Multiple choice. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question



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Endocrine and Special Senses practice Questions Scioly 2016

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1)



An important second messenger in hormonal action is

1)


_________

A)



calcium.

B)



ADP.

C)



adenylate cyclase.

D)



cAMP.

E)



ATP.



SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

2)



Match the endocrine gland in the first column with its associated hormone in the second column.

_____ 1. pituitary A. cortisol

_____ 2. thymus B. melatonin

_____ 3. thyroid C. calcitonin

_____ 4. pineal D. growth hormone

_____ 5. adrenal E. thymosins


2)

_________________



3)



Peripheral cells sensitive to the presence of hormones are called ________.

3)


_________________



4)



Hormones from the hypothalamus that alter the activity of the anterior pituitary travel in special blood vessels called the ________.

4)


_________________



5)



The thyroid gland is composed of many ________ that produce and store thyroid hormone.

5)


_________________



6)



Cells of the thyroid gland are the only cells in the body with a need for the mineral ________.

6)


_________________



7)



The ________ gland is located along the superior border of the kidney.

7)


_________________



8)



The stimulus for hormone release may be neural, hormonal, or ________.

8)


_________________



9)



The inner portion of the adrenal gland is the adrenal ________.

9)


_________________



10)



Sometimes a releasing hormone is required for release of another hormone. This property is called ________.

10)


________________



11)



Two hormones that have additive effects are called ________.

11)


________________



12)



Sodium concentration imbalance may cause release of ________.

12)


________________



13)



The basic pattern of response that the body produces in response to stress is called the ________.

13)


________________



ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.



Using the figure above, identify the labeled part.

14)



Label A: ________



15)



Label B: ________



16)



Label C: ________



17)



Label D: ________



18)



Label E: ________



19)



Label F: ________



20)



Label G: ________



21)



Label H: ________



22)



Label I: ________



23)



Label L: ________



SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

24)



Label M: ________

24)


________________



MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

25)



The ossicles connect the

25)


________

A)



cochlea to the tympanic membrane.

B)



cochlea to the oval window.

C)



tympanic membrane to the round window.

D)



tympanic membrane to the oval window.

E)



oval window to the round window.



SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

26)



Match the muscle in the first column with its insertion in the second column.

_____ 1. inferior rectus A. superior, lateral surface of eyeball

_____ 2. superior rectus B. inferior, lateral surface of eyeball

_____ 3. inferior oblique C. inferior, medial surface of eyeball

_____ 4. superior oblique D. lateral surface of eyeball

_____ 5. lateral rectus E. superior, medial surface of eyeball


26)

________________



27)



Match the muscle in the first column with its action in the second column.

_____ 1. inferior rectus A. eye looks down

_____ 2. inferior oblique B. eye rotates medially

_____ 3. lateral rectus C. eye rolls, looks up and to the side

_____ 4. medial rectus D. eye rolls, looks down and to the side

_____ 5. superior oblique E. eye rotates laterally


27)

________________



28)



A(n) ________ is an abnormal lens that has lost its clarity.

28)


________________



29)



The visual receptors of the retina are called ________ and ________.

29)


________________



30)



The ________ contains supporting cells and olfactory receptors.

30)


________________



31)



Changes in body position may be sensed by the ear, or by a group of receptors called ________ .

31)


________________



32)



Swellings in the semicircular canals are called ________.

32)


________________



33)



________ sense changes in the amount of heat energy.

33)


________________



34)



A substance that tastes sour most likely contains ________.

34)


________________



35)



The lens attempts to focus light on the ________.

35)


________________



36)



Each gustatory cell extends a(n) ________ into the surrounding fluids through a narrow taste pore.

36)


________________



37)



A person suffering from ________ can see distant objects more clearly than those that are close.

37)


________________



MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

38)



The function of gustatory receptors parallels that of

38)


________

A)



light receptors in the eye.

B)



mechanoreceptors in the ear.

C)



olfactory receptors in the nose.

D)



baroreceptors.

E)



nociceptors.



39)



A structure that allows the middle ear to communicate with the nasopharynx is the

39)


________

A)



auditory tube.

B)



pinna.

C)



vestibular duct.

D)



tympanic duct.

E)



external auditory canal.



40)



Each of the following statements concerning vision is true EXCEPT one. Identify the exception

40)


________

A)



Depth perception is improved when one eye is closed.

B)



Fibers of the optic nerve synapse at the lateral geniculates of the thalamus.

C)



Approximately half of the fibers in each optic nerve cross to opposite sides of the brain at the optic chiasm.

D)



The image that is formed on the retina is inverted.

E)



The visual cortex of the brain contains a sensory map of the field of vision.



41)



The perception of pain coming from parts of the body that are not actually stimulated is called

41)


________

A)



slow pain.

B)



preferential pain.

C)



referred pain.

D)



recalcitrant pain.

E)



actual pain.



42)



The structure that overlies the organ of Corti is the

42)


________

A)



vestibular duct.

B)



basilar membrane.

C)



endolymph.

D)



tectorial membrane.

E)



malleus.



43)



Our perception of the environment is incomplete because

43)


________

A)



humans do not have receptors for every possible stimulus.

B)



our receptors have ranges of sensitivity.

C)



all of our awareness of the environment must be learned.

D)



A and B only

E)



all of the above



44)



The space between the iris and the cornea is the

44)


________

A)



anterior chamber.

B)



aqueous humor.

C)



vitreous body.

D)



posterior chamber.

E)



pupil.



45)



Taste receptors are

45)


________

A)



found only on the tongue.

B)



modified epithelial cells.

C)



unable to divide.

D)



modified neural cells.

E)



none of the above



46)



The fibrous tunic of the eye

46)


________

A)



consists of the sclera and the cornea.

B)



provides mechanical support and some protection for the eye.

C)



serves as a point of attachment for extrinsic eye muscles.

D)



A and C only

E)



all of the above



47)



________ deafness results from conditions in the middle ear that block the normal transfer of vibrations from the tympanum to the oval window.

47)


________

A)



Cochlear

B)



Corti

C)



Nerve

D)



Tunnel

E)



Conduction



48)



Visual pigments are derivatives of

48)


________

A)



opsin.

B)



retinal.

C)



rhodopsin.

D)



both A and B

E)



all of the above



49)



Treatment of a cataract usually involves removal of the

49)


________

A)



cornea.

B)



iris.

C)



vitreous humor.

D)



lens.

E)



sclera.



50)



Which of the following concerning olfaction is false?

50)


________

A)



Humans may have as many as 20 million olfactory receptors.

B)



Olfactory receptors are highly modified neurons.

C)



Olfactory stimuli do not pass through the thalamus before journeying to the olfactory cortex.

D)



Human power of olfaction is as powerful as most other mammals.

E)



Molecules to be smelled must first dissolve in the mucus covering the olfactory receptors.



51)



Factors associated with blindness include all of the following EXCEPT

51)


________

A)



diabetes mellitus.

B)



glaucoma.

C)



retinal detachment.

D)



heredity.

E)



myopia.



52)



Nociceptors are sensitive to

52)


________

A)



pain.

B)



blood pressure.

C)



light touch.

D)



pressure.

E)



osmotic pressure.



53)



The smallest ossicle is the

53)


________

A)



stapes.

B)



tympanic membrane.

C)



incus.

D)



cochlea.

E)



malleus.



54)



Taste buds are monitored by cranial nerves

54)


________

A)



V, VII, and IX.

B)



VII, VIII, and IX.

C)



IX, X, and XI.

D)



IX, XI, and XII.

E)



VII, IX, and X.



55)



Olfactory glands

55)


________

A)



form the basement membrane of the olfactory epithelium.

B)



produce a pigmented mucus that covers the olfactory epithelium.

C)



are sensitive to aromatic molecules in the air.

D)



contain the neural receptors for the sense of smell.

E)



form structures called olfactory bulbs.



56)



An example of neuronal replacement in the adult human involves the

56)


________

A)



pain receptors.

B)



olfactory receptors.

C)



nociceptors.

D)



retinal cells.

E)



gustatory receptors.



57)



When viewing an object close to you, your lens should be more

57)


________

A)



lateral.

B)


rounded.

C)


convex.

D)


medial.

E)


flattened.



58)



The lacrimal glands

58)


________

A)



produce most of the volume of tears.

B)



are located in pockets in the frontal bones.

C)



produce a slightly acidic secretion that contains lysozyme.

D)



A and B only

E)



all of the above



59)



Which of the following is NOT a primary taste sensation?

59)


________

A)



sour

B)


metallic

C)


bitter

D)


sweet

E)


salty



60)



The term general senses refers to sensations of

60)


________

A)



hot and cold.

B)



pain.

C)



touch and vibration.

D)



both B and C

E)



all of the above



61)



The anterior cavity is

61)


________

A)



filled with aqueous humor.

B)



filled with endolymph.

C)



filled with perilymph.

D)



hollow.

E)



filled by the vitreous body.



62)



A device that monitors the activity of the photoreceptor cells of the eye indicates that there is a constant flow of neurotransmitter being released by the photoreceptor cells. This information implies that the subject is

62)


________

A)



focusing on a distant object.

B)



reading.

C)



in a dark room.

D)



in a brightly lit auditorium.

E)



outside in sunlight.



63)



The sense of hearing is provided by receptors of the

63)


________

A)



pinna.

B)



middle ear.

C)



semicircular canals.

D)



outer ear.

E)



inner ear.



64)



Pain receptors

64)


________

A)



increase in sensitivity in the presence of a constant stimulus.

B)



are widely distributed in all tissues.

C)



are stimulated by things that cause tissue damage.

D)



adapt rapidly.

E)



reduce in sensitivity in the presence of a constant stimulus.



65)



A viral infection involving the vestibular nuclei may result in

65)


________

A)



loss of sight.

B)



a sense of dizziness.

C)



loss of hearing.

D)



high blood pressure.

E)



local paralysis.



66)



There are ________ primary taste sensations.

66)


________

A)



2

B)



4

C)



12

D)



20

E)



more than 50



67)



Only about ________ percent of the information provided by afferent fibers reaches the cerebral cortex and conscious awareness.

67)


________

A)



1

B)


3

C)


5

D)


8

E)


12



68)



There are three different types of cones, each one sensitive to a different color wavelength of light. These cones are designated

68)


________

A)



red, blue, and green.

B)



red, yellow, and indigo.

C)



red, green, and yellow.

D)



red, yellow, and blue.

E)



yellow, green, and blue.



69)



Which descending pathway in the spinal cord is responsible for carrying reflex information maintaining postural muscle tone?

69)


________

A)



vestibulospinal

B)



corticospinal

C)



spinocerebellar

D)



posterior column

E)



medial and lateral pathways



70)



The daily day/night cycle known as a circadian rhythm is established in

70)


________

A)



the lateral geniculates.

B)



the medial geniculates.

C)



the pineal gland.

D)



the hypothalamus.

E)



both A and C



71)



The structure that separates the cochlear duct from the tympanic duct is the

71)


________

A)



organ of Corti.

B)



basilar membrane.

C)



malleus.

D)



vestibular duct.

E)



tectorial membrane.



72)



Which of the following is filled with air?

72)


________

A)



membranous labyrinth

B)



cochlea

C)



middle ear cavity

D)



vestibule

E)



semicircular canal



73)



Stereoscopic vision results when the

73)


________

A)



images in each eye are slightly different.

B)



images in both eyes are identical.

C)



rods of one eye are stimulated, and cones are stimulated in the other.

D)



brain interprets the images and alters them.

E)



none of the above



74)



A blind spot in the retina occurs where

74)


________

A)



ganglion cells synapse with bipolar cells.

B)



the fovea is located.

C)



the optic nerve attaches to the retina.

D)



amacrine cells are located.

E)



rod cells are clustered to form the macula.



75)



Sensory receptors that monitor the position of joints are called

75)


________

A)



baroreceptors.

B)



nociceptors.

C)



thermoreceptors.

D)



chemoreceptors.

E)



proprioceptors.



76)



Sensory receptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called

76)


________

A)



baroreceptors.

B)



chemoreceptors.

C)



thermoreceptors.

D)



nociceptors.

E)



proprioceptors.



77)



Temperature senses use two types of

77)


________

A)



free nerve endings.

B)



proprioceptors.

C)



tactile corpuscles.

D)



chemoreceptors.

E)



lamellated corpuscles.



78)



The fading of a smell some time after you enter a room is an example of experiencing

78)


________

A)



a change in temperature.

B)



a change in concentration of the odor.

C)



damage to receptors.

D)



sensory adaptation.

E)



all of the above



79)



The lens of the eye thickens when the

79)


________

A)



ciliary muscles relax.

B)



ciliary muscles contract.

C)



suspensory ligaments pull on the lens.

D)



ciliary processes contract.

E)



conjunctiva contracts.



80)



Olfactory receptors are examples of

80)


________

A)



proprioceptors.

B)



pain receptors.

C)



mechanoreceptors.

D)



chemoreceptors.

E)



thermoreceptors.



81)



Which of the following contains pain receptors?

81)


________

A)



meninges

B)



blood vessels in the brain

C)



neural tissue

D)



both A and B

E)



both B and C



82)



The shape of the lens is controlled by the

82)


________

A)



aqueous body.

B)



ciliary muscles.

C)



suspensory ligaments.

D)



pupillary dilator muscles.

E)



pupillary constrictor muscles.



83)



Which of the following is part of the inner tunic of the eye?

83)


________

A)



lateral rectus muscle

B)



sclera

C)



iris

D)



conjunctiva

E)



retina



84)



Normal eye focusing is termed

84)


________

A)



refraction.

B)



hyperopia.

C)



myopia.

D)



presbyopia.

E)



emmetropia.



85)



The space between the suspensory ligaments and the iris is the

85)


________

A)



vitreous body.

B)



pupil.

C)



posterior chamber.

D)



posterior cavity.

E)



anterior chamber.



86)



The color receptors within the retina are sensitive to lights that are

86)


________

A)



red, blue, and yellow.

B)



red, green, and yellow.

C)



orange, green, and purple.

D)



red, blue, green, and yellow.

E)



red, blue, and green.



87)



As a result of the tympanic reflex,

87)


________

A)



the auditory ossicles vibrate more forcefully.

B)



vibrations are less efficient.

C)



the auditory ossicles amplify the signal.

D)



vibrations are more efficient.

E)



all of the above



88)



The amplitude of vibrations is measured in

88)


________

A)



wavelength.

B)



frequency.

C)



intensity.

D)



decibels.

E)



duration.



89)



The ciliary muscle helps to

89)


________

A)



control the amount of light reaching the retina.

B)



control the shape of the lens.

C)



control the production of aqueous humor.

D)



move the eyeball.

E)



both A and B



90)



Movement of the sensory receptors in the ampullae of the semicircular canals

90)


________

A)



stimulates the receptor cells, alerting us to rotational movement.

B)



allows us to hear sounds.

C)



allows us to perceive linear acceleration.

D)



stimulates the receptor cells to a change in body position with respect to gravity.

E)



produces sound.



91)



A structure that is located at the medial canthus and contains glands that produce a gritty secretion is the

91)


________

A)



superior eye lid.

B)



sclera.

C)



conjunctiva.

D)



tear gland.

E)



lacrimal caruncle.



92)



Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the

92)


________

A)



auditory ossicles.

B)



cochlea.

C)



oval window.

D)



tympanic membrane.

E)



round window.



93)



The branch of the cranial nerve that is responsible for monitoring changes in equilibrium is the ________ branch.

93)


________

A)



cochlear

B)


vestibular

C)


trigeminal

D)


auditory

E)


otoconial



94)



Night blindness can be treated by administering

94)


________

A)



vitamin A.

B)



vitamin K.

C)



vitamin C.

D)



vitamin D.

E)



vitamin E.



95)



Which of the following extrinsic eye muscles is responsible for rotating the eye laterally?

95)


________

A)



lateral rectus

B)



superior rectus

C)



inferior rectus

D)



inferior oblique

E)



medial rectus



96)



As nerve fibers from the retina travel to the brain, axons from the

96)


________

A)



retinas of both eyes do NOT cross over.

B)



nasal half of each eye cross over.

C)



otic half of each eye cross over.

D)



retinas of both eyes ALL cross over.

E)



none of the above



97)



The range of the human ear is about

97)


________

A)



2,000–3,000 Hertz.

B)



20–20,000 Hertz.

C)



2,000–200,000 Hertz.

D)



2–2,000 Hertz.

E)



20–2,000 Hertz.



98)



The Golgi tendon organ is stimulated more when

98)


________

A)



muscle tension decreases.

B)



muscles are metabolically active and produce oxygen.

C)



muscle tension increases.

D)



oxygen is depleted.

E)



muscle length increases.



99)



The transparent portion of the eye is the

99)


________

A)



cornea.

B)



iris.

C)



conjunctiva.

D)



canthus.

E)



pupil.



100)



The special senses are

100)


_______

A)



equilibrium.

B)



olfaction.

C)



vision.

D)



gustation.

E)



all of the above



101)



Which of the following extrinsic eye muscles is responsible for enabling the eye to look upward?

101)


_______

A)



medial rectus

B)



superior rectus

C)



inferior rectus

D)



inferior oblique

E)



superior oblique



102)



The frequency of a sound is indicated to the nervous system by the

102)


_______

A)



frequency of vibration of the tectorial membrane.

B)



number of rows of hair cells that are stimulated.

C)



frequency of hair cell vibration.

D)



movement of the perilymph in the cochlear duct.

E)



region of the organ of Corti that is stimulated.



103)



The pigmented portion of the eye is the

103)


_______

A)



canthus.

B)



cornea.

C)



conjunctiva.

D)



iris.

E)



pupil.



104)



Rhodopsin is found in

104)


_______

A)



sodium pumps.

B)



cones.

C)



rods.

D)



visual pigments.

E)



neurotransmitters.



105)



When all three cone populations are stimulated, one sees

105)


_______

A)



white.

B)


blue.

C)


red.

D)


black.

E)


green.



106)



Visual acuity is also known as

106)


_______

A)



nearsightedness.

B)



farsightedness.

C)



astigmatism.

D)



clarity of vision.

E)



myopia.



107)



A movement in the vertical plane, such as falling straight down while the body maintains the anatomic position, would be sensed by the

107)


_______

A)



organ of Corti.

B)



cochlea.

C)



utricles.

D)



saccules.

E)



supporting cells.



108)



Chemoreceptors are located in

108)


_______

A)



the special senses of taste and smell.

B)



the carotid and aortic bodies.

C)



the respiratory control center of the medulla.

D)



A and B only

E)



all of the above



109)



Muscle spindles are stimulated more when

109)


_______

A)



muscles use oxygen.

B)



muscle length decreases.

C)



muscle tension increases.

D)



muscles use glycogen.

E)



muscle tension decreases.



110)



The lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by

110)


_______

A)



changing shape.

B)



moving in and out.

C)



dilating and constricting.

D)



moving up and down.

E)



opening and closing.



111)



The hearing receptors are located in the

111)


_______

A)



saccule.

B)



ampulla.

C)



utricle.

D)



semicircular canals.

E)



organ of Corti.



112)



The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by

112)


_______

A)



decreased resistance to disease and infection.

B)



increased ability to produce glucose from glycogen.

C)



increased pumping effectiveness of the heart.

D)



increased protein synthesis.

E)



both A and C



113)



Endocrine organs can be controlled by

113)


_______

A)



hormones from other endocrine glands.

B)



releasing hormones from the hypothalamus.

C)



direct neural stimulation.

D)



A and C only

E)



all of the above



114)



Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is also known as

114)


_______

A)



Type III.

B)



diabetes insipidus.

C)



Type II.

D)



non–insulin-dependent diabetes.

E)



Type I.



115)



This gland is responsible for establishing daily circadian rhythms.

115)


_______

A)



thyroid

B)



parathyroid

C)



pineal

D)



pancreas

E)



thymus



116)



Hormones that control the function of the anterior pituitary gland are released from the

116)


_______

A)



thalamus.

B)



pineal body.

C)



hypothalamus.

D)



basal nuclei.

E)



medulla oblongata.



117)



Increased numbers of red blood cells would result from increases in the hormone

117)


_______

A)



erythropoietin.

B)



thymosin.

C)



renin.

D)



aldosterone.

E)



cortisol.



118)



Where are the hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary made?

118)


_______

A)



hypothalamus

B)



posterior pituitary

C)



anterior pituitary

D)



thyroid

E)



adrenal gland



119)



In Type II diabetes, insulin levels are frequently normal, yet the target cells are less sensitive to the effects of insulin. This suggests that

119)


_______

A)



the target cells may lack enough insulin receptors.

B)



the target cells are impermeable to insulin.

C)



the target cells cannot convert insulin to an active form.

D)



the target cells have adequate internal supplies of glucose.

E)



none of the above



120)



The beta cells of the pancreas produce

120)


_______

A)



glucagons.

B)



rennin.

C)



parathyroid hormone.

D)



ADH.

E)



insulin.



121)



The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is

121)


_______

A)



TSH.

B)


LH.

C)


FSH.

D)


ACTH.

E)


PRL.



122)



During the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS), there is

122)


_______

A)



decreased mental alertness.

B)



increased urine production.

C)



mobilization of energy reserves.

D)



decreased blood flow to skeletal muscles and skin.

E)



all of the above



123)



The endocrine system

123)


_______

A)



releases chemicals into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body.

B)



releases hormones that alter the metabolic activities of many different tissues and organs simultaneously.

C)



produces effects that can last for hours, days, and even longer.

D)



A and C only

E)



all of the above



124)



Diabetes mellitus is characterized by

124)


_______

A)



excessive urine production.

B)



glucose in the urine.

C)



urine with high osmotic pressure.

D)



blood sugar imbalance.

E)



all of the above



125)



Effects of medullary hormones include all of the following EXCEPT

125)


_______

A)



release of lipids by adipose tissue.

B)



increased heart activity.

C)



increased blood glucose levels.

D)



increased blood pressure.

E)



decreased glycogen breakdown.



126)



The posterior pituitary gland secretes

126)


_______

A)



ADH.

B)


MSH.

C)


TSH.

D)


FSH.

E)


ACTH.



127)



The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to rise is

127)


_______

A)



growth hormone.

B)



erythropoietin.

C)



glucagon.

D)



cortisol.

E)



insulin.



128)



Hormone-producing cells of the testes produce

128)


_______

A)



estrogen.

B)



progesterone.

C)



testosterone.

D)



inhibin.

E)



both C and D



129)



Diabetes insipidus is caused by

129)


_______

A)



decreased numbers of insulin receptors.

B)



decreased numbers of ADH receptors.

C)



decreased levels of ADH.

D)



decreased levels of insulin.

E)



none of the above



130)



When adenylate cyclase is activated,

130)


_______

A)



protein kinases are metabolized.

B)



calcium ions are released from intracellular stores.

C)



steroids are produced.

D)



cAMP is formed.

E)



cAMP is broken down.



131)



Hormones from which of the following glands are responsible for the calorigenic effect?

131)


_______

A)



adrenal gland

B)



thyroid gland

C)



pituitary gland

D)



thymus

E)



parathyroid gland



132)



The enzyme renin is responsible for the activation of

132)


_______

A)



angiotensin.

B)



epinephrine.

C)



erythropoietin.

D)



ADH.

E)



cortisol.



133)



Decreased blood flow to the kidneys would lead to

133)


_______

A)



elevated levels of aldosterone.

B)



increased levels of erythropoietin.

C)



decreased levels of atrial natriuretic peptide.

D)



renin release.

E)



all of the above



134)



The hormones that dominate during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) are the

134)


_______

A)



mineralocorticoids.

B)



glucocorticoids.

C)



androgens.

D)



thyroid hormones.

E)



gonadotropins.



135)



Thyroid hormone contains the mineral

135)


_______

A)



zinc.

B)



iron.

C)



potassium.

D)



iodine.

E)



sodium.



136)



In studying a group of cells it is noticed that when stimulated by a particular hormone, there is marked increase in the quantity of adenylate cyclase in a cell. The hormone being studied is probably

136)


_______

A)



a peptide.

B)



a steroid.

C)



testosterone.

D)



aldosterone.

E)



estrogen.



137)



Another name for antidiuretic hormone is

137)


_______

A)



thymosin.

B)



vasopressin.

C)



parathyroid hormone.

D)



cortisol.

E)



growth hormone.



138)



The hormone that is important for maintenance of the immune system is

138)


_______

A)



thyroid hormone.

B)



gonadotropin.

C)



thymosin.

D)



aldosterone.

E)



cortisol.



139)



The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex is

139)


_______

A)



FSH.

B)


LH.

C)


MSH.

D)


ACTH.

E)


TSH.



140)



Alcoholic beverages cause excessive urine production by blocking the action of

140)


_______

A)



aldosterone.

B)



TSH.

C)



cortisol.

D)



FSH.

E)



ADH.



141)



The hormone that causes the activation of osteoclasts is

141)


_______

A)



parathyroid hormone.

B)



thyroid hormone.

C)



glucagon.

D)



oxytocin.

E)



calcitonin.



142)



The adrenal medulla produces

142)


_______

A)



glucocorticoids.

B)



mineralocorticoids.

C)



epinephrine.

D)



steroids.

E)



androgens.



143)



Decreased levels of parathyroid hormone could result in

143)


_______

A)



tetany.

B)



depressed immune activity.

C)



profuse urination.

D)



increased sweating.

E)



all of the above



144)



Triiodothyronine is a hormone secreted by the

144)


_______

A)



pancreas.

B)



hypothalamus.

C)



thyroid gland.

D)



parathyroid glands.

E)



all of the above



145)



Cells of the adrenal cortex produce

145)


_______

A)



parathyroid hormone.

B)



epinephrine.

C)



insulin.

D)



ADH.

E)



aldosterone.



146)



This condition is characterized by abnormally high glucose concentrations that overwhelm the reabsorption capabilities of the kidneys.

146)


_______

A)



glucose diabetes

B)



diabetes mellitus

C)



diabetes insipidus

D)



gigantism

E)



all of the above



147)



Generally the actions of hormones

147)


_______

A)



cause changes in the machinery of the cells.

B)



tend to be more widespread than actions of the nervous system.

C)



are longer lasting than actions of the nervous system.

D)



are slower to react than the nervous system.

E)



all of the above



148)



The pituitary hormone that stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin is

148)


_______

A)



LH.

B)


ACTH.

C)


GH.

D)


TSH.

E)


MSH.



149)



Which of the following is released by axon endings in the posterior pituitary?

149)


_______

A)



growth hormone

B)



melanocyte-stimulating hormone

C)



thyroid-stimulating hormone

D)



adenylate cyclase

E)



antidiuretic hormone



150)



Target cells of the releasing and inhibiting hormones are located in the

150)


_______

A)



adrenal gland.

B)



posterior pituitary.

C)



testes.

D)



thymus gland.

E)



anterior pituitary.



151)



Inability of the pancreas to produce insulin would result in

151)


_______

A)



acromegaly.

B)



myxedema.

C)



diabetes insipidus.

D)



Cushing's disease.

E)



diabetes mellitus.



152)



Increased aggressive behavior is associated with increases in

152)


_______

A)



testosterone.

B)



progesterone.

C)



thyroid hormone.

D)



mineralocorticoids.

E)



growth hormone.



153)



Two hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla are

153)


_______

A)



epinephrine and norepinephrine.

B)



CT and PTH.

C)



PRL and ACTH.

D)



oxytocin and ADH.

E)



FSH and GH.



154)



In response to stress, the concentration of epinephrine

154)


_______

A)



increases and cortisol remains unchanged.

B)



increases and cortisol decreases.

C)



decreases and cortisol increases.

D)



and cortisol decreases.

E)



and cortisol increases.



155)



This condition develops when the posterior pituitary no longer releases adequate amounts of ADH.

155)


_______

A)



diabetes mellitus

B)



pituitary dwarfism

C)



diabetes insipidus

D)



gigantism

E)



exophthalmos



156)



When blood glucose levels fall,

156)


_______

A)



insulin is released.

B)



protein synthesis decreases.

C)



glucagon is released.

D)



peripheral cells take up less glucose.

E)



all of the above



157)



The most complex endocrine responses involve the

157)


_______

A)



adrenal glands.

B)



hypothalamus.

C)



thymus.

D)



thyroid gland.

E)



pancreas.



158)



Increased levels of the hormone ________ will lead to increased levels of calcium ions in the blood.

158)


_______

A)



cortisol

B)



thymosin

C)



parathyroid hormone

D)



aldosterone

E)



calcitonin



159)



The hormone released from the adrenal medulla is

159)


_______

A)



aldosterone.

B)



insulin.

C)



cortisol.

D)



androgens.

E)



none of the above



160)



Two hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are

160)


_______

A)



PRL and OT.

B)



GH and TSH.

C)



ADH and OT.

D)



ACTH and LH.

E)



ADH and FSH.




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