The Arabian Peninsula is a crossroads of three continents. Africa, Europe and Asia. Only a tiny strip of fertile land in the south and Oman can support agriculture. The rest of the land is desert inhabited by nomadic Arab herders. Towns were located near the coast or near oasis.
Bedouins:Arab-speaking desert herders and warriors.Nomadic Arabs, recognized by their nomadic lifestyles, specific dialects, social structures and culture.
(Ahl Bedu, " dwellers in the open land," or Ahl el beit, " people of the tent," as they call themselves),
"I and my brothers against my cousins, I and my brothers and my cousins against the world."
Needed to defend themselves against constant raids by other clans seeking their water, grazing territory and food supplies.
Persian battling Ancient Arabian Tribesmen
The Spread of Islam 500A.D. –1300A.D.
3. Describe the conditions that gave rise to feudalism, as well as political, economic and social characteristics of feudalism, in Asia and Europe.
4. Explain the lasting effects of military conquests during the
Middle Ages including:
a. Muslim conquests;
b. The Crusades;
c. The Mongol invasions.
God is beautiful and loves beauty. (Inn Allaha jameel wa-yuhibbu l-jamaal) (A hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (s)in Sahih Muslim 1.93:91. Muslim contributions to art come decorative design—not painting pictures of people and the world
Each Mosque has this niche used to indicate the direction to Mecca
Section One: describes the rise of Islam.
I. Islam means “the act of submitting to the will of God.”
A. Allah—“The God”
B. Makkah (Mecca)
C. Makkah (Mecca)
1. Three major cities in the Hejaz (Mountainous area in the western part of Area) : Yathrib, Taif and Makkah. Even before Islam, the holiest city in Araba was Makkah
(a.) Mecca largest and richest
(b.) Supported by trade and religion
(c.) Arab pilgrims visited he Ka’bah
(1.) low, cube-shaped building surrounded by idols and containing a black stone (meteorite?)
(d.) Ka’bah build by Adam and later rebuilt by Abraham and Ishmael
Defined primarily by its western border on the Red Sea, it extends from Haql on the Gulf of Aqaba to Jizan. Its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina. As the site of Islam's holy places the Hejaz has significance in the Arab and Islamic historical and political landscape.Geographically, the region is located along the Great Rift Valley. The region is also known for its darker, more volcanic sand. Depending on the previous definition, Hejaz includes the high mountains of Sarawat which topographically separate Najd from Tehamah.
C. Muhammad (WSJ on images)
Christian Church splits 1054—Martin Luther 95 Theses 1517—Protestant Reformation/Counter Reformation—Enlightenment 1700s—Democratic Governments, Separation of Church and State, Freedom of Speech etc.
The controversial cartoons of Muhammad, as they were first published in Jyllands-Posten in September 2005. The headline, "Muhammeds ansigt", means "The face of Muhammad".
In February 1989, the Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini, Supreme Leader of Iran issued a fatwa calling on all good Muslims to kill or help kill Rushdie and his publishers. Following the fatwa, Rushdie was put under police protection by the British government. As of early 2010 Rushdie has not been physically harmed, but 38 others have been killed in violence against those connected with the book.
Riots in 2005
Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie, KBE ; born 19 June 1947)
is a British-Indian novelist and essayist.
PHILADELPHIA –Colleen LaRose, accused of conspiring with fighters overseas and pledging to commit murder in the name of a Muslim holy war, or jihad is accused of trolling the Internet as Jihad Jane and agreeing to marry a suspectedterrorist and kill a Swedish artist targeted by radical Muslims cooperated with (arrested 2010)
1. born 570 A.D., orphaned at 6
2. in teens worked as a business person
3. at 25 years of age married a 40 year old widow
4. 610, Muhammad had a revelation that in time will make him the founder of the Islamic religion and its Allah’s prophet.
(a.) angel appeared and ordered him to read some writing
(b.) Angel Gabriel told him to preach about God
(c.) Holy man tells Khad’juh Muhammad was to be a prophet of his people and Arabs should worship only Allah.
(d.) 613 Muhammad begins preaching to people of Makkah.
(e.) Share with the poor, life preparation for the Day of Judgment
5. leaders of Makkah were threatened and were afraid visitors would stop coming to Makah
6. 620 Muhammad pilgrims from Yathrib ask him to be their leader
7. 622, Anno Hijrah, year of migration, becomes first year of Muslim calendar
8. City of Yathrib renamed Madina, “City of the Prophet”.
9. People of Makkah invade Madina unsuccessfully several times
10. Which is the sacred book of the Islamic religion?
D. The Quran (Muslim scriptures)
1. Muslims believe the Quran is the direct word of God as revealed to Muhammad
2. Written in Arabic
3. Pillars of Faith (next slide)
As part of their Islam religion Muslims have 5 duties they must perform, called the Five Pillars of Faith
Shahada (affirmation) The duty to recite the creed: "There is nothing worthy of worship save Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God"
Salat (prayer) The duty to worship the One God in prayer five times each day (Friday noon prayer is usually recited in a mosque, led by an imam)
Zakat (almsgiving) The duty to distribute alms and to help the needy
Siyam (fasting) The duty to keep the Fast of Ramadan
Hajj (pilgrimage) The duty to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime (all believers who fulfill these duties will go to Paradise)
2. The Salat
The call to prayer by the muezzin in the minaret.
Pray in the mosque on Friday.
Section Two: describes the formation of the Arab Empire and the spread of Islam
II. The Arab Empire
Places to Locate: Damascus
Places to Locate: Baghdad
A. in 632 Muslim leaders choose a caliph (successor)
B. The Rightly Guided Caliphs
1. 1st Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s father-in-law elected for life, as were his two successors
2. ruled from Madina and kept in touch with the people and trusted advisors
3. sent warriors into Palestine, Syria, Iraq, Persia, Egypt and North Africa
4. Success came for many reasons:
(a.) Islam held them together
(b.) Arab warriors believed that struggling on behalf of Islam earned them an eternal place in paradise if they died in battle. (Jihad)
(c.) Lenient treatment of conquered people
(1.) must pay a tax
(2.) could keep their land
(3.) those who fought paid tax and lost their lands
(4.) Muslims refer to Jews and Christians (sometimes Zoroastrians and even Mandeans) as "People of the Book". When these people reside in states that practice Sharia law, they are called dhimmi ("protected person"). As dhimmi, they are subject to various protections and disabilities, which are called dhimma. People of other religions do not have this protected status.
The term "Jihad" used without any qualifiers is generally understood in the West to be referring to holy war on behalf of Islam. In broader usage and interpretation, the term has accrued both violent and non-violent meanings. It can simply mean striving to live a moral and virtuous life, spreading and defending Islam as well as fighting injustice and oppression, among other things. The relative importance of these two forms of jihad is a matter of controversy.
C. The Umayyads
1. Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law was killed in 661
2. Muawiya, MUAWIYA B. ABI SUFYAN (c.602-680) new Caliph moved the capital to Damascus and founded the Umayyad Dynasty.
3. Title of Caliph becomes hereditary at this time
4. Rule as political leaders rather than religious leaders.
5. minted first Arab money, created postal routes, built mosques (Muslim house of worship) and encouraged arts.
6. Conquered people were not treated the same, received less money for serving in army and paid higher taxes.
7. Muslims divided into 2 groups
(a.) Shi’ah—believed the office of caliph should be held only by descendants of Ali- venerate imams
(b.) Sunni—followed the Rightly Guided Caliphs and all caliphs after them (minor groups-esp. sufi)
(c.) War breaks out between Abbasids and Umayyads in 750 led by Abu Abbas Mussin
Abbasid Caliphate (green) at its greatest extent, c. 850.
D. The Abbasids
1. Ruled Arab Empire from 750-1258
2. first 100 years known as Golden Age of Islam
3. built new capital called Baghdad designed by a Jewish astronomer and a Persian engineer
4. meaning of Arab changes from person from Arabia to any subject of the empire who spoke Arabic
5. Vizier—Chief Adviser—intermediary between people and throne
6. did not conquer new lands—Baghdad becomes intellectual center
7. Caliph instructs Syrian Christians and Jews to translate Greek writings into Arabic
8. Mathematical and scientific achievements recorded
10. Empire becomes too large for one caliph and breaks into independent kingdoms.
11. 836 caliph moves capital city to Samarra—then tries to return to Baghdad
12. 945 Persians take control of Baghdad
Minaret at the Great
Mosque of Samarra
Abbasids based their claim to the Caliphate on their descent from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566-652), one of the youngest uncles of the Prophet Muhammad., by virtue of which descent they regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of the Prophet as opposed to the Umayyads.
E. The Golden Age of Muslim Spain
1. Muslim Arabs who conquered North Africa intermarried with Berbers and became knows as Moors.
2. 710 Moors invade Spain and defeat the West Goths
3. set up kingdom that allows religious freedom and tended to favor not-Arab peoples
4. rule for 400 years and develop a rich culture
5. Schools were built in which Muslims, Jews and Christians studied medicine and philosophy
6. Jewish traders travel widely and bring back spices and silks to Spain from India and China
1. pass numerals 0-9 from Gupta mathematicians to Europeans
F. Arab doctors discover that blood circulates, first to understand that tuberculosis is contagious
1. Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine used in European medical schools for 500 years
G. The Arabian Nights—collection of tales put together
"Ali Baba" by Maxfield Parrish.
H. Persian poet Omar Khayy’am’s Rubaiyat translated into many languages
I. Islamic art does not depict living creatures, believing to do so is a sin
J. Art is made up of geometric designs entwined with flowers, leaves and stars
K. Historian Ibn Khaldun first to take into account the influence of geography and climate on people
Ibn Khaldun's chief contribution lies in philosophy of history and sociology. He sought to write a world history preambled by a first volume aimed at an analysis of historical events. This volume, commonly known as Muqaddimah or 'Prolegomena', was based on Ibn Khaldun's unique approach and original contribution and became a masterpiece in literature on philosophy of history and sociology. The chief concern of this monumental work was to identify psychological, economic, environmental and social facts that contribute to the advancement of human civilization and the currents of history. In this context, he analysed the dynamics of group relationships and showed how group-feelings, al-'Asabiyya, give rise to the ascent of a new civilization and political power and how, later on, its diffusion into a more general civilization invites the advent of a still new 'Asabiyya in its pristine form. He identified an almost rhythmic repetition of rise and fall in human civilization, and analyzed factors contributing to it. His contribution to history is marked by the fact that, unlike most earlier writers interpreting history largely in a political context, he emphasized environmental, sociological, psychological and economic factors governing the apparent events. This revolutionized the science of history. http://www.ummah.org.uk/history/scholars/KHALDUN.html
Pick one of the following :
1. List at least three ways in which the development of Islam was similar to that of Christianity and one majordifference.
2. Explain in an essay how Abbasid rule of the Arab Empire was different from that of the Umayyads
3. Explain the importance of each of the following for the devote Muslim: the five pillars of faith, the Kabba, the black stone and the Quran.