Subjective Discomfort: Feelings of anxiety, depression, or emotional distress. But people we would consider definitely abnormal may not feel subjective discomfort.
Social Nonconformity: Disobeying societal standards for normal conduct; usually leads to destructive or self-destructive behavior. But it doesn’t always. Is being a nonconformist always a disorder? 1984!
Statistical Abnormality: Having extreme scores on some dimension, such as intelligence, anxiety, or depression. But having a numerically rare characteristic isn’t always a disorder (e.g., having an IQ of 180)
Three Criteria for Abnormality
Maladaptive Behavior: Behavior that makes it difficult to function, to adapt to the environment, and to meet everyday demands
Significant impairment in psychological functioning: Those with mental illness lose the ability to control thoughts, behaviors, or feelings adequately
Atypical behavior: behavior that is not typical of the majority of the population
Some DSM-IV Categories
Sexual & Gender Identity Disorders
Disorders First Diagnosed in Childhood
Organic Mental Disorders
Substance Related Disorders
Impulse Control Disorders
DSM-IV definition of mental disorder
A mental disorder is “conceptualized as a clinically significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress or disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom.”
Description of the disorder
History of the disorder (how discovered)
Prevalence in population
Outlook (living with the disorder)
Incidence of Mental Disorders
Pros and Cons
Stress and co-morbidity
Section 2 anxiety disorders
Identify the beh patterns that psychologists label as anxiety disorders.
You have probably had the experience of being lost in a daydream or failing to notice your friend calling your name.
This is a normal dissociative experience.
A dissociative disorder involves a much greater breakdown in a person’s normal conscious experience.
Def- a disorder in which a person experiences alterations in memory, identity, or consiousness.
While we hear a lot about amnesia and multiple personalities it is very rare.
Memory loss with no biological explanation is called dissociative amnesia
May be an attempt to escape from problems by blocking them out completely.
Amnesiacs remember how to speak and usually retain a good base of general knowledge, but they may not know who they are, where they work or live, and who their family is.
Must be distinguished from physical injury, normal forgetting, or drug abuse.
Most often the result traumatic event, such as witnessing a terrible accident.
Text to self (where the student will make a connection to their personal life
Text to text (connection to another text or article we have already read/discussed.
Text to world (connection based on the students knowledge of the world)
Another type of dissociative reaction.
Amnesia is coupled with an active flight to a different environment.
Exp- woman may suddenly disappear and wake up 3 days later in a restaurant 200 miles from home. If she is not treated she may establish a new identity-assume a new name, marry, etc- in the new place.
Fugues can last for days to decades
When the person comes out of the fugue-what happened in the interim will be forever lost
Fugue= traveling amnesia
Serves the same psyc function- escape from unbearable conflict or anxiety
Dissociative identity disorder
Previously known as multiple personality disorder
Seems to have 2 or more distinct identities-each with own way of thinking and behaving
Some psyc believe that this dividing up of the personality is the result of the individual’s effort to escape from a part of the self that he/she fears.
The three faces of eve
Eve’s real name was Chris Sizemore
She published a book in 1977- “I’m Eve”
Often confused with the case of Sybil, 16 personalities, described in book and film
Fascinating, extremely rare and controversial
People suffering from this disorder usually suffered from severe physical, psychological, or sexual abuse during childhood.
These individuals learn to dissociate themselves from such stressful events by selectively forgetting them, thereby reducing the anxiety they feel.
The Three Faces of Eve – 1957
How many personalities did Eve have? Who are they? How are they different?
Why do you think Eve White was so passive?
Was there anything that triggered the onset of her disorder?
Do you think the revelation at the end of the movie was really a cure?
How does the case of DID shown in the Three faces of Eve compare to the description of the disorder on page 516-517 in your text.
Quick quiz Section 3
1 Define and describe 3 dissociative disorders. Explain how these disorders differ from one another.
2 What is the difference between conversion disorder and hypochondriasis?
3 Besides anxiety, how might you realize that you are suffering from a somatoform or dissociative disorder?
Section 4 Schizophrenia and mood disorders
Section 5 personality disorders and drug addictions
Daily vocabulary preview- Schizophrenia
Write 6 sentence reaction
Read a day in the life on page 409.
What is most important? Nature or nurture?
How does a disorder like schizophrenia affect the family and friends of those with the disorder?
Phobia of the day
Schizophrenia and mood disorders
Describe the disorder of schizophrenia
Evaluate the theories associated with the causes of schizophrenia
Synthesize and make generalizations about the role of nature and nurture in the development of schizophrenia
Describe several theories that try to explain mood disorders
Split between emotion and cognition
A woman was delighted to receive a letter from her son abroad, but distraught when she read it:
“Dear Mother…I am writing on paper. The pen I am using is from a factory called Perry and Co. The factory is in England. The city of London is in England. I know this from my school days. Then I always liked geography. My last teacher in that subject was Professor August. He was a man with black eyes. There are also blue and grey eyes and other sorts too. I have heard it said that snakes have green eyes. All people have eyes. There are some, too, who are blind.”
The man who wrote the letter was diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Sufferers of schiz.
Often have difficulty using language to communicate.
Random word association.
Schiz. affects working memory, which is used to form sentences.
May not remember the beginning of a sentence and finish it with an unrelated thought.
Schiz. is often misunderstood
An individual with schiz, who withdraws from normal life and whose distorted perceptions and beh reach an irrational, fantastic, fear-laden, unimaginable level, does so in a ways that are difficult for us to understand.
Considered the most complex and severe psychiatric problem-making progress
Schizophrenia- a group of disorders characterized by confused and disconnected thoughts, emotions, and perceptions.
Affects 1/100 worldwide
family connection- 1/10 if in the family
One expert noted that someone with depression or severe anxiety problems dreams in an unreal way about life, while a person with schiz. lives life as an unreal dream.
Not a single problem- not single cause or cure.
Collection of symptoms
Psychiatrist interviews a patient admitted to hospital
Indiv demonstrates a wide assortment of symptoms
He is intensely excited, expresses extreme hostility toward members of his family, and at the same time claims that he loves them, showing conflicting feelings.
One minute he is extremely aggressive, questioning his psychiatrist’s motives and even threatening her.
The next minute he withdraws and acts as though he cannot hear anything she says.
He then begins talking again. “naturally,” he says, “I am growing my father’s hair.”
Although all of the person’s other beh indicates psyc problems, this last statement is the diagnostic bellringer
It explains that the man is living in a private, disordered reality.
Many people with schiz exp….
Delusions-false beliefs that a person maintains in the face of contradictory evidence
Hallucinations-perceptions that have no direct external cause
Other associated symptoms…
Incoherence- marked decline in thought processes (speed up language or word salad)
Disturbance of affect- emotions that are inappropriate for the circumstances
Severe deterioration in normal movement-slowed mvmt, non-mvmt, or agitated beh
Decline in previous levels of functioning-drop-off in work productivity
Diverted attention- cognitive flooding, as if the person is unable to focus his or her attention
Types of schizophrenia
Delusions of grandeur-“I am the savior of my ppl”
Persecution- “someone is always watching me”
Remain motionless for long periods, exhibiting waxy flexibility in which limbs in unusual positions may take a long time to return to a resting, relaxed position-like a melting wax statue
Incoherent thought and speech
Giggling for no apparent reason
Disorganized motor beh
Diagnostic label applied to anyone whose symptoms are completely gone or still exist, but are not severe enough to have earned a diagnosis of schiz in the first place
The expectation is that the symptoms will return, so the disorder is considered in remission.
It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between types of schiz bc some symptoms are shared by all types
Encompasses basic symptoms of schiz, such as deterioration of daily functioning, hallucinations, delusions, inappropriate emotions, and thought disorders.
Very complex condition
Treatment is long term and usually requires hospitalization
Long term institutionalization sometimes leads to a patient who is burned out-one who is unlikely to function normally in society.
Schiz may go into remission, symptoms disappear and person seems normal, but according to the DSM adjustment tends to deteriorate between successive episodes of the reappearance of the symptoms.
Although no recovery is possible, no real cure exists, and once an individual is diagnosed with it, he may never escape from it.
traumatic experience plays a role to the development of this mental illness.
Several studies have shown that the quality of maternal –child relationship to be a predictor of risk of later schizophrenia.
Others also claims that certain types of experience, for example bullying, victimization, racism and alienation from mainstream culture, increase the probability of psychosis.
Causes of schizophrenia
Brain needs right amount of chemicals.
Chemical imbalance leads to psychosis
Born w nervous system that get easily aroused and takes a long time to return to normal state
Dopamine hypothesis-excess dopamine
Correlational studies-chicken or the egg
Some argue that symptoms of schiz may even be caused by the fact that schiz live in hospitals, where they get little exercise, eat inst. food, and usually given tranquilizers.
Living under such conditions, anyone might develop a chemical imbalance
Is it NATURE or NURTURE?
CAT and MRI scans show deteriorated brain tissue
The exact role of env is unclear, but is definitely involved
Diathesis-stress hypothesis states that an
individual may have inherited a disposition
toward schiz. for schiz to develop, that
person must be exposed to certain stressors, such as bad family experiences, before schiz will develop
Explaining the cause of schiz is one of the hardest problems psyc’s face
… “twin studies have helped lead scientists to a radical new conclusion: that nature and nurture are not the only elemental forces at work.
… “twin studies have helped lead scientists to a radical new conclusion: that nature and nurture are not the only elemental forces at work.
According to a recent field called epigenetics, there is a third factor also in play, one that in some cases serves as a bridge between the environment and our genes, and in others operates on its own to shape who we are.”
Def- disorder in which individuals alternates between feelings of mania (euphoria) and depression
Elation, extreme confusion, distractibility, and racing thoughts.
Exaggerated sense of self esteem and engages in irresponsible beh- shopping sprees or insulting remarks
On admission she slapped the nurse, addressed the house physician as God, made the sign of the cross, and laughed loudly when she was asked to don the hospital garb. This she promptly tore to shreds….She sang at the top of her voice, screamed through the window, and leered at the patients promenading the recreation yard.
Often this state is hard to detect-bc they may seem in touch with reality and blessed with an unending sense of optimism
May beh as though they need less sleep
Activity level increases
Loudness and frequency of speech increases
Overcome by feeling of failure, sinfulness, despair, and worthlessness.
Lethargy, despair, unresponsiveness
Sim to major depressive disorder
The patient lay in bed, immobile, with a dull depressed expression on his face. Even when spoken to, he did not respond to questions, but sometimes, apparently after great effort he would mumble something about the “scourge of God”
Sometimes will alternate between phases followed by long periods of relatively normal beh
Others almost no normal beh
Manic, depressive, manic, depressive, manic, dep
Some hyp that manic period is an attempt to ward off the underlying hopelessness of the dep episode
Others believe mania can be traced to the same biochemical disorder responsible for the depression
Seasonal affective disorder
Dull grays and browns of winter
Throughout winter, suffer from depression, spirits lift only with the coming spring.
Tend to sleep and eat excessively during depressed period.
Research proposed role of melatonin
In winter less light is available-so more melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland.
Higher level= SAD
Occurs only in some
Many SAD sufferers can be treated by sitting under bright florescent lights during the evening or early morning hours.
Recall the last time you failed or did not do something well. What kind of explanation did you offer for your failure? Was this optimistic or pessimistic?
Explaining mood disorders
Personality traits (self- esteem)
Ability to deal with stressful situations
Ppl draw illogical conclusions from about themselves
Blame themselves for normal problems
Consider minor failures a catastrophe
Serotonin and noradrenaline
Interaction between social and biological factors
Women are 2x as likely to experience major depression
Men distract themselves
Suicide and depression
Not all people who commit suicide are depressed
Not all depressed people commit suicide
Some dep take thoughts into actions
Stats show that every year more than 30,000 Americans end their lives
Contrary to popular belief people who threaten or make an unsuccessful attempt usually are serious.
70% of ppl who kill themselves had made threat within 3 months prior & unsuccessful attempt is often a trial run
What should you do
Treat him like a normal human being (meanwhile contact a professional or teacher)
Do not assume that you will upset him-just talk to him
Do not be afraid to ask him about his thoughts (even suicidal ones)
Listen to him- he might be relieved to have someone listen
Urge to get professional help
Define schiz and list 5 symptoms of the disorder
What is the diathesis-stress hypothesis? How does this explain the development of schiz?
Create a graphic organizer similar to the one below to identify the different types of schizophrenia and a few symptoms of each
Section 5 Personality Disorders and drug addiction
Describe how personality disorders differ from other psychological disorders.
Explain how drug abuse is a psychological problem.
Never experienced emotional events in whole life
Emotions and social rules do not constrain behavior.
Sign of personality disorder- antisocial p.d.
Different from other problems we have discussed.
People with pd generally do not suffer from acute anxiety nor do they behave in bizarre, incomprehensible ways.
Def- maladaptive or inflexible ways of dealing with others and one’s environment
Unable to est meaningful, social relationships, to assume social resp, or to adapt to social env.
Diagnostically ranges from self-defeating personality patterns, painfully shy, lonely types to vain, pushy show-offs.
We will focus on antisocial personality disorder, past referred to as sociopaths or psychopaths
Antisocial PD- def- a personality disorder characterized by irresponsibility, shallow emotions, and a lack of conscience.
Exhibit personal disregard for and violation of others rights.
People are objects-things to be used for gratification and cast aside when no longer useful.
Intolerant of everyday frustrations
Unable to plan, save, or wait-live for the moment
No shame or guilt if ppl are injured or social rules broken along way
Getting caught=no change
Often get away with destructive beh
Able to feign emotions they do not feel
Fantastic liars- or able to insist that intention were pure
Defrauded ppl out of thousands of dollars in 64 different swindles.
He replied, “He never took more than the person could afford to lose, and further, he was only reducing the chances that a more dangerous criminal would use force to achieve the same ends.”
Imitating antisocial parents
Lack of discipline, or inconsistent/other childhood problems
Dysfunction of the nervous system
Still researching the rel bw genes and antisocial beh
3-4% in America, Canada, Australia
While most of us get nervous when we do something that we have been punished for in the past, those with antisocial pd never seem to learn to anticipate punishment, and remain calm when committing antisocial acts.
Displays pattern of submissiveness and excessive need to be taken care of
Displays excessive emotions and attn seeking beh.
Has intense interest in being orderly, having control, achieving perfection
Distrusts others; perceives others as having evil motives
Feels intense discomfort in close relationships; has distorted thinking and eccentric behavior