Do not use contractions in formal writing (can’t, shouldn’t----cannot, should not)
Do not use personal pronouns (I, you, we, us)
Underline the titles of novels and plays. Short stories and poems are put in quotation marks (the anthology is underlined) (Romeo and Juliet)
Analyze literature in the present tense (William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is a play about love and fate)
Do not use slang or colloquial language (Romeo is dealing with a great deal of stuff)
Avoid using words repeatedly. Diversify your language by either changing the words that are repeated or rearrange your sentence to eliminate the repetition.
Make sure your essay is an analysis and not simply a summary.
Topic sentence must relate directly back to your thesis statement. Topic sentences are critical to keeping your analysis focused.
Ensure in your quoting that you write the quote exactly the way it is found in the text. If you are integrating the quote into the body of your essay and you are changing the actual line arrangement, use (/) to demonstrate this: “I marvel your ladyship takes delight/in such a barren rascal: I saw him out down/ the other day with an ordinary fool that has/ no brain other than a stone.” The slashes indicate where the line ended in the actual text
Ellipses: (…) indicate that you have omitted what you do not need from a passage/quotation
If a quote is four lines or less, it remains in the body of your essay. If a quote is 5 lines or more, separate it from the body of your essay and do not use quotation marks.
A quotation used must directly connect to the analysis. Introduce quotations. Elaborate on the quotation used. There must be a statement that demonstrates how what you developed connects to the overall analysis/thesis of your essay.
Make sure there is a flow from one sentence to the next. Sometimes words and phrases such as: thus, also, furthermore, in addition—will accomplish this. (transition words and phrases)
No large gaps between paragraphing. Line spacing must be consistent and smooth
First page of essay must follow MLA format. Do not include a separate title page. (hand-out provided)
A Works Cited page is included at the end of your essay. It is organized alphabetically. (do not number the sources) (hand-out provided)
In- text citation: If you are only using and citing one text in your essay, you simply cite the page number in your textual reference. (78)
In-text citation: If you are using two or more texts in your essay, you must include the author’s last name and the page number. (Findley 48) (Kogawa 67)
In-text citation: If you are only using and citing one Shakespearean play include the Act, scene, line numbers (VI,ii, 3-6)
In-text citation: If you are using and citing more than one Shakespearean play you include the name of the play, the act, the scene and the line numbers. (Hamlet, V, ii, 12-17)
MLA-MODERN LAGUAGE ASSOCIATION Heading and Title
A research paper/literary analysis does need a title page. Instead, beginning on inch from the top of the first page and flush with the left margin, type your name, your instructors name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, double spacing between the lines. Double spacing again and center the title. Double-space also between the lines of the title and the first line of the text. Do not underline your title or put it in quotation marks or type in all capital letters. Do not use a period after your title of after any heading in the paper (e.g., Works Cited) Example:
12 March 2011
The Attitude Towards Violence in A Clockwork Orange
A Clockwork Orange is a dystopian novel written by Anthony Burgess. The
title itself alludes to the prevention of the main character’s exercise of free will
through the use of a conditioning technique, a techniques that centers around
PAGE NUMBERS Number all pages consecutively throughout your paper in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top. Type your last name before the page number, as a precaution in case of misplaced pages. Word processors with automatic page numbering will save you the time and the effort of numbering every page. A word processor allows you to create a running head that consists of your last name followed by a space and the page number.
Rules for organizing your Work Cited 1) This is a critical component of any essay and research project. If a work cited page is not submitted a writer is not recognizing the sources that provided the information. This is wrong and it lends itself to plagiarism
2) Arrange your sources alphabetically by the author’s last name
3) Some information may not be available; i.e. many websites do not statethe author. In that case, simply move to the next available information
4) If no author is given for a particular work, alphabetize by the title of the piece
5) If your citation entry is more than one line, indent the second and third line 5 spaces. This sends the message to readers that the information provided is all part of one citation. (*see exemplar of Work cited page for clarity)
Entitle the page Work Cited
Center the title
Achert, Walter S. and Joseph Gibaldi. The MLA Style Manual. New York:
The Modern Language Association of America, 1985.
“Brain Activity Reveals Roots of Shyness”. Scientific American. 20 June
2007: 10. Infotrac. Senator O’Connor Library, Toronto. 5 Sept. 2001.
“Footnote.” The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University
Himmelfarb, Gertrude. “Where Have All the Footnotes Gone?” The New
York Times Book Review. 16 June 1991. p.1, 24.
Monasterski, R. “Arctic Fossils”. Science News. 7 November 2007. 23 June
Pauly, Daniel and Reg Watson. “Counting the Last Fish”. Scientific
American. March 2003. 23 June 2003. .
Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, These, and
Dissertations. 5th ed., rev. and expanded by Bonnie Britwistle Honisblum.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
PLAGIARISM POLICY Plagiarism takes many shapes and forms in an academic community. Plagiarism is the presentation of someone else’s work as your own. It is a dishonest activity—an obvious form of cheating—that is not accepted in the school system or the workplace. For purposes of clarity, the following types of plagiarism may result in a mark of zero at Senator O’Connor.
Copying and pasting text, images, and/or graphs from an online media, such as an encyclopedia
Copying and pasting text, images, and/or graphs from any web site or database
Transcribing text from any printed material such as books, magazines, encyclopedia, or newspapers
Simply modifying text from any of the above sources
Copying all or part of another student’s work and claiming it as your own
Using all or part of another students’ work and claiming it as your own, even with permission this is academically unethical on BOTH students’ parts and is known as collusion
Using an essay or piece you wrote for another class or another purpose without getting permission from the teacher of both the current class and the class for which the original work was used; this is also referred to as self-plagiarism
Use of another student’s collection of data and calling it your own.
Submit your own work and document all sources that you integrate in your writing by including properly quoted evidences in your assignment in the form of in-text citations. Use a Works Cited page at the end of the assignment. Take all research notes in a careful manner to avoid plagiarism. Be prepared to hand in rough notes/drafts of your research and a hard copy of any electronic sources if requested. Believe in your ability to complete the task. If you are unsure how to proceed ASK your teacher. Do not risk your good reputation and academic standing by plagiarizing.
THERE IS A ZERO TOLERANCE POLICY ON PLAGIARISM IN THIS COURSE!!!
POLISHED COPY—GENERAL GUIDELINES
Double-space: skip one line between each line of your writing.
Allow margins of 1 inch at the top and bottom of each page, and 1 inch at the left and right-hand sides as well.
Number each page at the top right hand corner – include your last name.
Indent 5 spaces when beginning a new paragraph, and 10 spaces for a set-off (offset) quotation.
Works Cited is on separate pages at the end of the essay, without any page number.
Do not use capital letters, underlining, or coloured ink for emphasis.
Underline or italicize titles of published books (novels, play, anthologies, encyclopedias, etc.) or long poems. Place quotation marks around the titles of most poems, short stories, articles, or any other works found in an anthology.
In general, spell out short numbers (i.e., “ten” as opposed to “10”), but use numerals for larger numbers like 234.
Proofread your essay for errors in punctuation, spelling and grammar.
Avoid colloquialism and cliché (worn out phrases and terms that are characteristics of informal language). Be careful when using a thesaurus; make certain that the words you are using are contextually correct.
Always submit all notes, outlines, and drafts of your essay with the polished copy.
EXPOSITORY ESSAY BREAKDOWN General Expectations is a response to a specific question
is analytical (ie. it analyzes a topic, looking at it from different angles, etc.)
is intellectual in approach
is formal in tone and language – no slang, colloquialism, contractions,
first/second person pronouns
does not use emotion to persuade its reader (not a persuasive essay)
Structure of the Expository Essay This essay contains FIVE paragraphs – and is structured as follows:
The introductory paragraph is CRUCIAL to your ENTIRE ESSAY!!! It will set the tone for the rest of your essay, as well as stating your thesis – THIS IS KEY!
Your introductory paragraph MUST include:
This should be in your first sentence, and should accomplish the tasks of identifying the topic of the essay and interesting the reader. It is never an opinion.
This component should “fill in” a little more specific information about the topic. It should identify the titles of the texts being studied, and articulate the controversy related to the question being asked. It is never an opinion.
This is the statement of your opinion on the topic, expressing a direct answer to the essay question, in language that is as close to the wording of the question as possible. THIS IS THE HEART AND SOUL OF YOUR ESSAY!
Line of Approach
This indicates to the reader how you will go about supporting or illustrating your thesis. Never say simply that you will use “examples from the text” to support your thesis; This should list the three ways (your three main points) of how you will show your thesis statement to be true.
The Body Paragraph
The body paragraphs (usually, but not always three paragraphs) present the “argument” or “argumentation” which supports or defends your thesis. It is the actual content or core of the essay. This is where your thinking skills and organizational skills are most evident, and this is where your essay succeeds or fails. The body paragraphs present your reasons for holding the thesis you have chosen, and they follow your line of approach. They “argue” the thesis by presenting, first, a reason for supporting the stance, followed by relevant facts which support the thesis, and finally, elaboration which clearly and thoroughly explains how the facts support the thesis and illustrate the body paragraph topic.
A body paragraph must contain all of these components or else it is incomplete argumentation, and therefore inadequate argumentation. For this essay EACH body paragraph must be structured as follows: TOPIC SENTENCE:
It announces the topic of the paragraph. Good topic sentences often contain the word “because”. For example, in response to the question, “Is there any character worthy of admiration in Twelfth Night?” a good topic sentence would be: Viola is an admirable character because she is loyal to those she loves.” “Because she is loyal to those she loves” is the topic of the body paragraph, the argument which will be delivered in the body paragraph; “Viola is an admirable character” provides the direct link to stance. INTRODUCTION TO FACT #1:
Sets the context for the quotation to follow. It identifies the speaker, source, and textual context. Context is set before a quotation, not after.
The actual quotation from the text which supports your stance. This is your actual evidence. ELABORATION:
Several sentences which show how the evidence just quoted supports your stance and illustrates the topic of the paragraph. This explanation is focused on the quoted fact—it is not a free-wheeling discussion of the topic in general. This is a crucial component of your essay – KEEP THIS IN MIND!
INTRODUCTION TO FACT #2 FACT #2 ELABORATION #2 INTRODUCTION TO FACT #3 FACT #3 ELABORATION #3 CLOSING SENTENCE:
This sums up the argument in this body paragraph, links with the thesis and hints at the next argument. The Conclusion Paragraph
This is a real paragraph – it must contain more than a few sentences. It serves to sum up or conclude your arguments by:
reminding the reader of your essay topic and thesis
reviewing the main arguments used to support your thesis (ie. L.O.A)
ending with a “WOW” statement – something that will make your essay
You may use some kind of quote that is self-explanatory in your conclusion paragraph if you feel that it adds emphasis, flare, and makes a “WOW” statement. HOWEVER the conclusion paragraph NEVER introduces new evidence or arguments – it simply sums up what has already been discussed.