Egyptians were impressed by stability, longevity and the monumental…
Mesopotamians were impressed by supernatural nature of their gods and were overawed by them.
Greeks, on the other hand, created gods in their own image who acted no better than the people who they ruled.
Greek gods acted like humans, had human vices, interacted with humans, sometimes even spawning children with them. At times certain gods would be opposed to another, try to outdo each other, and were in most ways (while supposedly universal entities)uniquely Greek!
by the end of the Peloponnesian War it had become apparent that Greek religion had few answers to explain the great catastrophe that had befallen the Greek city-states. It offered cold comfort to individuals seeking answers as to why all they had been told turned out to be either false or pointless. As a result of the god’s inability to protect, or comfort-- the social fabric of the city-state began to unravel.
“ Either there are no gods…or they take no care of men ”
Remnant portion of Greek Play
Neither Greek laws, nor the gods, dealt much with divine morality or private salvation.( However, committing an act of hubris was very definitely a no-no! There was moira—the power to which even the gods were subject. Originally, death offered a shadow afterlife. As Greece began to decay politically and loose its independence, its religion becomes more concerned with regeneration and the after life—influence of eastern mystery religions ? Very few were considered to have been physically immortalized and brought to live forever in either Elysium, the Islands of the Blessed. )
If the gods and the city state are tied together--if one falls, doesn’t the other?
Great debate about the nature of civic virtue and the role of the polis in society.
When Odysseus descends into Hades he sees Achilles' soul and says:
"… Achilles, the most fortunate man that ever was or will be … honored as though you were a god … and now you are a mighty prince among the dead. For you … Death should have lost its sting." (Odysseus to Achilles. Homer, Odyssey 11.480).
But Achilles replied:
"Do not speak soothingly to me of death, Odysseus. I should choose to serve as the serf of another, rather than to be lord over the dead." (Achilles to Odysseus. Homer, Odyssey 11.486).
Cosmopolitan, the idea that all of humanity belongs to a single moral community— the universal city—idea that Alexander attempts to share with the world.
“… the eternal world of ideas where real things exist. We only experience dim shadows of reality”
The ancient Greeks lived in a world filled with divine and semi-divine beings. Their religious beliefs and folk traditions were expressed in human terms with gods and goddesses, demi-gods, and heroes often conquering animals and mythical beasts. Even such an abstract idea as poetic inspiration was given human form. Representations of all these beings are found in Greek art: in temples or in public spaces, on everyday objects of bronze, ceramic, and precious materials. Concepts which today are considered exclusively religious were an integral part of daily existence.
Heracles (also known by the Roman spelling) Hercules) favored among the Greeks for his
Iapetus human qualities choices of Hercules
Overview Section One: discusses Greek creativity and the people’s attempt to honor their gods and goddesses especially in athletics and theater.
Terms to Learn: Prophecy
I. Religious Practices
A. No single Greek Religion. Each city-state worshiped its own gods.
1. Priests and priestesses serves as oracles
2. Prophecy–each hearer of the oracle photos had to decide what the message meant
http://www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID=346788 Pilgrimages to Delphi
Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors By John Roach National Geographic News August 14, 2001
The oracle of Delphi in Greece was the telephone psychic of ancient times: People came from all over Europe to call on the Pythia at Mount Parnassus to have their questions about the future answered. Her answers could determine when farmers planted their fields or when an empire declared war.
The Pythia, a role filled by different women from about 1400 B.C. to A.D. 381, was the medium through which the god Apollo spoke. http://www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID=346789
According to legend, Plutarch, a priest at the Temple of Apollo, attributed Pythia's prophetic powers to vapors. Other accounts suggested the vapors may have come from a chasm in the ground.
This traditional explanation, however, has failed to satisfy scientists. In 1927, French geologists surveyed the oracle's shrine and found no evidence of a chasm or rising gases. They dismissed the traditional explanation as a myth.
Their conclusion was aggregated by a modern misconception that vapors and gases could only be produced by volcanic activity.
Now, a four-year study of the area in the vicinity of the shrine is causing archaeologists and other authorities to revisit the notion that intoxicating fumes loosened the lips of the Pythia.
The study, reported in the August issue of Geology, reveals that two faults intersect directly below the Delphic temple. The study also found evidence of hallucinogenic gases rising from a nearby spring and preserved within the temple rock.
"Plutarch made the right observation," said Jelle De Boer, a geologist at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut, and co-author of the study. "Indeed, there were gases that came through the fractures."
Greece sits at the confluence of three tectonic plates. The shifting of these plates continually stretches and uplifts the area, which is riddled with faults.
Several years ago, Greek researchers found a fault running east to west beneath the oracle's temple. De Boer and his colleagues discovered a second fault, which runs north to south. "Those two faults do cross each other, and therefore interact with each other, below the site," said De Boer.
Interactions of major faults make rock more permeable and create passages through which ground water and gases can travel and rise. From 70 to 100 million years ago, thelimestone bedrock underlying the oracle's site lay below sea level, enriched with hydrocarbon deposits.
About every 100 years a major earthquake rattles the faults. The faults are heated by adjacent rocks and the hydrocarbon deposits stored in them are vaporized. These gases mix with ground water and emerge around springs.
De Boer conducted an analysis of these hydrocarbon gases in spring water near the site of the Delphi temple. He found that one is ethylene, which has a sweet smell and produces a narcotic effect described as a floating or disembodied euphoria.
"Ethylene inhalation is a serious contender for explaining the trance and behavior of the Pythia," said Diane Harris-Cline, a classics professor at The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. "Combined with social expectations, a woman in a confined space could be induced to spout off oracles," she said.
According to traditional explanations, the Pythia derived her prophecies in a small, enclosed chamber in the basement of the temple. De Boer said that if the Pythia went to the chamber once a month, as tradition says, she could have been exposed to concentrations of the narcotic gas that were strong enough to induce a trance-like state.
The power of the Delphic oracle fluctuated and eventually lost favor as Christianity became the dominant religion of the land, said De Boer. Moreover, ancient legend suggests that the concentration of the vapors became weaker—possibly because the absence of a major earthquake failed to keep Earth's narcotic juices flowing.
Today, the water that helped transport the gases to the Delphic temple is tapped and siphoned above the temple to supply the modern town of Delphi.
The work by De Boer and his colleagues is an example of modern science helping archaeologists understand how ancient peoples lived. Another example among the ancient Greeks is the belief in Poseidon as the god of the sea and earthquakes. According to Harris-Cline, modern science associates the two with tectonic movement deep under the sea.
"Our scientific techniques are just beginning to detect the natural phenomena which the Greeks celebrated and appreciated 2,500 years ago with ritual activities at these special places," she said.
Ancient Forecasting at Delphi
The Oracle of Delphi, which dates back to 1200 B.C., was the most important shrine in Greece. Built around a sacred spring, it was considered the center of the world.
People came from all over Greece and beyond to have their questions about the future answered by the Pythia, the priestess at the Temple of Apollo. Her predictions and announcements were used to determine events and activities ranging from when a farmer planted his seeds to when an empire declared war.
A consultation with Pythia began with the sacrifice of a goat. Pythia mounted a tripod and sat while awaiting divine inspiration, then conveyed her pronouncements to the seekers.
The Oracle of Delphi shrine was regarded as independent, its priests not associated with any strict religious dogma for the worship of Greek gods. Greek states eager to be in the Oracle's good graces sent elaborate gifts to the shrine, which made it a storehouse of fabulous art treasures.
The power of the Delphic oracle fluctuated, and finally lost favor when Christianity spread widely.
Croesus at the stake. Side A from an Attic
red-figure amphora, ca. 500–490 BC.
The most famous, and one of the most misleading, Delphic predictions was given to King Croesus of Lydia. In 550 B.C., Croesus was preparing to invade the Persian Empire, but decided that he should first consult the Delphic oracle about his chances for victory. After sacrificing 300 head of cattle to Apollo, Croesus had gold and silver melted down into 117 bricks, which he sent to Delphi along with jewels, statues, and a gold bowl weighing a quarter of a ton.
With these gifts, Croesus sent his question of whether he should attack Persia. The Pythia answered that, if he went to war, "Croesus will destroy a great empire." Encouraged by this response, he invaded Persia.
Imprisoned by the Persians, Croesus bitterly denounced the Delphic oracle for having deceived him. After receiving permission from his captors, Croesus sent his iron chains to Delphi with the question Why did you lie to me? The Pythia answered that her prediction had been fulfilled. Croesus had destroyed a great empire--his own. Audio pronunciation for " Croesus " hear it again
Herodotus on oracles:
“I do not venture to say anything against prophecies, nor will I listen to criticism from others”
The oracle defended itself by saying Croesus was being punished for what happened to him for the crime of an ancestor several generations back. Although Herodotus does not comment on this specific cause, he clearly believes that Croesus’s misfortune illustrates the larger truth that divine resentment strikes a man at the height of his prosperity
B. Gods and Goddesses of Mount Olympus and Chthonic (earth or soil in Greek) ch is silent: thon-ik (thŏn'ĭk). deities (those whose realms were earth of the underworld part of an older tradition predating Olympus and her gods)
The god Hades is not found on Mt. Olympus as he dwelt in the underworld. Pluto- Roman name (Hades) is the brother of Zeus and Poseidon dwelt in Hades Chthonic (shadow realm). Hades seen here with Cerberus the three headed dog
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1. 12 major gods and goddesses with specific duties
3. Inside Greek temples stood a statue of the god being honored. Greeks honored their gods by trying to do all things well. Temples were set within a temenos (sacred district ) frequently with a spring (for purification) and a grove of trees.
4. Festivals honored the gods
Greek historian Strabo (63/64 BC – ca. AD 24 ) wrote of the statue of Zeus at Olympia:
"...although the temple itself is very large, the sculptor is criticized for not having appreciated the correct proportions. He has depicted Zeus seated, but with the head almost touching the ceiling, so that we have the impression that if Zeus moved to stand up he would unroof the temple..."
The Role of the Temple
Most religious buildings today are intended for congregational worship, where groups of people get together on a regular basis to celebrate their god and receive spiritual comfort. Ancient Greek temples were rarely used this way. They were meant to serve as homes for the individual god or goddess who protected and sustained the community. It was the needs of the gods that were most important. They controlled the forces of nature— the sun and rain which nourished their crops and the winds which drove their ships. Although generally benevolent, the gods could be quite capricious and were liable to turn against the community— so it was in everyone's interest to make sure that they should feel completely at home. Their houses were the finest, equipped with a staff of servants to look after their every need. They received daily offerings of food and drink along with a proper share of the harvest and the profits of any trading or military activity.
Temples often served as the treasury of a city-state as they were considered to be the safest and least likely place to be robbed. The Parthenon most likely served as the treasury of Athens
Temple of Neptune (or Apollo or Hera II)
in Paestum dates from 450 BC
Ancient Athens 9:11 Athens leads the Hellenic World
C. The Olympic Games
1. Olympia was a group of temples built in fields (olympiad length of time from one Olympics to another)
2. The games were a time of truce
3. Only men allowed to compete
4. Pancratium Terms to Learn: Pancratium
5. Pentathlon—skill in running, discus-throwing, and three other sports Terms to Learn: Pentathlon
6. Herodotus “Father of History”
a.) First recorded date in Greek history is the date of the first Olympic game in 776 B.C.
And as to the wrestling? Those who engage in the pancratium, my boy, employ a wrestling that is hazardous; for they must needs meet blows on the face that are not safe for the wrestler, and must clinch in struggles that one can only win by pretending to fall, and they need skill that they may choke and adversary in different ways at different times, and the same contestants are both wrestling with the ankle and twisting the opponent's arm, to say nothing of dealing a blow or leaping upon an adversary; for all these things are permissible in the pancratium --- anything except biting and eye gouging. The Lacedmeamonians, indeed, allow even these, because I suppose, they are training themselves for battle, but the contests of Elis exclude them, though they do permit choking. Accordingly, the antagonist of Arrichion, having already clinched him around the middle, thought to kill him; already he had wound his forearm about the other's throat to shut off the breathing, while, pressing his legs on the groins and winding his feet one inside each knee of his adversary, he forestalled Arrichion's resistance by choking him till the sleep of death thus induced began to creep over his senses. But in relaxing the tension of his legs he failed to forestall the scheme of Arrichion; for the latter kicked back with the sole of his right foot (as the result of which his right side was imperiled since now his knee was hanging unsupported), then with his groin he holds his adversary tight till he can no longer resist, and throwing his weight down toward the left while he locks the latter's foot tightly inside his own knee, by this violent outward thrust he wrenches the ankle from its socket. Arrichion's soul, though it makes him feeble as it leaves his body, yet gives him the strength to achieve that for which he strives.
Imagines by Philostratus Book II . 6
The bronze boxer at the Terme Museum in Rome and a fragment of a relief on a tombstone at the Kerameikos Museum in Athens show scarred faces, broken noses, and cauliflower ears. Vase paintings of boxing matches show bloody noses. Satirical epigrams claim that boxers became so disfigured their dogs did not recognize them and they could not claim inheritances:
When Odysseus returned safely to his home after 20 years, only his dog Argos recognized him when he saw him. But you, Stratophon, after you have boxed for four hours, neither dogs nor your fellow citizens can recognize. If you will be so kind as to view your face in a mirror, you will affirm with an oath, "I am not Stratophon." (Lucillius, Greek Anthology 11.77, trans. W.E. Sweet)
O Augustus, this man Olympikos, as he now appears, used to have nose, chin, forehead, ears, and eyelids. But then he enrolled in the guild of boxers, with the result that he did not receive his share of his inheritance in a will. For in the lawsuit about the will his brother shows the judge a portrait of Olympikos, who was judged to be an imposter, bearing no resemblance to his own picture. (Lucillius, Greek Anthology 11.75, trans. W.E. Sweet)
Ancient Pentathlon or the "fivefold contest" was one of the most prestigious events at the ancient Greek Olympics. Contestants competed in the footrace, long jump, throwing the discus and throwing the javelin. The two men scoring the highest in these events were selected for the final contest, a wrestling match. The winner of this was declared to be the pentathlete. Three other sports were added in as well, in latter years. The boxing, Pankration and Equestrian events. In the foot race, the competitors must run around the Olympic stadium which was about 200 metres. The long jump was nothing like it is today. They did not have a run up, as they stood and jumped from a standing start. They even used heavy rocks to help them get more distance. They held onto the weights until just before impact and they then let them go backwards, giving them an extra push. The discus throw was pretty much the same then as it is today. They made their discuses from stone, or later on in the Hellenistic age, they used iron, lead or bronze. The way they threw the discus was very similar to how athletes do it today. Javelin was quite different. The greeks use to use a strap attached to the javelin to propel it further. They would wrap the strap around their hand and launch it from a run. Wrestling to the ancient Greeks was more then just a sport, but a lifestyle. All soldiers must know how to wrestle. In a wrestling match, a man can only win when the other opponent gives up. In Greek myth, the Pentathlon was invented by Jason. Jason was the ancient Greek hero who was sent to get the Golden Fleece. The Pentathlon was more then likely the climax of the ancient games, with the winner being crowned 'Victor Ludorum'.
Olympia video “Oath to Zeus”
Olympia: Temple to Hera
D. The Theater
1. Festivals honoring the god Dionysus around 600 B.C.
2. Greek chorus
(a.) soliloquy (p.183) ( personal thoughts and feelings expressed)
3. Aeschylus adds additional characters and the story is acted out. Earliest writer to create a two-character play.
b.) Euripides– (writer of tragedies) people suffer because of the evil they do
c.) Sophocles–(writer of tragedies) people suffer because of sins and mistake
d.) Comedies--Aristophanes best known writer of comic plays. e.) performed only at festivals and went most of the day
f.) open-air theaters photo.
g.) attendance was a public responsibility
“God whose law it is that he who learns must suffer. And even in our sleep pain that cannot forget, falls drop by drop upon the heart, and in our own despite, against our will, comes wisdom to us by the awful grace of God.”
The Herodian theater of Athens. This ancient amphitheater is still in use.
Theatre buildings were called a theatron. The theaters were large, open-air structures constructed on the slopes of hills. They consisted of three main elements: the orchestra, the skene, and the audience.
Orchestra: A large circular or rectangular area at the center part of the theatre, where the play, dance, religious rites, acting used to take place.
Skene: (from Greek skēnē, “scene-building”), A large rectangular building situated behind the orchestra, used as a backstage. Actors could change their costumes and masks. Earlier the skene was a tent or hut, later it became a permanent stone structure. These structures were sometimes painted to serve as backdrops.
The sculpture group Laocoön, which was executed between 175 and 150 B.C. Laocoön was a legendary Trojan prince who protested against the proposal to bring the wooden horse into Troy. According to one version of the legend, Apollo sent two serpents to kill him and his two sons because Laocoön had violated his vows as a priest by marrying. This marble statue depicts their deaths. This sculpture group had a major influence on the artists of the Italian Renaissance, particularly Michelangelo, when it was found near Rome in 1506.
Which brings up the nagging question…
WHY ARE THESE GUYS ALWAYS NUDE!?
Why Ancient Greeks are Always Nude?
Male nudes are the norm in Greek art, even though historians have stated that ancient Greeks kept their clothes on for the most part. New research suggests that art might have been imitating life more closely than previously thought.
Nudity was a costume used by artists to depict various roles of men, ranging from heroicism and status to defeat.
"In ancient Greek art, there are many different kinds of nudity that can mean many different things," said Jeffrey Hurwit, an historian of ancient art at the University of Oregon. "Sometimes they are contradictory."
Hurwit's newly published research shows that the Greeks did walk around in the buff in some situations. Men strode about free of their togas in the bedroom and at parties called symposia, where they would eat, drink and carouse. Nudity was also common on the athletic fields and at the Olympic games. (Because there are so many images of Greek athletes, some lay people have assumed the Greeks were in their birthday suits all the time.)
However, nudity was often risky for the Greeks.
"Greek males, it is generally agreed, did not walk around town naked, they did not ride their horses naked, and they certainly did not go into battle naked," Hurwit said. "In most public contexts, clothing was not optional, and in combat nakedness was suicidal."
Warriors and heroes are often, but not always, represented in the nude. Artists demonstrated the physical prowess men used to defeat their enemies. But, as Hurwit said,” if you can go into battle naked, you've got to be pretty good.”
However, heroes weren't the only men disrobed by ancient artists.
Here's looking at you
Hurwit's research, published in the Jan. issue of the American Journal of Archaeology, also found examples of defeated, dying and dead naked men. In these cases, nudity was chosen to represent the subjects' vulnerabilities.
Meanwhile, common laborers were also drawn undressed, illustrating their sweat and muscles to show how hard they worked. Gods and people of higher social class were sometimes—but not always—depicted in the buff to demonstrate their place in society.
Hurwit's research of these nuances of Greek art also offers a glimpse into the cultural source of our civilization today.
"We can try to understand ourselves and our conception of what it means to be a hero and to exceed normal expectations," Hurwit told LiveScience. "The more we know about other cultures, the deeper we will be able to understand our own culture and ourselves."
Who Taught Who? (You’ll never know how far it will go!)
Protagorus-Plato credits him with having invented the role of the professional sophist or teacher of virtue
a sophism is a specious argument used for deceiving someone. In Ancient Greece, the sophists were a category of teachers who specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric for the purpose of teaching aretê — excellence, or virtue — predominately to young statesmen and nobility.
Alexander The Great
Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), a detail of
The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael.
Who CONQUERS the known world!
Section Two: identifies Socrates, Plato and Aristotle and the development of Greek science
II. Science Terms to Know: Philosophia
A. Love of intellect and development of philosophia Terms to Know: Socratic Method
B. Socrates–399 B.C. put on trial for stirring up the youth,”denying the gods, corrupting the young, and trying to overthrow the government”
1. Socratic method–asking leading questions leading to a final conclusion
2. 500 citizens sentence him to death
3. What we know about Socrates’ philosophy comes from his speeches and discussions written down by Plato
“There is only one good, knowledge; one evil, ignorance.”
In the aftermath of Athens' surrender, Socrates was made a scapegoat for the city's downfall and put on trial for corrupting youth and interfering with the city's religion. Hear what Socrates said at his trial and learn whether or not he was found guilty. 15:24
C. Plato The Allegory of the Cave
1.Athenian aristocrat and pupil of Socrates
2. Establishes the Academy to train government leaders
3. Academy lasted 900 years after his death
4. Believed in order
a.) set down ideas in a book called The Republic the first book of political science.
b.) explains how to avoid political errors
c.) The Dialogues
"When its [the soul's] gaze is fixed upon an object irradiated by truth and reality, the soul gains understanding and knowledge and is manifestly in possession of intelligence. But when it looks towards that twilight world of things that come into existence and pass away, its sight is dim and it has only opinions and beliefs which shift to and fro, and now it seems like a thing that has no intelligence. . . . "This, then which gives to the objects of knowledge their truth and to him who knows them his power of knowing, is the Form or essential nature of Goodness. It is the cause of knowledge and truth;…”
Plato showed no fondness for democracy (where power is held by the
people) because he believed that not all members of society were
capable of making wise decisions. As voiced through Socrates, the
Platonic principle is that only a few people in a just city (those
individuals known as the philosophers) possess the principle portion of
the soul that desires for truth and wisdom. Since this portion forms the
majority of the philosophers’ souls, these individuals will primarily
strive for truth and wisdom. Furthermore, since this portion of their
souls is also rational, this ruling cadre will be just, assuring that the city
they rule is also just.
Watch a demonstration of the Socratic method and the Meno Proof, illustrating that mathematics is purely rational and that humans are born with the understanding of it. Learn how Descartes applied this premise to knowledge about the physical world. 10:13
1. Pupil of Plato
2 Stayed at Academy for 20 years
3. founded own school in Athens (Lyceum 335 B.C.) and wrote over 200 books
4. “The master of them that know”
5. First to classify or group together plants and animals that resemble each other.
6. Added to the ideas of Thales of Miletus
7. Used logical methods to collect information, then from a hypothesis, test to see if correct
8. Developed the syllogism.
9. Teacher of Alexander the Great
Terms to Learn: Syllogism
Major premise: All humans are mortal.
Minor premise: Socrates is a human.
Conclusion: Socrates is mortal.
“He who studies how things originated and came into being will achieve the clearest view of them.” Aristotle
A syllogism consists of three parts: the major premise, the minor premise, and the conclusion. Each of the premises has one term in common with the conclusion: in a major premise, this is the major term (i.e., the predicate) of the conclusion; in a minor premise, it is the minor term (the subject) of the conclusion.
Each of the two distinct terms represents a category, in this example, "human," "mortal," and "Socrates."
"Mortal" is the major term; "Socrates," the minor term. The premises also have one term in common with each other, which is known as the middle term -- in this example, "human." Here the major premise is universal and the minor particular, but this need not be so. For example:
Major premise: All mortal things die.
Minor premise: All men are mortal things.
Conclusion: All men die.
Here, the major term is "die", the minor term is "men," and the middle term is "[being] mortal things." Both of the premises are universal.
Explains the views of Aristotle, Epicurus, and Lucretius on the subject of Atomic Theory. 4:49
Some Other Greek Scientists
Archimedes Mathematics Lever
Aristarchus Astronomy earth revolves around the sun
Anaximander Asronomy Earth as a body suspended space
Eratosthenes Geo. Figured earth’s circumference within 200mi.
Euclid Mathematics Geometry
Thales of Miletus Science developed two steps of scientific method
Ptolemy Astronomy mathematical model of system of celestial mechanics
"Give me a lever long enough and a place to stand, and I will move the world." -Archimedes 230 BC.
His last recorded words of are these, "Noli turbane circulos meos!" This means, "Do not disturb my circles!“ 212 B.C.
E. Discoveries and Inventions
1. Attempting to add to the store of knowledge.
2. The natural world is governed by natural laws
3. Thales of Miletus images–correctly predicted quotes an eclipse of the sun in 585 B.C.
4. Hippocrates works by “Father of Scientific Medicine”
(a.) drew a list of rules about how doctors should practice med.
5. Herodotus—writer of histories
http://www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?ID=235902 Greek list of Wonders of the 280 B.C. World
Rod of Asclepius--serpent has been interpreted in many ways; sometimes the shedding
of skin and renewal is emphasized as symbolizing rejuvenation, the staff
was a walking stick associated with itinerant phyisicans
Hippocratic Oath -- Classical Version Iswear by Apollo Physician and Asclepius and Hygieia and Panaceia and all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will fulfil according to my ability and judgment this oath and this covenant: To hold him who has taught me this art as equal to my parents and to live my life in partnership with him, and if he is in need of money to give him a share of mine, and to regard his offspring as equal to my brothers in male lineage and to teach them this art - if they desire to learn it - without fee and covenant; to give a share of precepts and oral instruction and all the other learning to my sons and to the sons of him who has instructed me and to pupils who have signed the covenant and have taken an oath according to the medical law, but no one else. I will apply dietetic measures for the benefit of the sick according to my ability and judgment; I will keep them from harm and injustice. I will neither give a deadly drug to anybody who asked for it, nor will I make a suggestion to this effect. Similarly I will not give to a woman an abortive remedy. In purity and holiness I will guard my life and my art. I will not use the knife, not even on sufferers from stone, but will withdraw in favor of such men as are engaged in this work. Whatever houses I may visit, I will come for the benefit of the sick, remaining free of all intentional injustice, of all mischief and in particular of sexual relations with both female and male persons, be they free or slaves. What I may see or hear in the course of the treatment or even outside of the treatment in regard to the life of men, which on no account one must spread abroad, I will keep to myself, holding such things shameful to be spoken about. If I fulfil this oath and do not violate it, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and art, being honored with fame among all men for all time to come; if I transgress it and swear falsely, may the opposite of all this be my lot. Translation from the Greek by Ludwig Edelstein. From The Hippocratic Oath: Text, Translation, and Interpretation, by Ludwig Edelstein. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1943.