What does DNA profiling allow us to do? PCR? Reverse Transcriptase-PCR?
Gene transfer: horizontal vs. vertical
GMO: Benefits? Risks?
Bt corn. What is that all about? How to deal with resistance?
Any thoughts about how institutes like the Beijing Genomics Institute will play a role in our understanding of microorganisms from the article “The Gene Factory” by Michael Specter? Are genomes of microbes important?
Chapter 17 Microbes & Biotechnology
Five Kingdoms vs. Three domains: archaea, eubacteria, eukaryotes
Structure vs. genetics
Carl Woese: what did he study? How did that change scientists understanding of evolutionary trees?
Reverse Transcriptase: what does this enzyme relate to?
HIV: How does HIV infect cells & cause more viral particles to be made? What enzymes are involved? HIV targets T helper cells---a key player in our immune systems’ defense of our bodies against pathogens.
RT-PCR: How useful? By using this tool, scientists are able to look at what?
Gene therapy: how are the “normal” alleles inserted?
Short answer questions: THERE WILL NOT BE ANY ESSAYS. These might help studying!
Carl Woese suggested the three domain phylogenetic tree in 1990, as an improvement to Robert Whittaker’s five kingdoms. So currently two different schemes exist for organizing all organisms on our planet.
Part a. In the first scheme, everything from bacteria to polar bears can be classified into one of five kingdoms. Please identify each of these kingdoms, identify a unifying characteristic that each organism within the kingdom shares, and finally, provide an example of an organism within each of the kingdoms. Which group do humans fall under?
Part b. The second major scheme for classifying/identifying all organisms on the planet is based upon three "Domains" as designated by Woese. What are these three domains, and what main characteristics are used to separate the three groups? Include and define the role histones, introns, ribosomes, cell wall, membranes, and organelles play in distinguishing the three domains. Which group do humans fall under?
Part c. What is a phylogeny and how is one these charts organized. Please create a phylogeny of your own and include at least five real organisms that currently exist on our planet. OK…fine, if you want to include extinct species…go for it!
The enzyme reverse transcriptase performs a very specific job. Part a. How does it play a role in HIV infection. Explain how HIV actually infects cells & enzymes involved. Why is it so devastating for the body to have untreated HIV running rampant.
Part b. Research scientists use RT-PCR often in labs. What do they use it for? The field of evolutionary development biology (EVO-DEVO) often utilizes this technique to study what? Think about the poster describing why ducks have bills and birds have beaks.