Chapter 4 The health benefits of physical activity



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Chapter 4 The health benefits of physical activity

  • Outline
  • How could PA contribute to optimal health and wellness?
  • Physical activity and cardiovascular diseases
  • The Fit heart
  • Physical activity and Atherosclerosis (heart attack)
  • RPA and other causes of heart attack
  • RPA and hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • RPA and stroke
  • RPA reduce the risk of some form of cancer
  • RPA can manage and treat type II diabetes (noninsulin-dependent)
  • RPA maintains bone density and decreases risk of osteoporosis
  • RPA can help in other chronic illnesses
  • PA and Aging
  • Risk factors
  • Introduction
  • Accumulated evidence has shown The existence of health benefits of PA
  • Sedentary living is considered as the primary risk factor for heart disease.
  • Emphasize PA as one of the key healthy lifestyles contributing to optimal H, W and F

1.Physical activity and hypokinetic diseases?

  • Chronic diseases are associated with lifestyles or environmental factors.
  • Hypokinetic diseases are associated with lack of physical activity (they are considered to be chronic disease) and are : hearth attack, diabetes, stroke and cancer
  • back pain and obesity are hypokinetic conditions
  • Physical activity and fitness can prevent and treat diseases (chronic) and are methods of health and wellness promotion
  • Hypokinetic disease can be reduced among people who do regular PA

1.Physical activity and hypokinetic diseases?

  • Much like immunization can control infectious diseases, PA may produce the shortcut for the control of CD
  • Active people increase their life expectancy by 2 years and have a low chance for early death
  • RPA may overcome the effects of inherited risk (twins)
  • Sedentary Death Syndrome (SeDS)

2.Physical activity and cardiovascular diseases

  • Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) are high blood pressure, stroke, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), congestive heart failure and CHD
  • Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) are disease of heart muscle and blood vessels (O2) inside the heart
  • * Coronary occlusion (heart attack)
  • * Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis increase risk of heart attack
  • * Angina pectoris (symptom of poor circulation)

2.Physical activity and cardiovascular diseases

  • Men are more likely to suffer from heart disease than women
  • CHD accounts for 32% of deaths (USA)
  • 90% reduced risk of CHD for those in active occupation
  • Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor comparable to high blood pressure, cholesterol, obesity and cigarette smoke

3. The Fit heart

  • RPA increases the pumping of the blood and oxygen
  • It results in a slower heart rate and greater heart efficiency
  • The fit heart has open arteries free of Atherosclerosis fig 2

3. The Fit heart

  • Normal resting heart is 72 bpm. 50-85 are not uncomment
  • People who do RPA have 30-40 bpm
  • Decrease in heart rate following a training is positive adaptation

4. Physical activity and Atherosclerosis (heart attack)

  • A heart attack occurs when a coronary artery is blocked fig 2
  • Atherosclerosis is the buildup of deposit (cholesterol (saturated fat), fibrin(clotting process)) in arterial wall
  • Its implicated in heart attack, strocke, hypertension, angina pectoris and PVD

4. Physical activity and Atherosclerosis (heart attack)

  • Blood lipids includs lipoproteins (LDLand HDL), phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol

4. Physical activity and Atherosclerosis (heart attack)

  • Lipid Deposit Theory:
  • * RPA can reduce the deposit of blood lipid by diminishing blood lipid levels including the concentration of LDL
  • * physical activity is often prescribed as part of treatment for high triglyceride levels
  • Protective Protein Theory :
  • * People who do PA have a higher HDL levels
  • * Protective Protein (HDL) picks up and carries cholesterol (HDL-C) to the liver, where it is eliminated by the body
  • Other Theory:
  • * Blood coagulant theory: RPA can reduce fibrin in the blood

5. RPA and other causes of heart attack

  • Improvment of corronary circulation
  • People who perform RPA have half the risk of heart attack
  • The active person has more profuse distribution of arteries fig 5
  • Physical activity may promote the growth of extra blood vessels (coronary collateral circulation)
  • Resistance to stress: high heart rate, blood pressure and excessive stimulation
  • RPA leads to the dominance of parasympathetic nervous system
  • RPA decreases sympathetic dominance
  • RPA helps the heart rate to return to normal rate faster after after emotional storm
  • RPA strengthens the heart muscle
  • PA reduces hormonal effects
  • PA reduces the risk of sudden death
  • RPA is an effective means of rehabilitation for people with coronary diseases

  • 6. RPA and hypertension (high blood pressure) Table 2
  • It can be raised with stress and high-salt diet
  • RPA is one effective method of reducing blood pressure by reducing the resistance to blood flow (dilatation of BV)
  • RPA enhance the dilation of blood vessels

7. RPA and stroke

  • People with high blood pressure and atherosclerosis are susceptible to stroke
  • RPA are helpful in the prevention of stroke

8. RPA reduce the risk of some form of cancer

  • Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by an uncontrollable growth and spread of abnormal cells table 3
  • Theory: a hormonal link between PA and breast cancer
  • Theory: the faster transit time for both colon and rectal cancer
  • Theory: Rectal cancer is associated with inactivity
  • 1/3 reduction-risk of breast cancers among active people
  • 50 to 250% of inactive people are having greater risk of getting colon cancer

9. RPA can manage and treat type II diabetes(noninsulin-dependent)

  • Diabetes results when there is too much sugar in the blood
  • PA is not an effective treatment for type I(insulin-dependent)
  • RPA can help reduce:
  • * Body fatness
  • * Decrease insulin resistance
  • * Improve insulin sensitivity
  • * Improve the body’s ability to clear the sugar From the blood

10. RPA maintains bone density and decreases risk of osteoporosis

  • Excessive bed and setting rest lead to calcium lose osteoporosis (porous and fragile)
  • Bones are strengthened by bearing weight and the pulling of active muscles
  • RPA can help in:
  • *increases your peak bone mass(early life)
  • *maintains bone density over the lifespan
  • * See guidelines page 58

11. RPA and obesity

  • Obesity is not a disease but a hypokinetic condition
  • High fatness, combined with high blood fat, sugar, pressure, and insulin resistance is associated with risk for heart diseases
  • RPA and sound nutrition lower the body fat

12. RPA and back pain

  • It’s a result of poor muscle strength, endurance and flexibility
  • Increased by poor posture, improper lifting and work habits, heredity, scoliosis and arthritis

13. RPA can help in mental disorder

  • reducing the risk of mental diseases
  • - PA combined with other therapy can be effective for some depression
  • - Anxiety can be reduced with RPA
  • - Insomnia (not vigorous and just before going to bed)
  • - Improvement in fitness and appearance can improve self-confidence and self-esteem
  • 14. PA can help ther immune system fight illness
  • Infections: PA can enhance quality of life for people with HIV avoid heavy PA when you are ill (colds, flu)

15. PA and Aging

  • The inability to function effectively as you grow older is associated with lack of fitness and inactive lifestyles
  • Acquired aging/time dependent aging
  • The amount of PA performed must be adapted as people grow older
  • PA enhace cognitive fuctioning and perhaps reduce risk for dementia
  • RPA can compress illness into a shorter period of life (76.1, 12 years)

16. RPA and non-hypokinetic conditions

  • Arthritis (infection of joints) choose appropriate PA
  • Asthma : choose appropriate PA but not in cold weather
  • Chronic pain: aerobic activity and resistance training
  • Premenstrual syndrom
  • PA may decrease impotence

Health, Fitness and Wellness promotion

  • PA enhances metabolic fitness that can reduce risk of a variety of hypokinetic diseases (healthy blood fat, blood sugar, blood pressure and insulin level) table 4
  • Good health-related fitness can help you feel good, look good, and enjoy life (table 3)
  • Enjoying your leisure may not add years to your life, but can add life to your years.
  • PA can help you to work productively and have energy left over at the end of the day
  • There are many economic benefits associated with employee physical activity

Hypokinetic diseases risk factors

  • *Positive lifestyle can reduce the risk of diseases (table 5)
  • * Too much PA can lead to hyperkinetic diseases: overuse injury to muscles, bone…
  • * Reducing risk alters the probability of diseases, but does not assure disease immunity


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