Femise annual Conference



Download 2.53 Mb.
Date02.02.2019
Size2.53 Mb.

FEMISE Annual Conference

  • FEMISE Annual Conference
  • Migration and Refugees’ Crisis in the EU-Med
  • Plenary Session II
  • Unifying an EU-Med vision towards Migration and Refugees
  • The Euro-Mediterranean dimension of the “refugee crisis”
  • and the need to enhance Euro-Mediterranean cooperation
  • Senén Florensa
  • Executive President
  • Institut Europeu de la Mediterrània (IEMed.)

  • 1. Regional outlook
  • 2. Managing migrations in the Euro-Med region
  • 3. The EU and the Member States response
  • 4. Policy proposals

1. Regional outlook: number of refugees in 2016

  • Source: UNHCR 2016
  • Turkey 2.764.500
  • Lebanon 1.017.433
  • Jordan 655,833
  • EU 1.362.807
  • Egypt
  • 115,204
  • UNIFYING AN EU-MED VISION TOWARDS MIGRATION AND REFUGEES
  • 1. Regional outlook: number of refugees in 2016
  • UNIFYING AN EU-MED VISION TOWARDS MIGRATION AND REFUGEES
  • Source: Human Rights Watch report 2015

1. Regional outlook: Mediterranean sea arrivals to the EU

  • According to FRONTEX from 2011 to 2014 there were more than 400.000 unauthorised sea border crossing (that is the Mediterranean) coming from third countries. A 60% of them where during 2014.
  •  
  • UNHCR informs that in 2015 the figure was almost one million. 885.000 trough the Greek islands, 15.000 arrived to Italy through the Central Mediterranean route
  • In 2016 the number of people was 356.000. About 55% arrived to Greece, 45% to Italy
  • From January to end April near 43.000 of sea crossings have been registered. Almost 85% through the Central Mediterranean route
  • According to IOM reported dead and missing people in the Mediterranean for the period 2000-2016 is 34.482. A 35% of them occurred during the last three years.
  • 2016 was the deadliest year for refugees and migrants crossing the Mediterranean (5.098). From January to end April 973 have been reported
  • 1. Regional outlook: Mediterranean sea arrivals to the EU
  • UNIFYING AN EU-MED VISION TOWARDS MIGRATION AND REFUGEES
  • UNIFYING AN EU-MED VISION TOWARDS MIGRATION AND REFUGEES
  • Source: UNHCR 2016

1. Regional outlook: migratory movements before the refugee crisis

  • UNIFYING AN EU-MED VISION TOWARDS MIGRATION AND REFUGEES
  • Source: Med Yearbook 2006
  • 1. Regional outlook: migratory movements before the refugee crisis
  • Eurostat (Europop 2004) escenario base de la UE-27 para el período 2005-2050 (Eurostat 2005). Resultados similares de la ONU: Proyecciones demográficas mundiales (variante media), División de Población de las Naciones Unidas ( 2006), para el período 2005-2050.
  • UNIFYING AN EU-MED VISION TOWARDS MIGRATION AND REFUGEES
  • 1. Regional outlook: demographic complementarities
  • Economic growth has not equally
  • benefited all labour market segments
  • The rate of precariousness of employment increased
  • Informal employment increases
  • Informal employment already accounts for between
  • 45% and 55% of total non-agricultural employment in
  • the region.
  • Migration remains the first choice for
  • many migrants
  • Short of prospects for a decent job
  • Immigration
  • In some countries of the southern shore of the
  • Mediterranean, immigration has become a structural
  • feature of labour markets.
  • Migration pressures
  • There is some evidence that the main economic driver
  • of migration is the level of wage differentials rather
  • than unemployment.
  • Source: Labour Markets Performance and Migration Flows in Arab Mediterranean Countries. A Regional Prespective. RSC,
  • European University Institute.
  • UNIFYING AN EU-MED VISION TOWARDS MIGRATION AND REFUGEES
  • Regional outlook:
  • Countries of the southern shore of the Mediterranean: labour market and migration
  • EU-27
  • Euro Mediterranean Partnership
  • 5+5
  • European Neighborhood Policy
  • Euro-African Conference on Migration and Development
  • EU-Africa strategy
  • UNIFYING AN EU-MED VISION TOWARDS MIGRATION AND REFUGEES
  • 2. Managing migrations in the Euro-Med region: overlapping strategies
  • Union for the Mediterranean

Europeanization vs mediterranization

  • Europeanization vs mediterranization
  • A higher level of Europeanization doesn’t imply a higher level of coherence with the
  • Southern and Southeast partners:
  • The idea of multilateral involvement that began with Barcelona in its relations with
  • Southern and Southeast partner countries and the numerous Initiatives reveal a
  • contradictory dynamic during this period whereby the desire for relations
  • among equals in the political sphere contrasts with the fact that the priorities and
  • interests are, in fact, European.
  • The paradox is that we could have active, increasingly European policies shared by
  • continental partners without this being ultimately synonymous with a true dialogue of
  • shared interests
  • UNIFYING AN EU-MED VISION TOWARDS MIGRATION AND REFUGEES
  • 2. Managing migrations in the Euro-Med region

3. The EU and the Member States response

  • UNIFYING AN EU-MED VISION TOWARDS MIGRATION AND REFUGEES
  • 3. The EU and the Member States response

3. The EU and the Member States response

  • Area of action
  • EU institution /agencies involved
  • Policy proposals
  • Frontex, Europol, European Asylum Support Office (EASO)
  • -Funding EU frontline States with €50 million
  • -Hotspots for identification, registration and fingerprinting of arriving refugees
  • Asylum seeker protection
  • European Commission
  • European Council
  • -Relocation mechanism for 40,000 currently in and , temporary relocation for 120,000asylum-seekers within the EU
  • -Relocation for 20,000 refugees from outside the EU
  • Border control
  • Frontex
  • -Increase of budget and capabilities of surveillance operations in the (Triton and Poseidon operations)
  • Security
  • European Commission
  • -Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP)operation against trafficking networks (operation Sophia)
  • Security
  • Europol
  • -maritime operation to face migrant’s smuggling
  • Source: based on Carrera, Blokmans, Gros, Guild: The EU’s Response to the Refugee Crisis. CEPS Essay 2015
  • The European Migration Agenda (EAM) adopted by the European Commission in May 2015, has been conceived to establish the priorities of migration, asylum and border policies for the next years
  • It takes into account the present crisis, particularly south-eastern land borders and the Mediterranean, and combines internal and external agenda, establishing a common action between the Council, the EEAS and the Commission.
  • UNIFYING AN EU-MED VISION TOWARDS MIGRATION AND REFUGEES
  • 3. The EU and the Member States response

3. The EU and the Member States response

  • The expert’s point of view ( as indicated in the Euromed Survey 2016 on Management of Human Movements in the Euro-Mediterranean region)
  • Improving coordination between the European Commission and the member states is pivotal for the success of the European Commission's relocation plan (the Temporary EU Relocation System).
  • • The highest priority of the European Agenda on Migration should be to develop a new policy on legal migration. The results of the Survey reveal consistent support for better exploiting legal migration opportunities, in particular enhancing the mobility of students, researchers and businesspeople. The border management pillar of the European Agenda on Migration comes last in the priority scale of respondents.
  • Addressing the root causes of irregular migration in origin countries is considered as the most adequate response to reduce the incentives for irregular migration in the Euro-Mediterranean region.
  • Better implementing the EU Visa Code to include humanitarian visas enabling third-country nationals to apply in situ for entry to EU territory on humanitarian grounds, activating and further developing the EU Temporary Protection Directive from 2001, establishing an “exceptional scheme to offer refugees immediate protection” are identified – in this order – as the main elements to improve asylum procedures.
  • UNIFYING AN EU-MED VISION TOWARDS MIGRATION AND REFUGEES
  • 3. The EU and the Member States response

4. Policy proposals : Migration and development

  • 4. Policy proposals : Migration and development
  • From “more development for less migration ”to “better migration for more
  • development”
  • It is especially relevant to bear in mind that for the Euro-Mediterranean space,
  • the causal link between migration and the North/South economic imbalance
  • derives from the enlargement of free trade and globalisation.
  • This should be considered when defining Euro-Mediterranean cooperation.
  • Consequently, migration policies should not be disconnected
  • from development policies of the countries of origin
  • UNIFYING AN EU-MED VISION TOWARDS MIGRATION AND REFUGEES


Download 2.53 Mb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2020
send message

    Main page