Academic writing – TÀi liệU Ôn thi



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ACADEMIC WRITING – TÀI LIỆU ÔN THI


TÔ MINH THANH – CHU THỊ LÊ HOÀNG

TỐT NGHIỆP ĐẠI HỌC CHUYÊN NGÀNH NGỮ VĂN ANH

TUYỂN SINH SAU ĐẠI HỌC CHUYÊN NGÀNH GIẢNG DẠY TIẾNG ANH

NHÀ XUẤT BẢN ĐẠI HỌC QUỐC GIA THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH - 2009


MỤC LỤC


ACADEMIC WRITING – TÀI LIỆU ÔN THI 1

SECTION 1:SENTENCE COMPONENTS 2

Prepositions - Prepositional phrases 2

PARTICIPLES - PARTICIPIAL PHRASES 7



LỜI NÓI ĐẦU

Thực tế không phải là sách dạy tiếng của tác giả người nước ngoài nào cũng Đáp ứng đúng và đủ nội dung ôn tập thi tốt nghiệp đại học chuyên ngành Ngữ văn Anh và thi tuyển sinh sau đại học chuyên ngành Giảng dạy tiếng Anh Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) theo quy định của Trường đại học Khoa học Xã hội và Nhân văn - Đại học Quốc gia Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh.

Tài liệu này ra đời nhằm (1) đáp ứng nhu cầu ôn tập thi tốt nghiệp đại học của sinh viên hệ tại chứchệ chính quy bằng 1 và bằng 2 theo chuyên ngành ngữ văn Anh và (2) giúp các anh chị cựu sinh viên ôn tập tuyển sinh sau đại học chuyên ngành Giảng dạy tiếng Anh.

Ngoài ra, tài liệu này cũng có thể nằm trong thư mục sách tham khảo giúp (1) học viên cao học chuyên ngành Giảng dạy tiếng Anh và (2) các thầy cô theo: khóa Bồi dưỡng giáo viên tại Trường Đại học Khoa học Xã và Nhân văn đại học Quốc gia Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh học thành công môn Writing PG trong chương trình chính khóa của cả hai hệ đào tạo sau đại học này.

Để giúp các đối tượng dự thi làm quen và chuẩn bị tốt kỳ thi của mình, tài liệu này được trình bày thành bốn phần:

1) Phần ôn tập các thành phần câu ( components) thường dùng trong văn viết tiếng Anh trang trọng;

2) Phần ôn tập cấu trúc cơ bản của một đoạn văn (a paragraph);

3) Phần ôn tập cấu trúc cơ bản của một bài luận văn (an essay);

4) Phần giải một số đề thi dựa trên các đề thi đã thực tế được dùng trong các kỳ thi gần đây.

Hy vọng rằng bốn phần trình bày này cùng với khá nhiều bài tập đa dạng về độ khó và phong phú về chủng loại có gợi ý hoặc có lời giải đính kèm để minh họa cho phần lý thuyết được trình bày sẽ giúp các đối tượng dự thi tự luyện tốt hơn dù có điều kiện hay không thể trực tiếp theo học các lớp luyện thi chính thức.



Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, ngày 10 tháng 1 năm 2005.

Tô Minh ThanhChu Thị Lê Hoàng 

SECTION 1:SENTENCE COMPONENTS


THE PHRASE

'A phrase is a group of words used as a single part of speech and not containing a verb and its subject.’ [Warriner, 1958: 59] These groups of words may be used not only as verbs but also as adjectives, adverbs and nouns.


Prepositions - Prepositional phrases

1. Prepositions:


1.1. Definition: A preposition is a word that shows the relation between a noun or a pronoun and other words in a sentence.

I walked to the house/ around the house/ through the house the book by him/ for him/ about him.

In the above examples, prepositions make great differences in meaning when they link the house with walked, and him with the book.

1.2. Characteristics:

1.2.1. English prepositions may be in different forms.

1.2.1.1. one – word prepositions:



aboard

about


above

across


after

against


along

among


around

at

before



behind

below

beneath


beside

besides


between

beyond


but

by

down



during

for


from

in

inside


into

like


of

off


except

on

outside



over

since


through

throughout

to

toward



under

underneath

until

up

upon



with

within


without

- I am tired of them

- George sat between the two deans.

- He objected to the last paragraph.

- The car stopped at the station.

- The lad stood on a barrel.

- The car coasted into the garage with lights on.

- The girl was sitting against the wall.

- These roses are for you.

1.2.1.2. -ing prepositions:

In addition to the prepositions already mentioned, there is in English a group of -ing preposition which have a verb as a stem. Here are some of the most common: barring, concerning, regarding, considering, following, including, pending, during, etc.:

- He was vague concerning the details.

- Assuming the accuracy of the report, action must be taken at once.

- We WILL DELAY the papers, pending the of arrival of the contract.

Distinguish the -ing preposition from THE -ING VERB.

- ing prep 1. Barring accidents the picnic will begin at eleven.

- ing prep 2. There will be a smoker following the dining car

- ING VERB 3. She IS only FOLLOWING her orders after all.

- ing prep 4. May I have a conference regarding my examination!

- ING VERB 5. He WAS REGARDING the newcomer with curiosity.

- ING VERB 6. CONSIDERING the time, we HAD BETTER STOP now.

- ing prep 7. Considering your loss, the bill WILL NOT BE SENT.

- ING VERB 8. I AM INCLUDING damage to my window on the bill.

- ing prep 9. The entire squad, including the water boy WILL MAKE the trip.

- ing prep 10. This IS the letter concerning their complaint.

1.2.1.3. compound prepositions:

The final group is composed of compound prepositions. These are relatively numerous and various types. Often it is difficult to say whether a word group should be considered a preposition or not. Here is a short list of two types.

Two-word prepositions

Prepositions with Noun

together with contrary to

ahead of


due to

apart from

up to

out of


away from

up at

as for


inside of

aside from

as concerns because of

owing to


instead of

on account of

in spite of

with rega to

in advance of

in addition to

on behal of

in place of

in I ieu of



By way of

In comparison with

In reference to

With respect to

In event of

For the sake of

In case of

By means of



Recognize the compound preposition in the following sentences:

1. We arrived ahead of time.

2. The game was cancelled on account of rain.

3. The oldest daughter is up at the camp.

4. Contrary to our expectations, the movie was a delightful spoof.

5. The hoard had a meeting with reference to the new building

6. I want to thank you on behaif_of these refugee

7 .They served rice in lieu of potatoes.

8. I can answer all the questions except for the last

9. In spite of her protestations, Harriet was persuaded to join the guild.

10. The foreman received a letter with respect to alleged violations.

1.2.2. As far as their meaning is concerned, English prepositions are of two main kinds:

1.2.2.1. Prepositions that have specific meanings, namely the meanings of the relations that they represent or refer to. Below are a number of their common meanings:

a. Space may be subdivided into:

+ Location: in the kitchen, under the ground, behind the wall

+ Direction: towards the town, from Leeds to Manchester

b. Time may be subdivided into:

+ Point of time: before the wedding, at nine o'clock

+ Extent of time: for several days, since January

c. Topic: (chilling stories) about ghosts

d. Purpose: (a key) for the opening of the safe

e. Similarity: (a boy) like his father

f. Instrument: with an axe

g. Accompaniment: with a bowler hat

1.2.2.2. Prepositions used without any specific meaning, when they are attached to particular VERBS, adjectives or nouns.

- They BLAMED the mess on Jim.

- They BLAMED Jim for the mess.

- I am interested in your_offer.

- She is proud of her children.

- He’s anxious about/for her_safetỵ.

- There is great anxiety about his future

- We have a lot of sympathy for you.

- During the occupation, we had to live in total ubmission to the invaders.

In all these cases the preposition has a purely syntactic relational function in relating a VERB, adjective or noun to a following object or complement. The preposition is predictable (i.e. it cannot be replaced by any other preposition), and so lacking in specific meaning.

2. Prepositional Phrases:


Do not confuse prepositions with adverbs. Prepositions, which introduce prepositional phrases, are always followed by a nominal.

Compare:


Adverb: She looked up.

Preposition: She looked up the stairs

Adverb: They went inside.

Preposition: They went inside the house

Distinguish prepositions from adverbs.

1. The swimmer waited below

2. The swimmer waited below the dam

3. She liked to sit near

4. She sat near the window.

5. the paint bucket fell off

6. The paint bucket fell off the porch

7. I haven’t seen him since

8. I haven’t seen him since yesterday

9. The refreshments came after

10. The refreshments came after the program

2.1. Definition: A prepositional phrase is a group of words beginning with a preposition and ending with nominal. The nominal which ends the prepositional phrase is the complement of the preposition that begins the phrase.

- He answered the question with (great) care [prep + noun (phrase)]

- I am interested in swimming. [prep + gerund]/ in learning a foreign language [prep + gerund phrase]

- Do it for me. [prep + pronoun]

- One can see the airport from upstairs.[prep + adverb]

2.2. Use:

2.2.1. A preposition phrase can be used as an adjectival to modify a noun or a pronoun.

EX: - the lady in the green dress

- two identical girls with long blond hair

- some of the most common methods

- one of tine two possibly solutions

2.2.2. A preposition phrase can be used as an adverbial to modify:

2.2.2.1. A VERB (when this prepositional phrase tells when, where,how, how etc. the action of the verb takes place):

- He LIVES in the suburbs.( Where does he live?)

- The train ARRIVED at two o 'clock. ( did the train arrive?)

- The reproduction TAKES PLACE by budding (How does the reproduction take place?)

- He MISSED the target by a foot. ( How far did he miss the target?)

2.2.2.2. AN ADJECTIVE.

- These shoes ARE too small for comfort.

- If you ARE susceptible to colds, vitamin c helps you resist them.

- She IS very clever at dealing with strangers.

2.2.2.3. ANOTHER ADVERB.

- Never in mililion years WILL he ADMIT defeat.

- Later in the afternoon,the sun WAS NOT so bright, and the sky WAS NOT SO blue.

2.2.2.4. A WHOLE CLAUSE OR SENTENCE:

- According to me, you'RE quite right.

- In fact the contract IS invalid.

2.2.3. A preposition phrase can be used as an adverbial after the verb BE. It is called the subjective complement in the sentence:

- The books ARE under the desk-lamp.

- She IS in the kitchen preparing dinner.

- Jack WAS on top of the car.

- HAVE you ever BEEN to Cairo

EXERCISE 1: Underline the prepositional phrases in the given paragraph.

Vitamins are necessary for good health. Vitamin A promotes the

growth of young animals and is essential to the proper development of their eyes. If you CANNOT SEE in the dard, perhaps you should drink more milk, which is rich in vitamins. Yellow vegetables like carrots also contain vitamin A. If you have trouble with digestion or if your appetite IS below normal, you may need vitamin B. Among the food containing this vitamin are eggs, green vegetables, and meals. According to my druggist; liver, which contains vitamin B, IS a safeguard against anaemia. For an adequate supply of this vitamin, eat plenty of tomatoes. If you are susceptible to colds, vitamin C may help you resist them. In the spring or during the summer, you CAN GET vitamin D by a trip to a sunny beach. Vitamin D, derived from sunshine and found In fish-liver oils, PREVENTS rickets. When you look at a menu, DECIDE upon a well-balanced meal fortified with vitamins.



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