Edst 3000- apa format

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EDST 3000- APA Format
APA style, or APA format are the terms commonly used to describe the writing style guidelines which are developed, maintained, and periodically revised and updated by the American Psychological Association (APA).

Over the years, the APA has developed a standard for writing style that is now widely used by writers in the social sciences, education, business and psychology. Accordingly, the APA documentation style is now used throughout the world, in both business and academia. The APA's writing style is documented in its manual entitled:

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fifth Edition (2001).

The APA's Publication Manual covers all aspects of the writing and publishing process including: organizing, writing, formatting, keying, and submitting a manuscript for publication. It provides detailed guidance on editorial style as well as on the appropriate standards for publishing research in accordance with ethical principles of scientific publishing.

There is often considerable confusion when teachers, students, editors and researchers use the terms "APA style" or APA format". To clear up that confusion, the following paragraph might help.

"When teachers ask you to write in "APA style," they do not mean writing style. They are referring to the editorial style that many of the social and behavioral sciences have adopted to present written material in the field. Editorial style consists of rules or guidelines that a publisher observes to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. Editorial style concerns uniform use of such elements as:

  • punctuation and abbreviations

  • construction of tables

  • selection of headings

  • citation of references

  • presentation of statistics

  • as well as many other elements that are a part of every manuscript

In-text citation of sources - APA

In general, APA in-text documentation format uses the author-date style of citation, with the author's name, followed by the year of publication, cited within the body text of an article. The complete details on the source document are included in the "References" list at the end of the paper.

Normally, an in-text citation will be introduced with a "signal phrase" that includes the author’s last name, followed by the year of publication in parentheses. When direct quotes are used, the page number in the source document, preceded by a "p.", should appear in parentheses immediately after the quotation. Example: As Smith (1998) observed, "There was only one way to go after that" (p. 97).

In cases when the author's name is not in the signal phrase, enclose the author's last name, the year, and the page number, in parentheses at the end of the quotation. Example: (Smith, 1998, p. 263).

If the work cited has two authors, name both authors in the signal phrase and in parentheses at the end of the quotation. For the latter, separate their names with the "&" symbol. Example: (Hartwick & Rogers, 1999).

If there are fewer than six authors, cite all of them the first time and subsequently use the first author's name followed by "et al." and the year. Example: The misbehaviors of teachers have been investigated (Kearney, Plax, Hays, & Ivey, 1991). Misbehaviors were found to reduce to three factors: incompetence, offensiveness, and indolence (Kearney et al., 1991).

If a work has six or more authors, cite only the first author's last name followed by "et al." and the year. Example: Communication apprehension has many correlates (McCroskey et al., 1981).

If the author is an organization with a long cumbersome name, use the entire name in the body text the first time it is used, with the acronym for the organization enclosed in parentheses, followed by the year. Example: (American Society of Strategic Planners [ASSP], 1997). For later citations of the same work, use the acronym followed by the year. Example: (ASSP, 1997).

Personal Communications, Oral Interviews, Memos, Letters, Conversations, e-mail communication, etc. are unpublished and should not be listed with references, because the text is not available for others to examine. They are referenced in the paper only. Include the name, type of communication, and date. Example: R. Pugliese (personal communication, March 23, 1990) also verified that….

Referencing - APA

A list of all published sources (not personal communications) cited in the paper must be included at the end of the paper. This list is entitled "References" and must begin on a separate page after the last page of text. This heading should be centered on the page.

The reference list will be arranged in alphabetical order, by author's last name. If there is more than one work by the same author, place the entries in order of publication date, from oldest to most recent. (i.e. list 1991 references before 1995 references for the same author).
The first line of each entry in the list of references is typed flush to the left margin. Subsequent lines for the same entry are indented one-half inch. All lines are double-spaced with no extra spaces between entries.
All author's names in the references list are to use the inverted form; with last name first. Initials should be used for the author's first name. For two or more authors, separate the names by commas and use "&" instead of "and" for the last name mentioned.
For the references list, use the last name of the author; do not use "et al" there.

When an author appears as both a sole author, and as the first author of a group, list the single author entry first.

If no author name is available for a publication, alphabetize the entry by the title of the work, and use a shortened version of the title in parenthetical "in-text" citations in the body of the text. For the title of the work being cited, use underlining or italics, not both. They are equivalent in this case. Whichever convention is chosen must be used throughout the essay for all titles cited.
When referencing BOOKS, capitalize the first word and all proper nouns contained in the title and sub-title. Do not use all capitals.When citing ARTICLES capitalize the first word and all proper nouns in the title. Do not put titles of articles in quotations.

When referencing PERIODICALS such as magazine articles or articles in scholarly journals, list the volume number in arabic numerals, and underline it. Do not use "vol." before the number, and do not use "p." or "pp." for the page numbers. (These can be used when referencing newspaper articles or works in anthologies).

Referencing (APA), 5th edition- Follow these color codes:



Title of Book

Title of Article

Title of Periodical



Place of Publication


Other Information

Journal or Magazine Article

Wilcox, R. V. (1991). Shifting roles and synthetic women in Star trek:

The next generation. Studies in Popular Culture, 13(2), 53-65.
Newspaper Article

Di Rado, A. (1995, March 15). Trekking through college: Classes

explore modern society using the world of Star trek. Los Angeles
p. A3.
Article from an Internet Database

Mershon, D. H. (1998, November-December). Star trek on the brain: Alien minds,

human minds. American Scientist, 86, 585. Retrieved July 29, 1999, from

Expanded Academic ASAP database.


Lynch, T. (1996). DS9 trials and tribble-ations review. Retrieved October 8, 1997, from

Psi Phi: Bradley's Science Fiction Club:



Okuda, M., & Okuda, D. (1993). Star trek chronology: The history of the future. New

York: Pocket Books.
Book Article or Chapter

James, N. E. (1988). Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth according to Kirk and Spock.

In D. Palumbo (Ed.), Spectrum of the fantastic (pp. 219-223). Westport, CT:


Encyclopedia Article

Sturgeon, T. (1995). Science fiction. In The encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 24, pp. 390

392). Danbury, CT: Grolier.
ERIC Document

Fuss-Reineck, M. (1993). Sibling communication in Star trek: The next generation:

Conflicts between brothers. Miami, FL: Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 364932)
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