English Grammar I unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative



Download 149.5 Kb.
Date08.06.2018
Size149.5 Kb.
#50798

English Grammar I

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 9.1 Gerund
  • Gerunds are the –ing form of verbs used as a noun. They can be either used as a subjects or an object. When a gerund is used as a subject, it is always singular and has to be followed by the third-person-singular form of the verb.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • Having good study habits is important for students.
  • Regular exercising is good for your health.
  • I don’t mind washing the dishes every day.
  • My son enjoys swimming in the sea.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 9.1-1 Verbs following by a gerund:
  • A gerund is often used as the object of a certain verb. Words that have to be followed by gerunds are listed in the table 9.1.
  • Table 9.1: Verbs following by a gerund:

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • admit
  • avoid
  • can’t help
  • celebrate
  • delay
  • deny
  • discuss
  • dislike
  • enjoy
  • explain
  • feel like
  • finish
  • imagine
  • keep
  • mind
  • miss
  • postpone
  • practice
  • prohibit
  • quit
  • recommend
  • regret
  • report
  • resist

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • Do you mind taking out the garbage?
  • My husband dislikes playing golf.
  • Chris enjoys listening to jazz.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 9.1-2 Special usage of Gerunds:
  • 1) Gerunds can be the objectives of prepositions.
  • My father gave up smoking two years ago.
  • Ben is thinking of studying abroad after graduation.
  • My parents are used to going mountain climbing on Saturday.
  • We are looking forward to serving you again.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 2) The preposition “by” following a gerund is often used to express how a thing is done.
  • You can learn new words by memorizing them.
  • You can lose weight by exercising.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 3) The word “go” is followed by a gerund:
  • We go hiking every Saturday morning.
  • People go snorkeling in Kenting National Park in summer.
  • We went skiing in Korea last winter.
  • 4) How about, what about is followed by a gerund
  • How about having a drink after work?
  • What about playing golf this weekend?

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 5) It is no use + gerund.
  • It is no use crying over spilt milk.
  • It is no use arguing with Mom.
  • 6) I have trouble (difficulty, a hard time, problem) +gerund.
  • She has difficulty writing a correct English essay.
  • I have a hard time working with her.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 7) It is worthy+ gerund.
  • The novel is worthy reading.
  • The movie is worthy watching.
  • 8) S(thing) +need+ gerund.
  • My car needs washing.
  • Her scooter needs repairing.
  • 9) We also use “ing” clause after the following words (sense verbs) : see, hear,
  • watch, notice, observe, smell, listen to, find, feel, and look at.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • I saw John crossing the road.
  • I saw John cross the road.
  • I heard someone playing the piano in the classroom.
  • I heard someone play the piano in the classroom.
  • The police found a homeless lying on the sidewalk.
  • The police found a homeless lay on the sidewalk.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 9.1.3 Exercise A: Complete each sentence with correct answer.
  • I do mind ______ (drive) such a long distance to work.
  • Sandra very much enjoys ______ ( listen) to classical music.
  • Why do you keep on _____ (look) at me like that?
  • I considered ______ ( quit) the boring job.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • Could you wash the dishes when you finish ________ ( eat)?
  • If you cross the street without ______( look), you’ll be run over by a car.
  • You are going to practice ______( play) the piano every day if
  • you want to get the certificate.
  • It’s hot today. We feel like _____ ( go) swim in the sea.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 9.2 Infinitive
  • An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word “to” plus a verb. It may function as a noun an adjective, or an adverb. In the negative sentence, the negative word “not” precedes the infinitive.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • To cheat is wrong. (subject)
  • Everyone wants to go to the party. (object)
  • We must study to learn. (adverb)
  • My parents tell me not to swim in the rivers.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 9.2-1 Verbs following by infinitives
  • 1) Verbs that have to be followed by an infinitive are listed in the table 9.2.
  • Table 9.2: Verbs following by infinitives

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • afford
  • demand
  • happen
  • prefer
  • agree
  • deserve
  • intend
  • prepare
  • arrange
  • desire
  • learn
  • pretend
  • ask
  • expect
  • mean
  • refuse
  • care
  • fail
  • need
  • seem
  • choose
  • forget
  • offer
  • swear
  • decide
  • get
  • plan
  • vow

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • June promised to come home by eight.
  • Ricardo deserves to have a better life.
  • Carrie has already agreed to marry Harry.
  • The witness swore to tell the truth.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • Verbs that have to be followed by an object and infinitive are listed in the table 9.3.
  • Table 9.3: Verbs following by an object and infinitive

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • advise
  • get
  • permit
  • teach
  • allow
  • hire
  • prefer
  • tell
  • ask
  • intend
  • prepare
  • train
  • choose
  • invite
  • promise
  • want
  • encourage
  • need
  • remind
  • warn
  • expect
  • mean
  • request
  • wish
  • force
  • order
  • require
  • would like

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • Tyler told his son not to hang out with his classmates after school.
  • Miss Lin encourage Alex to study abroad.
  • They wanted us to leave.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 9.2-2 Special usage of Infinitives:
  • 1) “It” is often used to start an infinitive sentence.
  • To learn a new language is not so difficult.
  •  It is not so difficult to learn a new language.
  • Walking to the station takes about ten minutes.
  •  It takes about ten minutes to walk to the station.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 2) Infinitives can be used after adjectives to express feelings. These adjectives are: afraid, glad, pleased, surprised, shocked, happy, anxious, sad, sorry, and delighted.
  • I am delighted to see you here.
  • She is anxious to go back to her hometown.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 3) Subject + be verb + too+ adjective + ( for +person) + infinitive
    • Mrs. Black is too weak to walk.
    • Manuel is too young to be a father.
    • It is too late for you to go out alone.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 4) Subject + be + adjective + enough +infinitive
  • Courtney is old enough to go to school.
  • Shawn was not tall enough to play basketball.
  • The curtains are not long enough to reach the floor.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 5) Sometimes “to” function as a preposition, therefore, it has to be followed by a gerund.
  • look forward to
  • We are looking forward to hearing from you.
  • prefer…. to
  • Bryan prefers swimming to jogging.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • be used to
  • Are you used to going to Taipei by plane?
  • object to
  • Why did you object to working overtime?

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 9.2-3 Verbs following either by gerunds or infinitives
  • Verbs can be followed either by an infinitive or a gerund with the same meaning are listed in the table 9.4

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • Table 9.4: Verbs can be followed by either infinitives or gerunds
  • We like to go mountain climbing on Saturday morning.
  • We like going mountain climbing on Saturday morning.
  • love
  • like
  • hate
  • begin
  • start
  • can’t stand

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 9.2-4 Verbs following by either an infinitive or a gerund with different meaning
  • forget:
  • forget +ing: forget something that happened in the past
  • I forgot mailing the letter.
  • I mailed the letter but afterwards I didn’t remember.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • forget:
  • forget + to: forget to do a duty or something
  • I forgot to mail the letter.
  • I planned to mail the letter but I didn’t.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • remember:
  • remember+ ing: remember something that happened in the past
  • remember+ to: remember to perform duty or task
  • I remembered buying this book in your store.
  • Remember to tell her I called.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • stop:
  • stop + ing: stopping doing something
  • stop + to: stopping doing one thing to do another thing
  • The doctor asked Mr. Green to stop smoking. (Not to smoke anymore)
  • Those workers must stop to take a rest. (stop work in order to take a rest)

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • regret
  • regret+ ing: regret something that happened in the past
  • regret+ ed: to inform someone of a piece of bad news
  • I regretted telling her the truth. She decided to break up with me.
  • I regret to tell you that your father died in that serious car accident.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 9.2-5 Exercise: Infinitive
  • After the movie, we hope _______ (get) some coffee at StarBucks.
  • Are you planning _____ (go) to the party?
  • Sally expects _______ (pass) the test tomorrow.
  • Some students put off _______ (do) their homework later.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • Allen always remembers ________ (turn) off the light before leaving his room.
  • When we finish ______ (drink) coffee, we will go home.
  • The teacher said I was not old enough __________ (join) the team.
  • Victor is always the first _____ (arrive) and he is proud of it.
  • My teacher told me ______ (not give up).

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 9.3 Causative Verbs
  • Causative verbs are used when people do not perform the actions themselves. But they are responsible for the actions being performed. Causative verbs include have, let, make, and get.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • Have: “have” means to give someone the responsibility to do something. There are two basic structures. One is active, the other is passive. The structure of the former is: have + person + verb. The structure of the latter is: have + thing + participle
  • I had my toilet fixed this morning.
  • I had a plumber fix the toilet this morning.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • Get: “get” has the same meaning with “have”. There are two basic structures, too. One is active, the other is passive. The structure of the former is: get + person + to verb. The structure of the latter is: get + thing + participle.
  • Mrs. Green got the kids to go to bed early.
  • Mrs. Green got the lawn mowed.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • Make: “make” means to force someone to do something. There are two basic structures. One is active, the other is passive. In Active Voice, “make” is followed by a verb. In passive voice, infinitive is used.
  • Don’t make me fight with you.
  • Megan was made to sing an English song in oral class.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • I make this CD player work.
  • I can make your son work part time on weekends.

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • Let: let” means allow someone to do something. There is only active structure and the structure is : let + person + verb word
  • You should let the students take a break.
  • Will you let me use your car?

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • 9.3-1 Exercise: Complete each sentence with correct causative verb:
  • Victor’s mother doesn’t _____________ him have a dog.
  • I am unable to __________my children clean their own room.
  • Miss Chang ______ each of us to make a sentence with “not only…but also”

Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

  • Miss Chang ___________ her students use a dictionary during the test.
  • Mrs. White doesn’t _____________ her children watch TV. She thinks it is a waste of time.
  • The manager ___________ his secretary make a cup of coffee for him.
  • The bank robbers _________ the customers lie on the floor.


Download 149.5 Kb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2022
send message

    Main page