Document-based question



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`NAME __________________________ Block _________________________
DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the language used in a document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.
Historical Context:
About 11,000 years ago, some groups of humans stopped their nomadic ways, and started to settle down. Instead of relying on hunting and gathering for food, they started to farm and instead of living in temporary homes, they built villages that grew and turned into cities, then civilizations. The transition from nomadic life to an agricultural one, experienced by people all over the world at different times, is called the Neolithic Revolution.
Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history, write an essay in which you

  • Discuss life during the Paleolithic Age or the Neolithic Age



In developing your answers, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:

(a) compare and contrast means “to express similarities and differences”

(b) evaluate means to “examine and judge the significance, worth, or condition of; to determine the value of”

Part A

Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the space provided.
Document 1

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Environmental changes brought new climate patterns that contributed to the end of the Old Stone Age [Paleolithic Era]. Warmer weather allowed plants to grow where, previously, sheets of ice had dominated the landscape.

Around 10,000 B.C., people made two important discoveries. They learned to plant seeds to grow food, and they learned to domesticate animals. These discoveries meant that people no longer had to wander in search of food. They could live in permanent settlements. This change marked the beginning of the New Stone Age, or Neolithic period. Historians call these discoveries the Neolithic Revolution, or the Agricultural Revolution, because farming and domestic animals changed the way people lived.



Source: Steven Goldberg and Judith Clark Dupre. Prentice Hall Brief Review: Global History and Geography. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2012. Page 3.
1a. What does the author mean by “permanent settlements” in line 8?

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1b. What does it mean to “domesticate animals” as it is used in line 6?

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1c. According to Document 1, what were the “environmental changes” that led to the end of the Paleolithic Era?

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1d. According to Steven Goldberg and Judith Clark Dupre, what “two important discoveries” did people make around 10,000 BC?

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1e. Define the term Neolithic Revolution.

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1f. Based on Document 1, explain how the Neolithic Revolution changed the lives of those who experienced it.

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Document 2




Paleolithic Era

(Old Stone Age)

2,000,000 B.C.E. - 8,000 B.C.E.

Neolithic Era

(New Stone Age)

8,000 B.C.E.- 2,000 B.C.E.

Lifestyle

Nomadic; in groups of up to 50; tribal society; hunters and gatherers

Sedentary....They farmed in permanent settlements and raised/herded animals; agriculture was discovered and became a major source of food; families evolved.

Economy

There was no concept of private property

The concept of private property and ownership emerged for things such as land, livestock and tools.

Art

Cave paintings

Wall paintings

Technology

Fire; Rough stone tools

Agriculture and tools with polished stones

Food

Hunted and gathered for their food supply.

They grew crops such as corn, wheat, beans, etc. Raised/herded animals for milk and meat.

Source: Dates from Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, Hirsch, and Johnson. The Earth and Its Peoples, Cengage Learning, p. 20. Table adapted from http://www.diffen.com/difference/Neolithic_vs_Paleolithic
2a. What does the author mean by “nomadic” in the second row of the table?

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2b. Based on the table above, explain the difference between a “nomadic” and “sedentary” lifestyle.

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2c. How did Paleolithic people’s lifestyle differ from Neolithic people’s lifestyle?

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2d. How did the methods for acquiring food differ between the Paleolithic and Neolithic Eras?

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Document 3

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Image A



Image B


Image C


Image D

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Throughout history, and even today, there have been some groups of people in the world that live nomadic lifestyles. The images above show a nomadic tribe of Bedouins who lived in the Moab Desert in the late 1800s. The pictures were taken by an American named Archibald Forder who lived in the Middle East with the tribe for thirteen years. Though these images were not taken during the Paleolithic Era, they depict how some people may have lived at that time.


Source: Photographs by Archibald Forder, from “Ventures among the Arabs in Desert, Tent, and Town: Thirteen Years of Pioneer Missionary Life with the Ishmaelites of Moab, Edom, and Arabia.” W.N. Hartshorn, Boston. 1905. Found on the World Digital Library:

http://www.wdl.org/en/item/11763/#q=nomadic
3a. When, where, and by whom were these photographs taken?

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3b. Describe the lifestyles of the Bedouins depicted in the Document 3 images.

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3c. The text accompanying this document describes the people pictured as “nomadic,” what does that mean?

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3d. How did the Bedouin way of life, depicted in these images, make it easier for them to be nomadic?

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Document 4

Tools from Hunter-Gatherer Societies

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Hunter-gathering societies have used various types of stones, as well as bone and antler, to make a variety of tools such scrapers, blades, arrows, spearheads, needles, awls, fishhooks, and harpoons. The 6.5- to 6.7-cm (2.5- to 2.6-inch) flint blades on the left are from North Africa, dating from 5000–4500 BCE. The 5.7- x 4.6-cm (2.2- x 1.8-inch) scraper on the right is made of green jasper, dates from 5200 to 2500 BCE, and was found in the south-central Sahara Desert.

Source: http://www.worldmuseumofman.org/display.php?item=1167;

http://www.worldmuseumofman.org/display.php?item=434 adapted from The Big History Project.
4a. How big were the tools used by hunter-gatherers depicted in Document 4?

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4b. According to Document 4, what materials did hunter-gatherers use to make their tools?

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Document 5

Tools from Agricultural Societies

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