Annotated Bibliography Research Question (RQ): In what ways do Mexican Cartels have an impact on the government policies of both the United States and Mexico, and what solutions are there to lessen the impact of Mexican Cartels? Source #2



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Annotated Bibliography
Research Question (RQ):
In what ways do Mexican Cartels have an impact on the government policies of both the United States and Mexico, and what solutions are there to lessen the impact of Mexican Cartels?

Source #2:
MLA Citation:
Murataya, Rodrigo, et al. “The Relationship between Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations and Corruption in the Mexican Criminal Justice and Political Systems: a Review Essay.” International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, vol. 37, no. 4, 2013, pp. 341–358. Accessed 22 Oct. 2017.  

“The Relationship between Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations and Corruption in the Mexican Criminal Justice and Political Systems: a Review Essay.” International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, vol. 37, no. 4, 2013, pp. 341–358., doi:10.1080/01924036.2013.763685.
Author/Journal Qualifications:

This essay was written by three authors, one of which was Rodrigo Murataya. He is currently a professor of Law and Justice at the Central Washington University. He has authored and co-authored many articles and essays over the course of his career. Murataya has a B.A. in Law and Justice, and a minor in Psychology. Prior to receiving a job as a professor, he was a police officer who specialized in criminal law that primarily focused on Mexico.



Main Claim:

Mexican drug trafficking organizations and corruption within the Mexican government led to the creation of policies to combat those organizations under the former Presidency of Felipe Calderón.




Subclaim 1:
accomplish.Corruption within the Mexican government is common because Mexican Cartels bribe and threaten government officials. This makes creating policies that negatively affect Mexican Cartels difficult to accomplish.


Quotation 1:
“Corruption scandals involving Mexican policymakers, government officials, and other bureaucrats are common. A recent corruption case involved a former executive of WalMart as he described how Wal-Mart de México had orchestrated a campaign of bribery to win market dominance. In its rush to build stores, he said, the company had paid bribes to obtain permits in virtually every corner of the country (Barstow, 2012)” (Murataya et. al 342).

Explanation:

The bribing of government officials and other bureaucratic members of Mexican government is not uncommon. Even organizations that are legitimate companies like Wal-Mart are able to influence policymakers through the power of bribes.



Quotation 2:
“In May 2010, Mexican police arrested the mayor of Cancun, Gregorio Sanchez, and charged him with a money laundering and association with drug smugglers. Sanchez is accused of feeding information to the Beltran Leyva and Zetas cartels. That same month, former governor of Quintana Roo, Mario Villanueva Madrid, was extradited to the United States, after he was indicted on charges of corruption and aiding cocaine smugglers. In May 2009 alone, Mexican authorities arrested 10 mayors and 20 local officials after they were implicated through an investigation into the ultra-violent La Familia Cartel. If La Familia cannot buy-off a politician (Often, because they have already accepted bribes from a rival organization.), they simply kill them.” (Gibson 2011) (Murataya et. al 349).

Explanation:
Some Mexican Cartels will first resort to bribery in an attempt to sway government officials to support them. If bribery fails, then the only option left for those Cartels is to kill that official. These criminal organizations are ruthless gain influence within government bodiesand will kill government officials that support rival Mexican Drug Cartels.

Subclaim 2:

As a result of Mexican Cartel activity, President Calderon created harsher policies and laws focusing on the War on Drugs and Mexican Drug Cartel related activity.


Quotation 1:
“President Felipe Calderon, a conservative, who was narrowly elected in July 2006 amid cries of electoral fraud, took office full of promises to create jobs and reduce unemployment. However, his agenda changed suddenly, focusing on the war on drugs and he immediately ordered the deployment of several thousand soldiers to his home state of Michoacán to fight the drug war” (Beith, 2010, p. 133) cited in (Murataya et. al 350).

Explanation:
President Calderon changed his political agenda to prioritize taking down DTO’s (Drug Trafficking Organizations). anti-cartel tactics by relying on the military rather than local police officers. Calderon’s solution to decrease the Mexican Cartels’ power was to power of the Mexican military.use the military as a weapon against them.

Quotation 2:
“Calderon launched an aggressive campaign against the DTOs – an initiative that has defined his administration – that has been met with a violent response from the DTOs. Government enforcement efforts have successfully removed some of the key leaders in all of the seven major DTOs, either through arrests or through deaths in operations to detain them (p. 2). Cook (2008) reported that Mexican authorities arrested nearly 10,000 people on drug related charges from December 2006 through August 2007. Cook (2008) explains that in January 2007, México extradited 15 persons wanted for prosecution in the United States, including four senior drug traffickers such as Osiel Cardenas Guillen, the alleged head of the powerful Gulf Cartel, Hector Palma Salazar of the Sinaloa Cartel and leader of the Federation alliance, and Ismael and Gilberto Herrera Guerrero top members of the Tijuana Cartel (p. 4)” (Murataya et. al 351).


Explanation:
President Calderon’s increased military use against Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) resulted in the destabilization of seven major Mexican Cartels by targeting the primary leadership within each Mexican Drug Cartel. The success of the strategy was a number of extradition and arrests of key Mexican Drug Cartel members.

create lasting and effective policies that negatively impact Mexican Cartelsr thousands of people in México” (Murataya 353).ultimately into the hands of Mexican Cartels. No stricter gun laws were passed to combat this dilemma.Quotation 2: Clabough (2011) indicated that in order to obtain better relations and help reduce the flow of illegal guns to México, Attorney General Holder mentioned that a bill should be enacted so that it may require gun shops on border-states to report people that attempt to purchase more than one assault rifle in a week. However, Holder later on criticized the House of Representatives for not passing the bill into a law that would help the US government reduce the problem (Clabough, 2011). Such a bill has been challenged by the National Rifle Association who argued in their statements that the operation was purposely drafted in order to implement stricter gun rights in the United States (Clabough, 2011)” (Murataya 353). impedes progress to combat the effectiveness of Mexican Drug Cartels.



How does this source help answer my research question? How does it compare/contrast to other sources? How does it change or expand my ideas about my topic?

This source has helped me find more direct explanations about how Mexico reacted to the illegal activities of Mexican Drug Cartels. President Calderón used the military to wage war against the Cartels in an effort to destabilize and destroy them. His actions started a war against Mexican Drug Cartels. Compared to my first source, it was much more helpful and had answers specifically related to my topic. I still need to find more information regarding what kind of policies the United States implemented to stop Mexican Drug Cartels. This source expanded my ideas about my topic by giving me the starting point for my research. I now have a somewhat solid foundation to keep adding information to. I have basic information on government policies created by Mexico however I need a source that talks about how the United States responded to Mexican Drug Cartels, like DEA operations or specific strategies they employed. I also need to find more specific information about President Calderon’s strategies that were used to fight Mexican Drug Cartels.
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