Borrowed ideas presented in the exact language of the source



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Quotations

  • Borrowed ideas presented in the exact language of the source.
  • Must be enclosed in quotation marks
  • Use the source’s words, punctuation, spacing, etc. exactly as they appear in the source (unless indicated with ellipsis points or brackets)

Essay 3 Quotation Requirements

  • Maximum 25% of essay (average of six full lines per page)
  • At least two quotations from the story in each body paragraph.
  • Recognize that quotations don’t have to be lengthy. Short quotations, even phrases, can work well.

Paraphrases

  • Borrowed ideas presented in the language of the researcher/writer (use your own words and sentence structure to communicate the source’s ideas)
  • Ideas must be accurate, but the paraphrase is not enclosed in quotation marks.

Essay 3 Paraphrase Requirements

  • No set minimum or maximum for paraphrased material from the story.
  • Selectively paraphrase details from the story to supplement your quotations.
  • Especially useful if a passage isn’t especially powerfully written or quite as important as what you quote.
  • Prevents you from over-quoting and exceeding the 25% limit on quotations.

Original Passage: “Other people sat on the benches and green chairs, but they were nearly always the same, Sunday after Sunday, and–Miss Brill had often noticed–there was something funny about nearly all of them. They were odd, silent, nearly all old, and from the way they stared they looked as though they'd just come from dark little rooms or even–even cupboards!” (Mansfield 184-85).

  • Original Passage: “Other people sat on the benches and green chairs, but they were nearly always the same, Sunday after Sunday, and–Miss Brill had often noticed–there was something funny about nearly all of them. They were odd, silent, nearly all old, and from the way they stared they looked as though they'd just come from dark little rooms or even–even cupboards!” (Mansfield 184-85).
  • Paraphrase: As Miss Brill observed the other visitors to the park each week, she thought them strange, quiet, and, for the most part, elderly (Mansfield 184-85).

Integrating Quotations from the Story

  • Introduce quotations
    • Use a short phrase with a comma
    • Use a full sentence with a colon
    • Combine with your own sentence with no additional punctuation
  • If you are writing about more than one story, by more than one author, include the author’s name.
  • Include the page number (if there is one) in parentheses at the end of the quotation.
  • Place the final period after the parentheses.

Short Phrase with Comma

  • As Desiree herself claims, “It is a lie; it is not true, I am white!” (Chopin).
  • NOTES:
    • You also may need to indicate which character is speaking.
    • If there is punctuation other than a period to end the quotation, include it inside the quotation marks and still place a period after the parentheses.
    • Not all stories have page numbers. If there is no page number, simply omit it.

Full Sentence with Colon

  • The narrator summarizes Louise’s transformation near the end of the story: “There was a feverish triumph in her eyes, and she carried herself unwittingly like a goddess of Victory” (Chopin).
  • NOTES:
    • The full sentence introduction often summarizes or previews the quotation for the reader.
    • Only a colon may be used to join the full sentence introduction to the quotation.

Your Sentence, No Punctuation

  • Miss Brill senses “something light and sad” at the park (Mansfield 183).
  • NOTES:
    • If there is a page number, include it after the author’s name. Include a space but no punctuation between them).

Block Quotations

  • More than 4 lines in your essay
  • Full-sentence introduction, generally followed by colon
  • Indent one inch (or two tabs)
  • Omit quotation marks around entire quotation

Miss Brill comes to believe that she is an important part of life at the park:

  • Miss Brill comes to believe that she is an important part of life at the park:
      • Oh, how fascinating it was! How she enjoyed it! How she loved sitting here, watching it all! It was like a play. It was exactly like a play. Who could believe the sky at the back wasn't painted? But it wasn't till a little brown dog trotted on solemn and then slowly trotted off, like a little "theatre" dog, a little dog that had been drugged, that Miss Brill discovered what it was that made it so exciting. They were all on stage. They weren't only the audience, not only looking on; they were acting. Even she had a part and came every Sunday. No doubt somebody would have noticed if she hadn't been there; she was part of the performance after all. (Mansfield 186-87)
      • The remainder of paragraph continues here, from the regular left margin.

Internal Quotations

  • If the passage you are quoting contains quotation marks within it, change them to single quotation marks.
  • NOT: The other soldiers accept the narrator after his cruel actions: ““The lad’s all right,” one of them said, winking and scooping up the cabbage soup with his spoon” (Babel).
  • INSTEAD: The other soldiers accept the narrator after his cruel actions: “‘The lad’s all right,’ one of them said, winking and scooping up the cabbage soup with his spoon” (Babel).

Quoting Dialogue

  • If you quote dialogue (conversation) that continues over more than one paragraph, use the block quotation format, regardless of the length of the quotation.
  • Duplicate the line breaks, indentations, and use of quotation marks.

Quoting Dialogue Example

  • The final exchange between Desiree and Armand illustrates, finally, Desiree's utter dependence on Armand:
        • He said nothing. “Shall I go, Armand?” she asked in tones sharp with agonized suspense. 
        • “Yes, go.”
        • “Do you want me to go?” 
        • “Yes, I want you to go.” (Chopin)
  • Tragically, this exchange and the dependence it illustrates lead directly to Desiree’s death, both emotionally and physically.

Integrating Paraphrases from the Story

  • Introduce the paraphrase
    • Use a short phrase with a comma
    • Use a full sentence with a colon
    • Combine with your own sentence with no additional punctuation
  • If you are writing about more than one story, by more than one author, include the author’s name.
  • Include the page number (if there is one) in parentheses at the end of the quotation.
  • Place the final period after the parentheses.

Short Phrase with Comma

  • Original: “‘Look at my hand; whiter than yours, Armand,’ she laughed hysterically.”
  • Paraphrase: As Desiree herself claims, her skin is not as dark as Armand’s (Chopin).
  • NOTES:
    • You also may need to indicate which character is speaking.
    • Not all stories have page numbers. Not all stories have page numbers. If there is no page number, simply omit it.

Full Sentence with Colon

  • Original: “She did not hear the story as many women have heard the same, with a paralyzed inability to accept its significance. She wept at once, with sudden, wild abandonment, in her sister's arms.”
  • Paraphrase: The story soon reveals Louise’s emotional strength: her reaction to Brentley’s supposed death was unusual compared to other women in that she acknowledged it and grieved immediately (Chopin).
  • NOTES:
    • The full sentence introduction often summarizes or previews the paraphrase for the reader.
    • Only a colon should be used to join the full sentence introduction to the paraphrase.

NOT: The story soon reveals Louise’s emotional strength. Her reaction to Brentley’s supposed death was unusual compared to other women in that she acknowledged it and grieved immediately (Chopin).

  • NOT: The story soon reveals Louise’s emotional strength. Her reaction to Brentley’s supposed death was unusual compared to other women in that she acknowledged it and grieved immediately (Chopin).
  • NOT: The story soon reveals Louise’s emotional strength, her reaction to Brentley’s supposed death was unusual compared to other women in that she acknowledged it and grieved immediately (Chopin).

Your Sentence, No Punctuation

  • Original: “She disappeared among the reeds and willows that grew thick along the banks of the deep, sluggish bayou; and she did not come back again.”
  • Paraphrase: Desiree never returned after wandering into the bayou (Chopin).

Combining Quoting and Paraphrasing

  • You may paraphrase some parts of a passage and quote the rest of it.
  • Original: “The quartermaster carried my trunk on his shoulder. Before us stretched the village street. The dying sun, round and yellow as a pumpkin, was giving up its roseate ghost to the skies.”
  • Quotation/Paraphrase Combination: As the narrator walks with the quartermaster through the village, the “dying sun” sets (Babel).
  • NOTE: You may use any of the three methods for introducing this combination: short phrase with a comma, full sentence with a colon, or your own sentence with no punctuation.

Quotations need to make sense.

  • Fit quotations into your sentences so that they are logically, grammatically, and stylistically effective.
  • NOT: After Armand finds out the baby’s race, he talks to Desiree “it was with averted eyes, from which the old love-light seemed to have gone out” (Chopin).
  • INSTEAD: After Armand finds out the baby’s race, he talks to Desiree “with averted eyes, from which the old love-light seemed to have gone out” (Chopin).

NOT: One piece of evidence in the story is, “But to-day she passed the baker's by, climbed the stairs, went into the little dark room–her room like a cupboard–and sat down on the red eiderdown” (Mansfield 189).

  • NOT: One piece of evidence in the story is, “But to-day she passed the baker's by, climbed the stairs, went into the little dark room–her room like a cupboard–and sat down on the red eiderdown” (Mansfield 189).
  • INSTEAD: After the devastating conversation of the couple at the park, “she passed the baker's by, climbed the stairs, went into the little dark room–her room like a cupboard–and sat down on the red eiderdown” (Mansfield 189).

NOT: The narrator summarizes Louise’s transformation near the end of the story, “There was a feverish triumph in her eyes, and she carried herself unwittingly like a goddess of Victory” (Chopin). [Comma-splice]

  • NOT: The narrator summarizes Louise’s transformation near the end of the story, “There was a feverish triumph in her eyes, and she carried herself unwittingly like a goddess of Victory” (Chopin). [Comma-splice]
  • INSTEAD: The narrator summarizes Louise’s transformation near the end of the story: “There was a feverish triumph in her eyes, and she carried herself unwittingly like a goddess of Victory” (Chopin). [Colon used to join the two sentences]

Use ellipsis points for material that is omitted from a quotation.

  • After the devastating conversation of the couple at the park, “she passed the baker's by, climbed the stairs, went into the little dark room–her room like a cupboard–and sat down on the red eiderdown” (Mansfield 189).
  • After the devastating conversation of the couple at the park, “she passed the baker's by, climbed the stairs, went into . . . her room like a cupboard–and sat down on the red eiderdown” (Mansfield 189).

After the devastating conversation of the couple at the park, “she passed the baker's by, climbed the stairs, went into the little dark room–her room like a cupboard–and sat down on the red eiderdown” (Mansfield 189).

  • After the devastating conversation of the couple at the park, “she passed the baker's by, climbed the stairs, went into the little dark room–her room like a cupboard–and sat down on the red eiderdown” (Mansfield 189).
  • After the devastating conversation of the couple at the park, “she passed the baker's by, climbed the stairs, went into the little dark room–her room like a cupboard . . .” (Mansfield 189).
  • NOTE: You do not need to use ellipsis points if you omit something from the beginning of a quotation or if you keep only a short phrase.

Use brackets for material added to a quotation.

  • After the devastating conversation of the couple at the park, “she passed the baker's by, climbed the stairs, went into the little dark room–her room like a cupboard–and sat down on the red eiderdown” (Mansfield 189).
  • After the devastating conversation of the couple at the park, “she [Miss Brill] passed the baker's by, climbed the stairs, [and] went into the little dark room–her room like a cupboard . . .” (Mansfield 189).

Paraphrasing Pitfalls to Avoid

  • Your paraphrase may not change the meaning of the original passage.
  • You may not merely substitute a few words or rearrange the order of words from the original passage, which is a form of plagiarism.
  • EXCEPTIONS: Words that are extremely common or have no acceptable synonym (articles, prepositions, proper names, dates)

Original Passage: “She did not hear the story as many women have heard the same, with a paralyzed inability to accept its significance. She wept at once, with sudden, wild abandonment, in her sister's arms” (Chopin).

  • Original Passage: “She did not hear the story as many women have heard the same, with a paralyzed inability to accept its significance. She wept at once, with sudden, wild abandonment, in her sister's arms” (Chopin).
  • Plagiarized Paraphrase: Louise cried suddenly and wildly in the arms of Josephine, her sister, instead of hearing the story like many women did, as though she were paralyzed and unable to accept it (Chopin).
  • A few words changed and re-arranged, but not a thorough paraphrase (original wording/phrasing remains).

Original Passage: “She did not hear the story as many women have heard the same, with a paralyzed inability to accept its significance. She wept at once, with sudden, wild abandonment, in her sister's arms” (Chopin).

  • Original Passage: “She did not hear the story as many women have heard the same, with a paralyzed inability to accept its significance. She wept at once, with sudden, wild abandonment, in her sister's arms” (Chopin).
  • Good Paraphrase: Louise’s reaction to Brentley’s supposed death was unusual compared to other women in that she acknowledged it and grieved immediately (Chopin).
  • Only common words/proper names remain, no original wording/phrasing.


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