Darkening of the skin e constant thirst Type I diabetes mellitus a



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Endocrinology Exam
 1. A man with an abnormally high level of melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), would exhibit which of the following symptoms? 
 
a. hyperglycemia
b. reduced sperm production
c. increased frequency of urination
d. darkening of the skin
e. constant thirst

2. Type I diabetes mellitus 


 
a.  is caused by the secretion of too little insulin from the pancreas.
b. is caused by the insufficient numbers of insulin receptors on target cells.
c. is caused by defective receptors that do not respond to insulin.
d. can be regulated by diet alone.
e. Is caused by the insufficient numbers of insulin receptors on target cells and is caused by defective receptors that do not respond to insulin are correct.\

3. Whether or not a cell "responds" to or is "sensitive" to a particular hormone is determined by: 


 
a. how many ion channels the cell has.
b. the quantity of the hormone circulating in the blood.
c. the amount of Paracrine factors the cell produces.
d.  the presence or absence (number) of appropriate receptor complexes that the cell has to that hormone.
e. All of these are true.
 

4. Typically, chemical signals that bind to ___________ receptors produce rapid responses, while those that bind to ______ receptors takes longer. 


 
a.  membrane-bound; intracellular
b. intracellular; membrane-bound
c. lipid soluable; water soluable \

5. Which of the following are functions of the endocrine system? 


 
a. homeostatic water balance
b. regulates uterine contractions
c. maintains ionic homeostasis of sodium, potassium, and calcium
d. energy homeostasis
e.  All of these are functions of the endocrine system.
6. Which of the following is NOT a regulatory function of the endocrine system? 
 
a. Regulation of growth, metabolism and tissue maturation.
b. Heart rate and blood pressure regulation
c. Control over the production and functions of immune cells
d. Regulation of the development and function of the reproductive organs in both males and females.
e.  All of these are regulatory functions of the endocrine system.

7. _______________ are intercellular chemical signals secreted into the circulatory system. 


 
a. Pheromones
b.  Hormones
c. Neurotransmitters
d. Autocrine agents
e. Paracrine agents

8. ______________ are chemical signals secreted into the environment that modify the behavior and physiology of other individuals. 


 
a.  Pheromones
b. Hormones
c. Neurotransmitters
d. Autocrine agents
e. Paracrine agents

 



 
9. Follicle stimulating hormone is secreted by the 
 
a. anterior pituitary gland.
b. posterior pituitary gland.
c. adrenal cortex.
d. adrenal medulla.
e. beta cells of the pancreatic islets.

 


 10. Epinephrine is secreted by the 
 
a. anterior pituitary gland.
b. posterior pituitary gland.
c. adrenal cortex.
d. adrenal medulla.
e. beta cells of the pancreatic islets.

 11. Growth hormone is secreted by the 


 
a. anterior pituitary gland.
b. posterior pituitary gland.
c. adrenal cortex.
d. adrenal medulla.
e. beta cells of the pancreatic islets.
 12. Oxytocin is secreted by the 
 
a. anterior pituitary gland.
b. posterior pituitary gland.
c. adrenal cortex.
d. adrenal medulla.
e. beta cells of the pancreatic islets.
13. Insulin is secreted by the 
 
a. anterior pituitary gland.
b. posterior pituitary gland.
c. adrenal cortex.
d. adrenal medulla.
e.  beta cells of the pancreatic islets.

14. A woman with a newborn baby noticed that when she nursed the baby, she felt "cramps" in her abdomen. What logical explanation could you give her for this phenomenon? 
 
a. Nursing often causes digestive upset.
b. Nursing stimulates the posterior pituitary to release oxytocin.
c. Nursing stimulates the ovaries to release estrogen.
d. Nursing increases parasympathetic stimulation of the uterus.
e. Nursing increases ADH release from the posterior pituitary. 
15. Melatonin 
 
a. is secreted by the thymus gland.
b. is thought to increase the secretion of releasing hormones from the hypothalamus.
c. increases FSH and LH secretion.
d. may be controlled by changes in day length.
e. has all of these properties.

 16. Secretion of which of these hormones would increase shortly after a meal? 


 
a. glucagon
b. growth hormone
c. epinephrine
d. glucocorticoids
e. insulin

17. In persons with diabetes mellitusm


 
a. the blood glucose level becomes very high.
b. tissues cannot take up glucose effectively.
c. proteins are broken down to provide energy for metabolism.
d. acidosis may result from rapid fat breakdown.
e. All of these events are more likely than in a healthy individual.

 18. Insulin is secreted in response to 


 
a. increased blood glucose levels.
b. decreased parasympathetic stimulation.
c. decreased blood levels of amino acids.
d. All of these stimulate insulin secretion.

  19. The endocrine portion of the pancreas 


 
a. consists of pancreatic islets dispersed among the exocrine portion of the pancreas.
b. secretes insulin and glucagon.
c. produces androgens.
d. has all of these characteristics.
e. both consists of pancreatic islets dispersed among the exocrine portion of the pancreas and secretes insulin and glucagon. 

20. Which of these would NOT be a major effect of hormones released from the adrenal medulla? 


 
a. increased heart rate
b. breakdown of glycogen to glucose
c. decreased blood flow through skeletal muscles
d. dilation of bronchioles
e. release of fatty acids from fat cells

21. The adrenal medulla 


 
a. is stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system.
b. produces epinephrine and norepinephrine.
c. is stimulated when a person is physically excited.
d. produces the "fight-or-flight" response.
e. has all of these properties.

 22. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) 


 
a. increases calcium level in the blood.
b. inhibits the formation of active vitamin D in the kidneys.
c. decreases the rate of bone breakdown.
d. has an effect similar to that of calcitonin.
e. has all of these characteristics.

 23. Calcitonin 


 
a. is secreted by the parathyroid glands.
b. increases the amount of calcium absorbed by the intestine.
c. is synthesized by parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland.
d. increases the rate of calcium release from bone.
e. is secreted when blood calcium levels drop too low.

24. Hyperthyroidism 


 
a. can cause cretinism in infants.
b. results in an elevated rate of metabolism.
c. can cause extreme nervousness and chronic fatigue.
d. would cause an increase in TSH secretion.
e.  both results in an elevated rate of metabolism and can cause extreme nervousness and chronic fatigue.

25. Prolactin 


 
a. helps development of, and production of milk in the breast.
b. causes "milk letdown" from the breasts of lactating women.
c. causes contraction of the muscle of the uterus.
d. stimulates development of sperm cells in males.
e. both causes "milk letdown" from the breasts of lactating women and causes contraction of the muscle of the uterus.

 26. Growth hormone 


 
a. stimulates fat synthesis.
b. favors protein breakdown.
c. deficiency in an adult can produce pituitary dwarfism.
d. excess after growth is complete produces acromegaly.
e. deficiency in an adult can produce pituitary dwarfism and excess after growth is complete produces acromegaly are correct.

 


27. Endocrine system glands 
 
a. secrete hormones into ducts.
b. usually have a poor blood supply.
c. may have functions in addition to producing hormones.
d. have all of these properties.
e. both secrete hormones into ducts and usually have a poor blood supply properties.
28. Which of these statements is NOT true concerning regulation of hormone secretion? 
 
a. The secretion rate for some hormones is directly controlled by the blood levels of chemicals.
b. The secretion rate for some hormones is directly controlled by another hormone.
c. The secretion of hormones is controlled by positive-feedback mechanisms that keep the body functioning within a narrow range of values.
d. The secretion rate for some hormones is controlled by the nervous system.
e. The secretion rate of hormones is controlled by negative feedback mechanisms.
 29. Which of these statements concerning hormone action is true? 
 
a. Most protein and peptide hormones bind to receptors on the surface of the cell membrane.
b. The combination of a hormone with its receptor may alter the permeability of the cell membrane.
c. A hormone that combines with a receptor in the cell membrane may act as a first messenger.
d. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) functions as a second messenger.
e. All of these are true statements.

30. Hormones 


 
a. are produced in large quantities by most cells.
b. usually only affect cells close to those that produce the hormone.
c. bind only to cells that have receptors for that specific hormone.
d. are either lipid or polysaccharide molecules.
e. have all of these characteristics.

 31. Endocrine glands 


 
a. include the salivary glands.
b. secrete chemical signals called hormones.
c. secrete their chemical signals into the blood.
d. secrete their products into ducts.
e. both secrete chemical signals called hormones and secrete their chemical signals into the blood. 

32. Which of these statements concerning membrane-bound receptors is true? 


 
a. Chemical signals that are large, water-soluble molecules normally bind to membrane-bound receptors.
b. Membrane-bound receptors increase protein synthesis in the cell.
c. Membrane-bound receptors are sometimes located in the nucleus of the cell.
d. When intercellular chemical signals bind to membrane-bound receptors, the response usually requires several hours.
e. Membrane-bound receptors must be able to rapidly diffuse through the cell membrane.

Know the following disorders and their symptoms: PAGES 284, 289, 291,



  1. Myxedema p 284

  2. Aldosteronism p 289-290

  3. Amenorrhea—p 564

  4. Addison’s Disease—p 50

  5. Cushing’s Syndrome---causes too much cortisol to be released from adrenal cortex

  6. Cretinism—p 284

  7. Exophthalmosp 284

  8. Graves’ Disease—p 284

  9. Diabetes—p 291

  10. Goiter p 284 and 296

Know the Hormone and Primary Effect Use Page 277 in book

  1. Glucagon

  2. Insulin

  3. Lutenizing Hormone

  4. Oxytocin

  5. Throxine

FOR THE ESSAY…know the table on page 278

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