To indicate that you are using a source’s exact phrases or sentences, you must enclose them in quotation marks.
Parenthetical documentation is a way to indicate in parentheses the sources of borrowed information. This avoids plagiarism. The page number must be included so the reader could look up the original information for further clarification.
What must be included in the parentheses?
You must include the author’s last name and the page number.
“This affects the environment and is in turn affected by it” (Newton 10).
What should NOT be included in the parentheses?
No punctuation inside the parentheses
Do not write “page” or “pg”
Where does the punctuation go?
After the parentheses
EX. …country (Jones 32).
No author mentioned—include the first piece of information from the Works Cited page. Usually this is the title of the article.
EX. The need for nurses continues to grow in the coming years (“Nursing” 120).
AUTHOR MENTIONED IN THE SENTENCE – only the page number is needed
EX. The social acceptance of coal miners, according to Peter Jones, British correspondent for Newsweek, was far from good (43).
Alphabetical order – whether it begins with author, title, etc.
Double – spaced
12 point font
Center Works Cited at the top of the page
Field, Sally. Teaching Strategies. New York: Apple, 1976.
Gunn, Betty. Personal Interview. 22 December 1995.
Landry, Lucy. Becoming an English Teacher. New York: MacMillian,
“Teaching.” The Encyclopedia of Careers and Vocational Guidance. Ed.