What are our challenges and how do we fight for change? Muckrakers



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WHAT ARE OUR CHALLENGES AND HOW DO WE FIGHT FOR CHANGE? MUCKRAKERS

  • Political Cartoon review discussion
  • Muckrakers “F-Q-R”
  • Muckraker organizer for notebook, glued as task #6
  • Thematic essay assignment—work on organizing/outlining your essay
  • Don’t forget—homework is due Thursday!
    • Paper plate award
    • Practice regents question
  • “The tentacles of the Devil Fish cannot be destroyed unless the HEAD, the source of the sustaining power is destroyed”

PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT: MUCKRAKERS

  • September 2011

QUICK REVIEW

  • What is a muckraker?
  • Someone who exposes corruption and scandals in business and politics.

EXCERPT FROM THE JUNGLE, BY UPTON SINCLAIR

  • There was never the least attention paid to what was cut up for sausage; there would come all the way back from Europe old sausage that had been rejected, and that was moldy and white – it would be dosed with borax and glycerine, and dumped into the hoppers1, and made over again for home consumption. There would be meat that had tumbled out on the floor, in the dirt and sawdust, where the workers had tramped and spit uncounted billions of germs. There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms; and the water from leaky roofs would drip over it, and thousands of rats would race about on it. It was too dark in these storage places to see well, but a man could run his hand over these piles of meat and sweep off handfuls of the dried dung of rats. These rats were nuisances, and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them; they would die, and then rats, bread, and meat would go into the hoppers together.
          • The Jungle, Upton Sinclair

UPTON SINCLAIR

  • Issues
  • Working conditions and practices in meat factories
  • Wrote The Jungle: a graphic description about unhealthy, unclean practices of meat packing industries
  • Meat Inspection Act
  • Cleaner factories
  • Pure Food and Drug Act
  • Lewis Hine

LEWIS HINE

  • Issues
  • Method/ Examples
  • What effect was had
  • Child Labor
  • Sweatshops
  • Took photographs of working conditions in factories, mainly of children
  • 1916- restrictions were placed on the employment of children aged under 14 in factories and shops

JACOB RIIS

  • Issues
  • Method/ Examples
  • What effect was had
  • Urban Poor
  • Tenements
  • Immigrants
  • Wrote editorials
  • Wrote: “How the Other Half Lives” to show how people were dying (esp. children) while others were rich
  • Building codes: created regulating construction of factories, tenement housing, and settlement houses

JACOB RIIS: “HOW THE OTHER HALF LIVES”

  • Bottle Alley is around the corner in Baxter Street; but it is a fair specimen of its kind, wherever found. Look into any of these houses, everywhere the same piles of rags, of bones and musty paper, all of which the sanitary police flatter themselves they have banished to the dumps and the warehouses. Here is a “flat” of “parlor” and two pitch-dark coops called bedrooms. Truly, the bed is all there is room for. The family tea-kettle is on the stove, doing duty for the time being as a wash-boiler… One, two, three beds are there, if the old boxes and heaps of foul straw can be called by that name; a broken stove with crazy pipe from which the smoke leaks at every joint, a table of rough boards propped up on boxes, piles of rubbish in the corner. The closeness and smell are appalling. How many people sleep here? The woman with the red bandanna shakes her head sullenly, but the bare-legged girl with the bright face counts on her fingers—five, six! “Six, sir!” Six grown people and five children.
  • How the Other Half Lives, Jacob Riis

JACOB RIIS

JACOB RIIS

JACOB RIIS

  • Issue?
    • Tenement (poor quality apartments) reform
  • Method/ Examples?
    • Photographs
    • Wrote the book How the Other Half Lives

JACOB RIIS

  • What effect was had
  • Building codes: created regulated construction of factories, tenement housing, and settlement houses

UPTON SINCLAIR

  • Issue?
    • Meat packing/ Food safety
  • Methods/ Examples?
    • Wrote the book, The Jungle

UPTON SINCLAIR

  • What effect was had
  • Meat Inspection Act
  • Cleaner factories
  • Pure Food and Drug Act

LEWIS HINE

  • Issue?
  • Method/ Examples?
    • He was a photographer
    • Took pictures of young children in dangerous working conditions

LEWIS HINE

  • What effect was had
  • 1916- restrictions were placed on the employment of children aged under 14 in factories and shops

SUMMARY

  • What things did Riis, Hine, and Sinclair see wrong with society during the early 1900s, and what methods did they use to enact change? In what ways were they successful? Do you think similar methods could work today? Why or why not?

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