Abnormal Psychology

Download 55.51 Kb.
Size55.51 Kb.

Abnormal Psychology

  • A “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be disturbing, atypical, maladaptive and unjustifiable.

Historical Perspective

  • Perceived Causes
    • movements of sun or moon
      • lunacy--full moon
    • evil spirits
  • Ancient Treatments
    • exorcism, caged like animals, beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, blood replaced with animal’s blood

Early Theories

  • Abnormal behavior was evil spirits trying to get out.
  • Trephining was often used.

Early Theories

  • trephening:
  • Cutting a hole in the head of the afflicted to let out the evil spirit.

Early Theories

  • Another theory was to make the body extremely uncomfortable

Philippe Pinel early hospitals

  • French doctor who was the first to take the chains off and declare that these people are sick and “a cure must be found!!!”

History of Mental Disorders

  • In the 1800’s, disturbed people were no longer thought of as madmen, but as mentally ill.
  • Did this mean better treatment?
  • They were first put in hospitals.

Early Mental Hospitals

  • They were nothing more than barbaric prisons.
  • The patients were chained and locked away.
  • Some hospitals even charged admission for the public to see the “crazies”, just like a zoo.
  • Since everyone is different, meaning no one is alike, then we are the same, thus we are all normal.

DSM-5 http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/classification-and-diagnosis.html

  • Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: the big book of disorders.
  • DSM will classify disorders and describe the symptoms.
  • DSM will NOT explain the causes or possible cures.

Partner Bellringer (only the person beside you: write out answer and put both names on paper)

  • Lets say you are a psychologist…..and a new patient comes to see you.
  • What background info would best help you make a diagnosis?
  • List as many as you can.

Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention

  • Relational Problems
  • Abuse and Neglect (incl. child physical abuse, child sexual abuse, child psychological abuse and child neglect as well as adult maltreatment, spousal (partner) abuse and non-spousal (partner) abuse)
  • Educational and Occupational Problems
  • Housing and Economic Problems
  • Other Problems Related to Social Environment
  • Problems Related to Crime or the Legal System
  • Other Health Service Encounters for Counseling and Medical Advice
  • Problems Related to Other Psychosocial, Personal and Environmental Circumstances
  • Other Circumstances of Personal History

Current Perspectives

  • Medical Perspective: psychological disorders are sicknesses and can be diagnosed, treated and cured.
  • Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective: assumes biological, psychological and sociocultural factors combine to interact causing psychological disorders.
  • The Biopsychosocial Approach to Psychological Disorders
  • The Biopsychosocial Approach to Psychological Disorders
  • The Biopsychosocial Approach to Psychological Disorders
  • The Biopsychosocial Approach to Psychological Disorders



Perspectives and Disorders

  • Psychological School/Perspective
  • Cause of the Disorder
  • Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic
  • Internal, unconscious drives
  • Humanistic
  • Failure to strive to one’s potential or being out of touch with one’s feelings.
  • Behavioral
  • Reinforcement history, the environment.
  • Cognitive
  • Irrational, dysfunctional thoughts or ways of thinking.
  • Sociocultural
  • Dysfunctional Society
  • Biomedical/Neuroscience
  • Organic problems, biochemical imbalances, genetic predispositions.

Ways of Defining “Abnormal”

  • Subjective Discomfort: Feelings of anxiety, depression, or emotional distress. But people we would consider definitely abnormal may not feel subjective discomfort.
  • Social Nonconformity: Disobeying societal standards for normal conduct; usually leads to destructive or self-destructive behavior. But it doesn’t always. Is being a nonconformist always a disorder? 1984!
  • Statistical Abnormality: Having extreme scores on some dimension, such as intelligence, anxiety, or depression. But having a numerically rare characteristic isn’t always a disorder (e.g., having an IQ of 180)

Three Criteria for Abnormality

  • Maladaptive Behavior: Behavior that makes it difficult to function, to adapt to the environment, and to meet everyday demands
  • Significant impairment in psychological functioning: Those with mental illness lose the ability to control thoughts, behaviors, or feelings adequately
  • Atypical behavior: behavior that is not typical of the majority of the population

Some DSM-IV Categories

  • Mood Disorders
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Somatoform Disorders
  • Factitious Disorders
  • Dissociative Disorders
  • Sexual & Gender Identity Disorders
  • Eating Disorders
  • Sleep Disorders
  • Adjustment Disorders
  • Personality Disorders
  • Disorders First Diagnosed in Childhood
  • Organic Mental Disorders
  • Substance Related Disorders
  • Schizoprenia Disorders
  • Paranoid Disorders
  • Impulse Control Disorders

DSM-IV definition of mental disorder

  • A mental disorder is “conceptualized as a clinically significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress or disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom.”


  • Description of the disorder
  • History of the disorder (how discovered)
  • Treatment
  • Prevalence in population
  • Outlook (living with the disorder)

Incidence of Mental Disorders

  • Pros and Cons
    • Labels
    • Treatment methods
    • Stress and co-morbidity

Section 2 anxiety disorders

  • Objectives
  • Identify the beh patterns that psychologists label as anxiety disorders.
  • Explain what causes anxiety disorders.
  • 4 words
  • Anxiety
  • Phobia
  • Panic disorder
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder

Anxiety Disorders http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/anxiety-disorders.html

  • a group of conditions where the primary symptoms are anxiety or defenses against anxiety.
  • the patient fears something awful will happen to them.
  • They are in a state of intense apprehension, uneasiness, uncertainty, or fear.
  • Brain area??(a-------)

Normal or not

  • Afraid of animals
  • If you are walking down the street and a large dog runs at you barking, it is perfectly normal to be afraid.
  • If you get anxious if a dog appears on the TV, then that is a disorder
  • Speech
  • If a student gets up to give a speech in class and finds that his hands are trembling and his throat is dry, that is normal anxiety.
  • If the student runs out of the room crying when called on to speak or faints while giving a speech, that is not normal.
  • Anxiety-def
  • Out of proportion to the situation and interferes with normal functioning
  • Anxiety disorders are the most common type of mental illness in the US – 19 million Am. annually

Generalized anxiety disorders

  • Anxiety- a vague, generalized apprehension or feeling that one is in danger.
  • This can blossom into a full fledged panic attack, which includes chocking sensation, chest pain, dizziness, trembling, and hot flashes.
  • How is this different from fear?
  • Fear is a reaction to the real and identifiable threats, anxiety is a reaction to vague or imagined dangers

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

  • An anxiety disorder in which a person is continuously tense, apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
  • The patient is constantly tense and worried, feels inadequate, is oversensitive, can’t concentrate and suffers from insomnia.
  • Some people experience a continuous generalized anxiety.
  • Unable to make decision, enjoy life, establish social relationships, overall they have difficulty fulfilling responsibilities, which adds to their anxiety.
  • Vicious cycle
    • Worrydifficulty
    • difficulty worry

Generalized anxiety

  • Generally acc. by physical symptoms
  • Muscular tension
  • Inability to relax
  • furrowed brow
  • Strained face
  • Poor appetite
  • Indigestion
  • Diarrhea
  • Frequent urination
  • May also have
    • Difficulty sleeping or once asleep, may wake up suddenly in the night.
    • As a result they may feel tired in the morning.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Sheldon has OCD

  • Persistent unwanted thoughts (obsessions) cause someone to feel the need (compulsion) to engage in a particular action.
  • compulsion
  • Obsession about dirt and germs may lead to compulsive hand washing.
  • Why do people develop obsessions and compulsions?
    • Serve as diversions from real fears, so it reduces anxiety somewhat
    • Compulsions provide a disturbed person with evidence that he is doing something well
  • OCD has been found to run in families, so possible genetic basis.
  • Although most people with OCD realize their thoughts and actions are irrational, they feel unable to stop them.
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dSZNnz9SM4g
  • Howie Mandel and OCD
  • "Hand rails are my enemy" says "Deal or No Deal" host of obsessive cleanliness

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder a.k.a. PTSD

  • Flashbacks or nightmares following a person’s involvement in or observation of an extremely stressful event.
  • Memories of the event cause anxiety.
  • The event that triggers the disorder overwhelms a person’s sense of reality and the ability to cope.
  • Can begin immediately or develop later
  • Flashbacks or nightmares
    • Re-experience the event
  • Feelings of guilt or insomnia
  • Nazi conc camp survivors and soldiers returning from war may display symptoms for decades.
  • Veterans of military combat
  • Survivors of terrorisms, or natural disasters
  • Catastrophes such as plane crashes
  • Human aggression- rape and assault
  • Not everyone who exp a traumatic event develops PTSD
  • Greater the exp= more likely to develop
  • http://www.aolnews.com/2010/09/10/9-11-in-photos-a-nation-remembers/

Quick quiz

  • 1 explain how excessive anxiety may lead to phobias or panic disorders
  • 2 list 5 symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder
  • 3 what is anxiety? When is it normal? When is it abnormal?
  • 4 how would you differentiate between someone who is a perfectionist and someone who is suffering from OCD.

Anxiety Disorders

  • Separation Anxiety Disorder
  • Selective Mutism
  • Specific Phobia
  • Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)
  • Panic Disorder
  • Panic Attack Specifier
  • Agoraphobia (characterized by anxiety in situations where the sufferer perceives certain environments as dangerous or uncomfortable, often due to the environment's vast openness or crowdedness)
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • Substance/Medication-Induced Anxiety Disorder
  • Anxiety Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition
  • Other Specified Anxiety Disorder
  • Unspecified Anxiety Disorder


  • A person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread.
  • Must be an irrational fear.
  • Phobia List
  • agoraphobia
  • Specific phobia-can focus on anything such as high places (acrophobia), enclosed spaces (claustrophobia), and darkness (nyctophobia)
  • Social phobias- victim will fear that they will embarrass themselves in a public place or social setting. (public speaking, using public restroom, meeting strangers, and going on a first date)
  • Phobic individuals develop elaborate plans to avoid the situations they fear. Some people develop an extreme fear of being in a public place (agoraphobia)
    • May stop going to specific places, and ultimately never leave their homes, bc it is the only place they feel safe.
  • Phobias range in intensity from mild to severe
    • Most deal with the phobias by avoiding what frightens them.
    • Thus the phobias are learned and maintained by the reinforcing effects of avoidance, which reduces the anxiety, but not the phobia.
    • Treatment involves introducing what they fear under safe conditions.

Most common fears

  • Survey
  • Poll at least 20 people, students and adults
  • Greatest specific fear-object
  • Tally all of your responses.

Panic Disorder

  • An anxiety disorder marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking and other frightening sensations.

Section 3

  • Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders


  • Identify the beh patterns that psyc’s label as somatoform disorders
  • Describe the symptoms of dissociative disorders.

Why can’t the prince walk

  • There is an ancient Persian legend about a physician named Rhazes who was called into the palace for the purpose of diagnosing and treating the young prince.
  • Apparently the prince could not walk.
  • After the usual examination of the day, Rhazes determined there was nothing wrong with the prince’s legs, at least not physically.
  • With little more than a hunch, Rhazes set out to treat what may be the first recorded case of conversion. In doing so, he took a risk:
  • Rhazes unexpectedly walked into the prince’s bathroom brandishing a dagger and threatened to kill him.
  • Upon seeing him, “the startled prince abruptly fled, leaving his clothes, his dignity, and his symptoms behind.
  • The prince from the story suffered from somatoform disorder.
  • These are characterized by physical symptoms brought on by psychological distress.
  • Challenge patients, attempting to force them out of the symptoms.
  • The prince did not fake the symptoms.

Somatoform disorders

  • Anxiety can create a wide variety of physical symptoms- no apparent physical cause
  • This phenomenon is called somatoform disorder, or hysteria.
    • Hysteria was more commonly used during Freud’s time to refer to unexplainable fainting, paralysis, or deafness.
  • 2 main types
    • Conversion disorder
    • Illness Anxiety Disorder

Conversion disorder

  • Def- changing emotional difficulties into a loss of specific voluntary bodily function
  • Loss of function is real, no physical damage
  • Many people occasionally experience mild conversion disorder……
  • Such as when someone is so frightened that he cannot move
  • But conversion disorder is not this simple. It persists.
  • Real and prolonged handicap
    • literally cannot feel anything….
  • For example you wake up one morning to find you are paralyzed from the waist down.
  • How would you react?
  • This person reacts with La belle indifférence
  • “nice calmness”
  • This calmness is one sign that the person is suffering from a psychological disorder
  • Most psychologists believe that people suffering from conversion disorders unconsciously invent physical symptoms to gain freedom from unbearable conflict.
  • For example, a woman who lives in terror of blurting out things she does not want to say may lose the power of speech.
  • This resolves the conflict about speaking.
  • Conversion disorders are comparatively rare.

Illness Anxiety Disorder (Used to be termed Hypochondriasis)

  • Conversion disorders must be distinguished from hypochondriasis, in which a person who is in good health becomes preoccupied with imaginary ailments.
  • The hypochondriac spends a lot of time looking for signs and symptoms of serious illness and often misinterprets minor aches, pains, bruises, or bumps as early signs of fatal illness.
  • Despite negative results in medical tests and physical evaluations, the hyp continues to believe the disease or malfunction exists.
  • Usually presents during young adulthood
  • Equally common in men and women

Dissociative disorders

  • You have probably had the experience of being lost in a daydream or failing to notice your friend calling your name.
  • This is a normal dissociative experience.
  • A dissociative disorder involves a much greater breakdown in a person’s normal conscious experience.
  • Def- a disorder in which a person experiences alterations in memory, identity, or consiousness.
  • While we hear a lot about amnesia and multiple personalities it is very rare.

Dissociative amnesia

  • Memory loss with no biological explanation is called dissociative amnesia
  • May be an attempt to escape from problems by blocking them out completely.
  • Amnesiacs remember how to speak and usually retain a good base of general knowledge, but they may not know who they are, where they work or live, and who their family is.
  • Must be distinguished from physical injury, normal forgetting, or drug abuse.
  • Most often the result traumatic event, such as witnessing a terrible accident.
      • Text to self (where the student will make a connection to their personal life
      • Text to text (connection to another text or article we have already read/discussed.
      • Text to world (connection based on the students knowledge of the world)

Dissociative fugue

  • Another type of dissociative reaction.
  • Amnesia is coupled with an active flight to a different environment.
    • Exp- woman may suddenly disappear and wake up 3 days later in a restaurant 200 miles from home. If she is not treated she may establish a new identity-assume a new name, marry, etc- in the new place.
  • Fugues can last for days to decades
  • When the person comes out of the fugue-what happened in the interim will be forever lost
  • Fugue= traveling amnesia
  • Serves the same psyc function- escape from unbearable conflict or anxiety

Dissociative identity disorder

  • Previously known as multiple personality disorder
  • Seems to have 2 or more distinct identities-each with own way of thinking and behaving
  • Eve White
  • Some psyc believe that this dividing up of the personality is the result of the individual’s effort to escape from a part of the self that he/she fears.
  • Extremely rare!

The three faces of eve

  • Eve’s real name was Chris Sizemore
  • She published a book in 1977- “I’m Eve”
  • 22 personalities
    • Often confused with the case of Sybil, 16 personalities, described in book and film
  • Fascinating, extremely rare and controversial
  • People suffering from this disorder usually suffered from severe physical, psychological, or sexual abuse during childhood.
  • These individuals learn to dissociate themselves from such stressful events by selectively forgetting them, thereby reducing the anxiety they feel.
  • The Three Faces of Eve – 1957
  • How many personalities did Eve have? Who are they? How are they different?
  •  Why do you think Eve White was so passive?
  •  Was there anything that triggered the onset of her disorder?
  •  Do you think the revelation at the end of the movie was really a cure?
  • How does the case of DID shown in the Three faces of Eve compare to the description of the disorder on page 516-517 in your text.

Quick quiz

Quick quiz Section 3

  • 1 Define and describe 3 dissociative disorders. Explain how these disorders differ from one another.
  • 2 What is the difference between conversion disorder and hypochondriasis?
  • 3 Besides anxiety, how might you realize that you are suffering from a somatoform or dissociative disorder?
  • Section 4 Schizophrenia and mood disorders
  • Section 5 personality disorders and drug addictions


    • Daily vocabulary preview- Schizophrenia
    • Write 6 sentence reaction
    • Read a day in the life on page 409.
      • What is most important? Nature or nurture?
      • How does a disorder like schizophrenia affect the family and friends of those with the disorder?
    • Phobia of the day

Section 4

  • Schizophrenia and mood disorders


  • Describe the disorder of schizophrenia
  • Evaluate the theories associated with the causes of schizophrenia
  • Synthesize and make generalizations about the role of nature and nurture in the development of schizophrenia
  • Describe several theories that try to explain mood disorders


  • Euglen Blueler
  • 1908
  • “Schizein”
  • “Phren”
  • Split between emotion and cognition

Word salad

  • A woman was delighted to receive a letter from her son abroad, but distraught when she read it:
  • “Dear Mother…I am writing on paper. The pen I am using is from a factory called Perry and Co. The factory is in England. The city of London is in England. I know this from my school days. Then I always liked geography. My last teacher in that subject was Professor August. He was a man with black eyes. There are also blue and grey eyes and other sorts too. I have heard it said that snakes have green eyes. All people have eyes. There are some, too, who are blind.”
  • The man who wrote the letter was diagnosed with schizophrenia.
  • Sufferers of schiz.
    • Often have difficulty using language to communicate.
    • Random word association.
    • Schiz. affects working memory, which is used to form sentences.
    • May not remember the beginning of a sentence and finish it with an unrelated thought.

Schiz. is often misunderstood

  • Depression/anxiety
  • An individual with schiz, who withdraws from normal life and whose distorted perceptions and beh reach an irrational, fantastic, fear-laden, unimaginable level, does so in a ways that are difficult for us to understand.
  • Considered the most complex and severe psychiatric problem-making progress
  • Schizophrenia- a group of disorders characterized by confused and disconnected thoughts, emotions, and perceptions.
  • Affects 1/100 worldwide
    • family connection- 1/10 if in the family
  • One expert noted that someone with depression or severe anxiety problems dreams in an unreal way about life, while a person with schiz. lives life as an unreal dream.
  • Not a single problem- not single cause or cure.
  • Collection of symptoms


  • Psychiatrist interviews a patient admitted to hospital
  • Indiv demonstrates a wide assortment of symptoms
    • He is intensely excited, expresses extreme hostility toward members of his family, and at the same time claims that he loves them, showing conflicting feelings.
    • One minute he is extremely aggressive, questioning his psychiatrist’s motives and even threatening her.
    • The next minute he withdraws and acts as though he cannot hear anything she says.
    • He then begins talking again. “naturally,” he says, “I am growing my father’s hair.”
  • Although all of the person’s other beh indicates psyc problems, this last statement is the diagnostic bellringer
  • Why?
  • It explains that the man is living in a private, disordered reality.
  • Many people with schiz exp….
  • Delusions-false beliefs that a person maintains in the face of contradictory evidence
  • Hallucinations-perceptions that have no direct external cause
    • primarily auditory

Other associated symptoms…

  • Incoherence- marked decline in thought processes (speed up language or word salad)
  • Disturbance of affect- emotions that are inappropriate for the circumstances
  • Severe deterioration in normal movement-slowed mvmt, non-mvmt, or agitated beh
  • Decline in previous levels of functioning-drop-off in work productivity
  • Diverted attention- cognitive flooding, as if the person is unable to focus his or her attention
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qb8wQjwVu2g

Types of schizophrenia

  • Paranoid schiz-
    • Hallucinations
    • Delusions of grandeur-“I am the savior of my ppl”
      • Or
    • Persecution- “someone is always watching me”
    • Michael Jackson

Catatonic type

    • Remain motionless for long periods, exhibiting waxy flexibility in which limbs in unusual positions may take a long time to return to a resting, relaxed position-like a melting wax statue

Disorganized type

    • Incoherent thought and speech
      • Inappropriate emotions
      • Giggling for no apparent reason
      • Disorganized motor beh
      • Hallucinations
      • Delusions

Remission type

    • Diagnostic label applied to anyone whose symptoms are completely gone or still exist, but are not severe enough to have earned a diagnosis of schiz in the first place
    • The expectation is that the symptoms will return, so the disorder is considered in remission.
  • It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between types of schiz bc some symptoms are shared by all types
  • Undifferentiated type
    • Encompasses basic symptoms of schiz, such as deterioration of daily functioning, hallucinations, delusions, inappropriate emotions, and thought disorders.


  • Very complex condition
  • Treatment is long term and usually requires hospitalization
    • Long term institutionalization sometimes leads to a patient who is burned out-one who is unlikely to function normally in society.
  • Schiz may go into remission, symptoms disappear and person seems normal, but according to the DSM adjustment tends to deteriorate between successive episodes of the reappearance of the symptoms.
  • Although no recovery is possible, no real cure exists, and once an individual is diagnosed with it, he may never escape from it.
  • Lifetime Prevalence

Causes of Schizophrenia


  • The Risks of Getting Schizophrenia

Genain Quadruplets

  • Living case
    • traumatic experience plays a role to the development of this mental illness.
  • Several studies have shown that the quality of maternal –child relationship to be a predictor of risk of later schizophrenia.
  • Others also claims that certain types of experience, for example bullying, victimization, racism and alienation from mainstream culture, increase the probability of psychosis.
  • Pathogenic
  • families

Causes of schizophrenia

  • Brain needs right amount of chemicals.
    • Chemical imbalance leads to psychosis
    • Born w nervous system that get easily aroused and takes a long time to return to normal state
    • Autism?
    • Dopamine hypothesis-excess dopamine
      • Correlational studies-chicken or the egg
    • Some argue that symptoms of schiz may even be caused by the fact that schiz live in hospitals, where they get little exercise, eat inst. food, and usually given tranquilizers.
  • Living under such conditions, anyone might develop a chemical imbalance


  • CAT and MRI scans show deteriorated brain tissue
  • The exact role of env is unclear, but is definitely involved
  • Diathesis-stress hypothesis states that an
  • individual may have inherited a disposition
  • toward schiz. for schiz to develop, that
  • person must be exposed to certain stressors, such as bad family experiences, before schiz will develop
  • Epigenetics
  • Explaining the cause of schiz is one of the hardest problems psyc’s face

… “twin studies have helped lead scientists to a radical new conclusion: that nature and nurture are not the only elemental forces at work.

  • … “twin studies have helped lead scientists to a radical new conclusion: that nature and nurture are not the only elemental forces at work.
  • According to a recent field called epigenetics, there is a third factor also in play, one that in some cases serves as a bridge between the environment and our genes, and in others operates on its own to shape who we are.”
  • http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2012/01/twins/schoeller-photography#/1

Short essay

  • A close friend has confided in you that his/her brother has been diagnosed with schizophrenia.
  • Create case study
  • Describe the disorder
    • including possible causes, to alleviate the guilt being felt by the friend’s family over the disorder.

Mood disorders

  • Mood swings common
  • Various emotions
  • depression

Major depressive disorder

  • Def- severe form of lowered mood in which a person experiences feeling of worthlessness and diminished pleasure or interest in many activities.
  • 2 weeks
  • Dep can range from mild feelings of uneasiness, sadness, and apathy to intense suicidal despair.
  • To be diagnosed with depression, the feeling cannot be attributed to bereavement.


  • 4 symptoms
  • Problems eating, sleeping, thinking, concentrating, or decision making
  • Lacking energy
  • Thinking about suicide
  • Feeling worthless or guilty
  • http://www.webmd.com/depression/depression-symptom-quiz



  • Understanding Depressive Disorders
  • Explanatory Style
  • Understanding Depressive Disorders Explanatory Style
  • Understanding Depressive Disorders Explanatory Style
  • Understanding Depressive Disorders Explanatory Style
  • Understanding Depressive Disorders Explanatory Style
  • Understanding Depressive Disorders Explanatory Style
  • Understanding Depressive Disorders Explanatory Style
  • Understanding Depressive Disorders Explanatory Style
  • Understanding Depressive Disorders Explanatory Style

Bipolar disorder

  • Def- disorder in which individuals alternates between feelings of mania (euphoria) and depression

Manic phase

  • Elation, extreme confusion, distractibility, and racing thoughts.
  • Exaggerated sense of self esteem and engages in irresponsible beh- shopping sprees or insulting remarks
  • Example-
  • On admission she slapped the nurse, addressed the house physician as God, made the sign of the cross, and laughed loudly when she was asked to don the hospital garb. This she promptly tore to shreds….She sang at the top of her voice, screamed through the window, and leered at the patients promenading the recreation yard.

Manic phase

  • Often this state is hard to detect-bc they may seem in touch with reality and blessed with an unending sense of optimism
  • May beh as though they need less sleep
  • Activity level increases
  • Loudness and frequency of speech increases

Depressive phase

  • Overcome by feeling of failure, sinfulness, despair, and worthlessness.
  • Contrast
  • Lethargy, despair, unresponsiveness
  • Sim to major depressive disorder
  • Example
  • The patient lay in bed, immobile, with a dull depressed expression on his face. Even when spoken to, he did not respond to questions, but sometimes, apparently after great effort he would mumble something about the “scourge of God”
  • Sometimes will alternate between phases followed by long periods of relatively normal beh
  • Others almost no normal beh
  • Manic, depressive, manic, depressive, manic, dep
  • Some hyp that manic period is an attempt to ward off the underlying hopelessness of the dep episode
  • Others believe mania can be traced to the same biochemical disorder responsible for the depression


  • Seasonal affective disorder
  • Dull grays and browns of winter
  • Throughout winter, suffer from depression, spirits lift only with the coming spring.
  • Tend to sleep and eat excessively during depressed period.


  • Research proposed role of melatonin
  • In winter less light is available-so more melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland.
  • Higher level= SAD
  • Occurs only in some
  • TRXT?
  • Many SAD sufferers can be treated by sitting under bright florescent lights during the evening or early morning hours.

Quick question

  • Recall the last time you failed or did not do something well. What kind of explanation did you offer for your failure? Was this optimistic or pessimistic?

Explaining mood disorders

  • Personality traits (self- esteem)
  • Social support
  • Ability to deal with stressful situations
  • Cognitive theory
    • Ppl draw illogical conclusions from about themselves
    • Blame themselves for normal problems
    • Consider minor failures a catastrophe
  • Learned helplessness
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Serotonin and noradrenaline
  • Interaction between social and biological factors
  • Women are 2x as likely to experience major depression
  • Why?
  • Postpartum depression
  • More report
  • Men distract themselves

Suicide and depression

  • Not all people who commit suicide are depressed
  • Not all depressed people commit suicide
  • Some dep take thoughts into actions
  • Stats show that every year more than 30,000 Americans end their lives
  • About 1 ever 20 min
  • More women attempt, but more men succeed
  • Elderly is most common
  • 2nd- college students
  • Contrary to popular belief people who threaten or make an unsuccessful attempt usually are serious.
  • 70% of ppl who kill themselves had made threat within 3 months prior & unsuccessful attempt is often a trial run

What should you do

  • Treat him like a normal human being (meanwhile contact a professional or teacher)
  • Do not assume that you will upset him-just talk to him
  • Do not be afraid to ask him about his thoughts (even suicidal ones)
  • Listen to him- he might be relieved to have someone listen
  • Urge to get professional help
    • hotlines

Quick Quiz

  • Define schiz and list 5 symptoms of the disorder
  • What is the diathesis-stress hypothesis? How does this explain the development of schiz?
  • Create a graphic organizer similar to the one below to identify the different types of schizophrenia and a few symptoms of each

Section 5 Personality Disorders and drug addiction

  • Describe how personality disorders differ from other psychological disorders.
  • Explain how drug abuse is a psychological problem.

Aimless crime

  • Motive
  • Never experienced emotional events in whole life
  • Emotions and social rules do not constrain behavior.
  • Sign of personality disorder- antisocial p.d.

Personality disorders

  • Different from other problems we have discussed.
  • People with pd generally do not suffer from acute anxiety nor do they behave in bizarre, incomprehensible ways.
  • Def- maladaptive or inflexible ways of dealing with others and one’s environment
  • Unable to est meaningful, social relationships, to assume social resp, or to adapt to social env.
  • Diagnostically ranges from self-defeating personality patterns, painfully shy, lonely types to vain, pushy show-offs.
  • We will focus on antisocial personality disorder, past referred to as sociopaths or psychopaths
  • Antisocial PD- def- a personality disorder characterized by irresponsibility, shallow emotions, and a lack of conscience.
  • Exhibit personal disregard for and violation of others rights.
  • People are objects-things to be used for gratification and cast aside when no longer useful.
  • Intolerant of everyday frustrations
  • Unable to plan, save, or wait-live for the moment
  • Thrill seekers
  • No shame or guilt if ppl are injured or social rules broken along way
  • Getting caught=no change
  • Often get away with destructive beh
  • Intelligent
  • Entertaining
  • Able to feign emotions they do not feel
  • Fantastic liars- or able to insist that intention were pure
  • Hugh Johnson
  • Defrauded ppl out of thousands of dollars in 64 different swindles.
  • He replied, “He never took more than the person could afford to lose, and further, he was only reducing the chances that a more dangerous criminal would use force to achieve the same ends.”


  • Imitating antisocial parents
  • Lack of discipline, or inconsistent/other childhood problems
  • Dysfunction of the nervous system
  • Still researching the rel bw genes and antisocial beh
  • 3-4% in America, Canada, Australia
  • .5% Tiawan
  • While most of us get nervous when we do something that we have been punished for in the past, those with antisocial pd never seem to learn to anticipate punishment, and remain calm when committing antisocial acts.
  • Antisocial
  • Dependent
    • Displays pattern of submissiveness and excessive need to be taken care of
  • Histrionic
    • Displays excessive emotions and attn seeking beh.
  • Obsessive-compulsive
    • Has intense interest in being orderly, having control, achieving perfection
  • Paranoid
    • Distrusts others; perceives others as having evil motives
  • Schizotypal
    • Feels intense discomfort in close relationships; has distorted thinking and eccentric behavior

Personality Disorders http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/personality-disorders.html

  • Well-established, maladaptive ways of behaving that negatively affect people’s ability to function.
  • Dominates their personality.

Antisocial Personality Disorder despite the use of the outdated terminology--

  • Lack of empathy.
  • Little regard for other’s feelings.
  • View the world as hostile and look out for themselves.
  • Lack impulse control,(frontal lobe) take action without thinking about consequences
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oaTfdKYbudk

Histrionic Personality Disorder

  • Needs to be the center of attention.
  • Whether acting silly or dressing provocatively.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PuB_ng5uVaI&list=PL935C8510E8B3A9FA

  • Having an unwarranted sense of self-importance.
  • Thinking that you are the center of the universe.

Drug addiction

  • Psychological dependence
    • Use of a drug to such an extent that a person feels nervous and anxious w/o it
      • Alchohol, caffine, nicotine, cocaine,etc
  • Addiction
    • A pattern of drug abuse char by overwhelming and compulsive desire to obtain and use the drug
    • Body bc used to the drugged state
  • Tolerance
    • Physical adaption to a drug so that a person needs an increased amount in order to produce the original effects.
    • Needs the drug to maintain physical and psyc balance he has left
  • Withdrawal
    • The symptoms that occur after a person discontinues the use of a drug to which he has bc addicted to
    • Nausea, shakes, hallucinations, coma, death


  • Our countries most serious drug problem
  • Research estimates that approx 80 % of high school sr’s have consumed alc at some point in their lives
  • 50% within the last month
  • Down 20% since 1970’s
  • 30% binged in last 2 weeks
  • 3% consume daily
  • A little more than half of all students entering high school have tried alcohol
  • About 40% of the deaths in auto accidents can be traced to alcohol
  • 40% of murders, either killer or victim were using alcohol
  • Cost of human suffering cannot be measured
  • Small doses considered social drug
  • Slows down inhibitions
  • Relaxed, talkative, playful, giggly
  • Often thought to be a stimulant, actually a depressant
  • As # increased psyc and phys functions shut down
  • If enough alcohol accumulates in the body, it leads to unconsciousness, coma, death
  • How much and how rapidly, and tolerance
  • 3 stages of alcoholism
  • 1 indiv discovers that alcohol reduces tensions, gives self-confidence, and reduces social pressures. Drinking makes feel better
  • 2 the beverage bc a drug. The indiv begins to drink so heavily that there is a need to hide the habit. Sneak small drinks. May exp blackouts
  • 3 drinks compulsively. Begins in the morning, bc inefficient at work so drinks more
  • This person is now an alcoholic drinking continuously, eating infrequently, and feeling sick when deprived of her drug. Health deteriorates
  • Alcohol produces psychological dependence, tolerance, and addiction
  • Alcoholism may develop from both env and genetic factors
  • 3-4X more likely to bc alc if there is an alc in family


  • Get through withdrawals (delirium tremens-psychotherapy
  • AA
  • Medications
    • Antabuse
    • Antidepressants

Quick Quiz Section 5

  • How are addiction tolerance and withdrawal related to drug abuse?
  • What are characteristics of someone with antisocial pd
  • How do personality disorders differ from other psychological disorders

The Rosenhan Study Rosenhahn Study

  • Rosenhan’s associates were Malingering symptoms of hearing voices.
  • They were ALL admitted for schizophrenia.
  • None were exposed as imposters.
  • They all left diagnosed with schizophrenia in remission.
  • What are some of the questions raised by this study?

Do “Mental Disorders” really exist?

  • Thomas Szasz: mental illness is a myth
  • labeling: gives society the right to treat what are really social problems
  • Once labelled, people can be treated for being “different”
  • Maslow- failure to strive for self- actualization

Perspectives and Disorders

  • Psychological School/Perspective
  • Cause of the Disorder
  • Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic
  • Internal, unconscious drives
  • Humanistic
  • Failure to strive to one’s potential or being out of touch with one’s feelings.
  • Behavioral
  • Reinforcement history, the environment.
  • Cognitive
  • Irrational, dysfunctional thoughts or ways of thinking.
  • Sociocultural
  • Dysfunctional Society
  • Biomedical/Neuroscience
  • Organic problems, biochemical imbalances, genetic predispositions.

Download 55.51 Kb.

Share with your friends:

The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2020
send message

    Main page