided leadership had not yet been replenished. 8. Thucydides' himself suffered from the plague and recovered; thus he was an eyewitness to the catastrophe (might this have affected his reportage of it?). His expressed intention was not to suggest causes or to identify the illness, but to provide as complete and accurate a description as possible so that the illness could be recognized should it ever recur in the future (in this he showed the influence of the Hippocratic emphasis on prognosis). But the reader cannot be unaware of the dramatic contrast to the idealism that had just been expressed in the Funeral Oration.
  • 9. Thucydides lived in an era in which rhetoric was a highly praised and widely practiced skill, and its effect on his work can often be noticed. Unfortunately, none of our other sources mentions the outbreak, and we cannot confirm his account directly. While it is true that the lack of other notices in literature or archaeological evidence such as mass graves is somewhat puzzling, nevertheless, Thucydides was writing for an audience that included many who had lived through the events themselves, so that we cannot suspect outright invention on his part.
  • 10. Ironically, despite Thucydides' detailed description, modern scholars are still not able to agree on the identity of the disease. It was clearly not the bubonic plague of the Black Death in the 14th century, for the characteristic symptom of the bubo is not found in Thucydides' description. Other candidates that have been suggested are measles, typhus, ergotism, and even toxic shock syndrome as a complication of influenza. The case for typhus seems strongest both epidemiologically -- the age group is similar -- and from the standpoint of the symptoms. Typhus is characterized by fever and a rash, gangrene of the extremities occurs, it is known as a "doctors' disease" from its frequent incidence among care-givers, it confers immunity, and patients during a typhus epidemic in the First World War were reported to have jumped into water tanks to alleviate extreme thirst. But the fit is not exact. The rash is difficult to identify on the basis of Thucydides' description (modern medical texts often employ pictures to differentiate rashes), and the state of mental confusion may not fit Thucydides' description.
  • 11. In the long run, all such attempts at identification may be futile, however. Diseases develop and change over time, and it may be, as A.J. Holladay and J.C.F. Poole argue (Classical Quarterly 29 (1979) 299ff.), that the plague of the 5th century no longer exists today in a recognizable form.
  • In the course of their argument they provide a full bibliography for the various candidates up to that time. New suggestions continue to be made: toxic shock complicated by influenze: A.D.Langmuir, et al, "The Thucydides Syndrome," New England Journal of Medicine (1985) 1027-30; Marburg-Ebolu fevers: G.D.Scarrow, "The Athenian Plague. A possible diagnosis," Ancient History Bulletin 11 (1988) 4-8. Holladay and Poole credit Thucydides for first recognizing the factor of contagion; for another view on this issue, see J.Solomon, "Thucydides and the recognition of contagion," Maia 37 (1985) 121ff.; on the intellectual effects of the plague, see J.Mikalson, "Religion and the plague in Athens 431-427 BC," Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 10 (1982) 217ff.

Section Four: analyzes the decline of the Greek city-states

        • 4. Sparta takes control of Athens in 404 B.C.
  • IV. Decline of the City-States
      • A. 371 B.C. Athenians revolt and regain control with the help of Thebes.
      • Athens was never again as powerful. Thebes was the last city-state to take over leadership of independent Greece.
      • B. Thebes ruled Athens harshly and its treatment of Athens helped weakened the city-states still further
      • C. In 338 B.C. Philip II of Macedonia phalanx conquers Greece

Essay questions for chapter 10. Pick one of the essays below to research and write about for the chapter 10 test.

  • The modern English adjective “Spartan” comes from the name of the Greek city-state, Sparta. Using specific examples from your text and your notes, explain how this helps you understand what the phrase “a Spartan existence” probably means.
  • Explain how living in Athens was different from living in Sparta.
  • Write a brief essay explaining ways in which Sparta’s emphasis upon military training both helped and hindered her development.


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