Revision: writing introductions

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Every essay has three parts: a beginning, a middle, and an end. The beginning is also called the introduction. The introduction has two main purposes: to draw the reader in and make him/her want to read more, and to prepare the reader for the direction that the essay is going to take.

The introduction usually has three parts:

1. The grabber (or lead) consists of several sentences that pull the reader into the essay.
2. The
 transitional sentence (optional) connects the lead to the thesis statement.
3. The
 thesis statement is a single sentence that states the main idea of the essay.

There are many types of grabbers (also referred to as leads, motivators, or openers) that you can use to start your essay. It could be an anecdote ( a brief incident that relates to the theme of the essay), startling fact or opinion( a piece of information that will get your reader’s attention), a quotation, or description(.a brief description of a scene, person, or object that appeals to the reader's senses). You can also use the Funnel method, The Turnabout.

2. Your introduction is the part that invites your reader to read your essay: It is important as it tells your reader what it is about, sets the tone for your essay, shows your reader how your essay will develop, and it is where the reader decides whether to read your essay or not.

Ms. Fatema Khurshid/ ENG 101/ Term 111/

Study the following introductions and name the type of introduction.(Remember that authors can use a combination of techniques to write an introduction).

Television is so popular that over 120 million sets are now being used in ninety eight percent of American households. According to the A. C. Nielson company which takes television surveys, each week the small screen holds the attention of children under five for an average of 23.5 hours and adults for an average of 14 hours. Indeed, the typical viewer spends more time in front of the television than he or she spends on any other activity except sleep. But far from being the “idiot box” that it is often called television offers viewers many benefits. Television can be educational as well as entertaining.


"Animals have been used in medical research for a long time. In recent years animal rights organizations have started a controversy whether it is ethical or not to use animals for the benefits of medical progress. They believe that animals are equal to humans and that they have equal rights with human beings. In my opinion, animals as things, have some rights, but humans with their more developed brains are superior to them, therefore if there is no other alternative, animals may be used in medical research." 


"Reproduction is something that is in the nature of human beings. Giving birth to children, bringing them up and when they get older looking forward to them having children are all built in  wishes and expectations of almost everybody.  But in a limited environment, humans cannot keep expanding their population. There must be some ways to control the population." (Gamze Gumuslu, Adv 2003)


Karate, which literally means “The art of empty hands”, is the most widely practiced of all the martial arts. It is primarily a means of self defense that uses the body as a weapon for striking, kicking, and blocking. Originating in the ancient orient, the art of karate is more than one thousand years old. I t developed first as a form of monastic training and later became a method of self defence. During the seventeenth century, karate became highly developed as an art on the Japanese island of Okinawa. Over the years, this ancient art has gained much popularity, and today karate is practiced throughout the world. More than a method of combat, Karate emphasizes self discipline, positive attitude, and high moral purpose.


One student looks at his neighbor’s exam paper and quickly copies the answers. Another student finds out the questions on the test before her class takes it, and tells her friends. Still another student sneaks a piece of paper with formulas written on it into the test room. According to a recent national survey, forty percent of American teenagers would cheat under the condition if they knew they would not get caught in schools. Most students cheat on tests because they feel pressure to get into a good college, because they want to avoid the hours of studying they need in order to get high grades, or simply because they are not concerned with honesty.


“Alone one is never lonely,” says May Sarton in her essay “The Rewards of Living a Solitary Life.” Most people, however, do not share Sarton’s opinion: They are terrified of living alone. They are used to living with others—children with parents, roommates with roommates, friends with friends, husbands with wives. When the statistics catch up with them, therefore, they are rarely prepared. Chances are high that most adult men and women will need to know how to live alone, briefly or longer, at some time in their lives.

– Tara Foster, student


  1. Practice writing introductions for the following topics:

    1. The Importance of Time Management for College Students.

    2. Compulsory Physical Education Classes for College Students.



Writing Conclusions

If you have written an effective introduction, and logically developed your essay, the flow of ideas naturally leads to your conclusion. A good conclusion should round up your arguments and reach a final conclusion. There are a number of ways you can conclude your essay.

  1. The simplest way to finish an essay is to review the major ideas. You go over your essay, restate the main idea in the conclusion.


  1. Conclusions can restate the thesis of the essay. This is done using different words to avoid monotony.

"For a long time there has been a controversy between animal rights supporters and scientists about whether it is right to use animals in experimental research. Also, it is very debatable whether using animals for such research results in finding a cure for diseases. If there are no other alternatives, and if it is possible that this will contribute to science, animals may be used for experimental research."

"All in all, it can be said that using animals for medical research is ethical as long as it contributes to scientific development and helps scientists find ways to improve human health. And this practice is only acceptable on the condition that necessary pains are taken and animals are treated humanely." (Ayse Ipek, Adv 2004)

Write conclusions for both your essays:



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