Active Voice The opposite of passive voice, the active voice is essentially any sentence with an active verb



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Active Voice – The opposite of passive voice, the active voice is essentially any sentence with an active verb. Jonny Appleseed planted his seeds in the garden. The action verb is “planted”. Active voice is usually preferred in writing because it expresses more energy and command of the essay than does the passive voice.

  • Active Voice – The opposite of passive voice, the active voice is essentially any sentence with an active verb. Jonny Appleseed planted his seeds in the garden. The action verb is “planted”. Active voice is usually preferred in writing because it expresses more energy and command of the essay than does the passive voice.

Ad Hominem – This is an attack on the person rather than the issues at hand – a common fallacy, especially during election year.

  • Ad Hominem – This is an attack on the person rather than the issues at hand – a common fallacy, especially during election year.

Alliteration – The repetition of a phonetic sound at the beginning of several words in a sentence. Students sometimes mention alliteration in rhetorical analysis essays, although it should only be discussed if the alliterative phrase itself is noticeable and the author has a legitimate purpose for using it. Otherwise, it is linguistic window dressing more often used in poetry. Examples are Simple Simon sat on the straw and Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.

  • Alliteration – The repetition of a phonetic sound at the beginning of several words in a sentence. Students sometimes mention alliteration in rhetorical analysis essays, although it should only be discussed if the alliterative phrase itself is noticeable and the author has a legitimate purpose for using it. Otherwise, it is linguistic window dressing more often used in poetry. Examples are Simple Simon sat on the straw and Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.

Allusion – A reference that recalls another work, another time in history, another famous person, and so forth. Like metaphor and simile, allusions are always important and begin a literary ripple effect. For example, if you call a piece of real estate “the Promised Land,” you are alluding to the Hebrews’ forty-year search for the sacred land promised them by God and found in Israel. Similarly, if an author calls a naïve character “Miranda,” he or she may be alluding to the adolescent daughter of Prospero in The Tempest. The College board expects you to be well-read and to have adequate knowledge of Greek and Roman mythology, the Judeo-Christian tradition, and Shakespeare, at the very least. Identify the impact of allusions in the same way you could work with a metaphor

  • Allusion – A reference that recalls another work, another time in history, another famous person, and so forth. Like metaphor and simile, allusions are always important and begin a literary ripple effect. For example, if you call a piece of real estate “the Promised Land,” you are alluding to the Hebrews’ forty-year search for the sacred land promised them by God and found in Israel. Similarly, if an author calls a naïve character “Miranda,” he or she may be alluding to the adolescent daughter of Prospero in The Tempest. The College board expects you to be well-read and to have adequate knowledge of Greek and Roman mythology, the Judeo-Christian tradition, and Shakespeare, at the very least. Identify the impact of allusions in the same way you could work with a metaphor

Anadiplosis – This is a wonderful technique of repetition. In anadiplosis, the last word of the clause begins with the next clause, creating a connection of ideas important to the author’s purpose in some way. The Furies chased the men. The men were chased by their nightmares. The nightmares awakened everyone in the room.

  • Anadiplosis – This is a wonderful technique of repetition. In anadiplosis, the last word of the clause begins with the next clause, creating a connection of ideas important to the author’s purpose in some way. The Furies chased the men. The men were chased by their nightmares. The nightmares awakened everyone in the room.

Analogy – A term that signifies a relational comparison of or similarity between two objects or ideas. For example, there is an analogy between the heart and a pump (a heart pushes the flow of blood through the body as a pump pushes are into a tire). You will occasionally see this term combined with another, as in “antithetical analogy” (a relational comparison of two opposing ideas/subjects, such as a news attempt to compare diplomatic negotiations in the Middle East to the NFL playoffs).

  • Analogy – A term that signifies a relational comparison of or similarity between two objects or ideas. For example, there is an analogy between the heart and a pump (a heart pushes the flow of blood through the body as a pump pushes are into a tire). You will occasionally see this term combined with another, as in “antithetical analogy” (a relational comparison of two opposing ideas/subjects, such as a news attempt to compare diplomatic negotiations in the Middle East to the NFL playoffs).

Anaphora – In rhetoric, this is the deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive poetic lines, prose sentences, clauses, or paragraphs. You will see this quite often in political speeches, when politicians make promises to voters: I will fight for medical care for every man, woman, and child. I will fight for social security for our children. I will fight to raise the minimum wage.

  • Anaphora – In rhetoric, this is the deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive poetic lines, prose sentences, clauses, or paragraphs. You will see this quite often in political speeches, when politicians make promises to voters: I will fight for medical care for every man, woman, and child. I will fight for social security for our children. I will fight to raise the minimum wage.

Anastrophe – The reversal of the natural order of words in a sentence of line of poetry. It has a nice – if somewhat alarming – effect at times, and it has been known to occasionally cause confusion in inexperienced readers. Shakespeare was a whiz with anastrophe, which is also the reason so many people mistakenly think that Shakespeare wrote in Old English. (He didn’t! If you can understand the words, it is modern English!) The poisoned apple she ate to her gave cramps of a serious nature.

  • Anastrophe – The reversal of the natural order of words in a sentence of line of poetry. It has a nice – if somewhat alarming – effect at times, and it has been known to occasionally cause confusion in inexperienced readers. Shakespeare was a whiz with anastrophe, which is also the reason so many people mistakenly think that Shakespeare wrote in Old English. (He didn’t! If you can understand the words, it is modern English!) The poisoned apple she ate to her gave cramps of a serious nature.

Antithesis – An observation or claim that is in opposition to your claim or an author’s claim. If we argue for the drilling of wells, the antithesis might be to divert water from the river. If we claim that the electoral college is an outdated anachronism, the antithesis would be that like the rest of the Constitution, it has managed to adapt to the changing times.

  • Antithesis – An observation or claim that is in opposition to your claim or an author’s claim. If we argue for the drilling of wells, the antithesis might be to divert water from the river. If we claim that the electoral college is an outdated anachronism, the antithesis would be that like the rest of the Constitution, it has managed to adapt to the changing times.

Aphorism – A brief statement of an opinion or elemental truth. Aphorisms usually appear only in the multiple choice section; however, they occasionally show up in rhetorical analysis passages. Ben Franklin specialized in such aphoristic gems as these: They who can give up the essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety, and Glass, China, and Reputation, are easily crack’d, and never well minded.

  • Aphorism – A brief statement of an opinion or elemental truth. Aphorisms usually appear only in the multiple choice section; however, they occasionally show up in rhetorical analysis passages. Ben Franklin specialized in such aphoristic gems as these: They who can give up the essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety, and Glass, China, and Reputation, are easily crack’d, and never well minded.

Apostrophe – Prayer-like, this is a direct address to someone who is not present, to a deity or muse, or to some other power. It rarely appears on the Language exam, but when it does, it is usually significant and nearly always pathos. O eloquent, just, and mighty death.

  • Apostrophe – Prayer-like, this is a direct address to someone who is not present, to a deity or muse, or to some other power. It rarely appears on the Language exam, but when it does, it is usually significant and nearly always pathos. O eloquent, just, and mighty death.

Appositive – Also called a noun phrase, an appositive modifies the noun next to it. You will occasionally see one in the multiple-choice section of the test; appositives are relatively easy to spot. The dragon, a large creature with glittering green scales, looked warily at the approaching wizard.

  • Appositive – Also called a noun phrase, an appositive modifies the noun next to it. You will occasionally see one in the multiple-choice section of the test; appositives are relatively easy to spot. The dragon, a large creature with glittering green scales, looked warily at the approaching wizard.

Argument from Ignorance – An argument stating that something is true because it has never been proven false. Such arguments rely on claims that are impossible to prove conclusively, and they often go both ways: There are not aliens because we have never identified aliens or aliens exist because we have never proven they don’t. Similarly, God exists because no one has proven he doesn’t (and vice versa).

  • Argument from Ignorance – An argument stating that something is true because it has never been proven false. Such arguments rely on claims that are impossible to prove conclusively, and they often go both ways: There are not aliens because we have never identified aliens or aliens exist because we have never proven they don’t. Similarly, God exists because no one has proven he doesn’t (and vice versa).

Asyndeton – The deliberate omission of conjunctions from a series of related independent clauses. The effect is to create a tight, concise, and forceful sentence. All the orcs ate the food, broke the dishes, trashed the hall, beat the dogs to the shower.

  • Asyndeton – The deliberate omission of conjunctions from a series of related independent clauses. The effect is to create a tight, concise, and forceful sentence. All the orcs ate the food, broke the dishes, trashed the hall, beat the dogs to the shower.

Bandwagon – Also call vox populi. This argument is the “everyone’s doing it” fallacy and is especially appreciated, for example, politicians trying to get voters to agree that everyone agrees that we should all agree to reduce taxes and by teenagers who argue that they should be allowed to go to the concert because all their friends are going.

  • Bandwagon – Also call vox populi. This argument is the “everyone’s doing it” fallacy and is especially appreciated, for example, politicians trying to get voters to agree that everyone agrees that we should all agree to reduce taxes and by teenagers who argue that they should be allowed to go to the concert because all their friends are going.

Begging the Question – This argument occurs when the speaker states a claim that includes a word or phrase that needs to be defined before the argument can proceed. Because of the extreme conditions before us, we must vote for this tax. (Uh, what conditions are being “extreme”?)

  • Begging the Question – This argument occurs when the speaker states a claim that includes a word or phrase that needs to be defined before the argument can proceed. Because of the extreme conditions before us, we must vote for this tax. (Uh, what conditions are being “extreme”?)

Cause and Effect – Another fallacy, this is also known by another name, post hoc ergo propter hoc (Latin for “after his, therefore because of this”). Such an argument falls under the general umbrella of causality fallacy or false cause. It seems that every time you turn on the game on television, the team loses. Therefore, you come to believe that you are the cause of the losses. (It sounds silly, but people do it all the time. Think about superstitions.)

  • Cause and Effect – Another fallacy, this is also known by another name, post hoc ergo propter hoc (Latin for “after his, therefore because of this”). Such an argument falls under the general umbrella of causality fallacy or false cause. It seems that every time you turn on the game on television, the team loses. Therefore, you come to believe that you are the cause of the losses. (It sounds silly, but people do it all the time. Think about superstitions.)

Chiasmus – This is an ABBA syntactical structure rather than the more common parallel ABAB structure. It is derived from the Greek letter X (chi); thus, as you might have guessed, its form is similar to an X. While it is a pleasure to find one (and they are memorable), chiasmus is a rather minor syntactical device. One example everyone recalls is Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country. The chi structure country (A), you (B), you (B), country (A).

  • Chiasmus – This is an ABBA syntactical structure rather than the more common parallel ABAB structure. It is derived from the Greek letter X (chi); thus, as you might have guessed, its form is similar to an X. While it is a pleasure to find one (and they are memorable), chiasmus is a rather minor syntactical device. One example everyone recalls is Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country. The chi structure country (A), you (B), you (B), country (A).

Complex Sentence – A sentence structure that is a combination of a dependent and independent clause. If you walk to the top of the tower, you will find a sacred sardine can.

  • Complex Sentence – A sentence structure that is a combination of a dependent and independent clause. If you walk to the top of the tower, you will find a sacred sardine can.

Compound Sentence – A sentence structure made up to two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction. Don’t open the door or a deadly smell will kill you.

  • Compound Sentence – A sentence structure made up to two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction. Don’t open the door or a deadly smell will kill you.

Compound-Complex Sentence – A combination of a compound and a complex sentence. Because the swamp is near your back door, you might expect the Creature from the Black Lagoon to put in an appearance and tear apart Uncle Al’s fishin’ shack if it is in his way.

  • Compound-Complex Sentence – A combination of a compound and a complex sentence. Because the swamp is near your back door, you might expect the Creature from the Black Lagoon to put in an appearance and tear apart Uncle Al’s fishin’ shack if it is in his way.

Connotation – The associations or moods that accompany a word. Words generally are negative (sadistic), positive (serendipitous), or neutral (instrument). Pay close attention to the diction choices an author makes and especially take note of any particularly strong connotative words or patterns of connotative words, as this is how you usually determine the author’s tone and intention. An example would be the words “trim”, “thin”, and “skinny”. “Trim” carries a positive connotation about a person’s physique, whereas “thin” is neutral and “skinny” is negative. For an even stronger negative connotation, you might use “anorexic”.

  • Connotation – The associations or moods that accompany a word. Words generally are negative (sadistic), positive (serendipitous), or neutral (instrument). Pay close attention to the diction choices an author makes and especially take note of any particularly strong connotative words or patterns of connotative words, as this is how you usually determine the author’s tone and intention. An example would be the words “trim”, “thin”, and “skinny”. “Trim” carries a positive connotation about a person’s physique, whereas “thin” is neutral and “skinny” is negative. For an even stronger negative connotation, you might use “anorexic”.

Declarative Sentence – This is a basic statement or an assertion and is the most common type of sentence. Alternate forms of energy must be found by people who are not capitalists desiring only power and money.

  • Declarative Sentence – This is a basic statement or an assertion and is the most common type of sentence. Alternate forms of energy must be found by people who are not capitalists desiring only power and money.

Deductive – A form of logical argumentation that uses claims or premises. The assumption by the author is that you will accept the claims as true and that you will then deduce the correct conclusion from the accepted premises at the outset. Deductive reasoning looks most like geometry proofs. When you encounter a deductive argument, you need to examine the claims. Are they reasonable? Do you accept them? Look for fallacies in the claims. Often a premise will carry an implied premise that is present (and essential) to the argument. Do you accept the implied premise? What appears to be solid reason can manipulate your allegiances more easily than an emotional argument; therefore, be critical when you read. The infrastructure of American cities was designed and built by human beings. Human beings are fallible. Therefore, one may conclude that there are structural flaws in parts of the infrastructure.

  • Deductive – A form of logical argumentation that uses claims or premises. The assumption by the author is that you will accept the claims as true and that you will then deduce the correct conclusion from the accepted premises at the outset. Deductive reasoning looks most like geometry proofs. When you encounter a deductive argument, you need to examine the claims. Are they reasonable? Do you accept them? Look for fallacies in the claims. Often a premise will carry an implied premise that is present (and essential) to the argument. Do you accept the implied premise? What appears to be solid reason can manipulate your allegiances more easily than an emotional argument; therefore, be critical when you read. The infrastructure of American cities was designed and built by human beings. Human beings are fallible. Therefore, one may conclude that there are structural flaws in parts of the infrastructure.

Denotation – This is the opposite of connotation and is quite literally the dictionary meaning of the word. Denotation: (n.) The most specific or direct meaning of a word, in contrast to its figurative or associated meanings.

  • Denotation – This is the opposite of connotation and is quite literally the dictionary meaning of the word. Denotation: (n.) The most specific or direct meaning of a word, in contrast to its figurative or associated meanings.

Dependent Clause – This clause contains a noun and a verb but is set up with a subordinate conjunction, which makes the clause an incomplete thought. Because the magician’s rabbit refused to come out of the hat…

  • Dependent Clause – This clause contains a noun and a verb but is set up with a subordinate conjunction, which makes the clause an incomplete thought. Because the magician’s rabbit refused to come out of the hat…

Dialect – A regional speech pattern; the way people talk in different parts of the world. Dialect is a form of regionalism in writing and is often referred to as “colloquial language”. When a writer imitates dialect (the speech of a particular area of the country), he or she is relying on the language to make a passage feel “homey” and personal. Zora Neale Hurston uses regional dialect in Their Eyes Were Watching God: “You mean, you mad ‘cause she didn’t stop and tell us all her business…The worse thing Ah ever knowed her to do was taking a few hears offa her age and dat ain’t never harmed nobody.”

  • Dialect – A regional speech pattern; the way people talk in different parts of the world. Dialect is a form of regionalism in writing and is often referred to as “colloquial language”. When a writer imitates dialect (the speech of a particular area of the country), he or she is relying on the language to make a passage feel “homey” and personal. Zora Neale Hurston uses regional dialect in Their Eyes Were Watching God: “You mean, you mad ‘cause she didn’t stop and tell us all her business…The worse thing Ah ever knowed her to do was taking a few hears offa her age and dat ain’t never harmed nobody.”

Diction – The particular words an author uses in any essay. Diction choices (why one word is used as opposed to another) are the essential building blocks of composition.

  • Diction – The particular words an author uses in any essay. Diction choices (why one word is used as opposed to another) are the essential building blocks of composition.

Distractor – A distractor is a possible answer that seems to be correct, but is either wrong or is not as good as other answers.

  • Distractor – A distractor is a possible answer that seems to be correct, but is either wrong or is not as good as other answers.

Ellipsis – Three dots that indicate words have been left out of a quotation; they also can be used to create suspense. The dark car appeared at the end of the alley and Herman, the handsome hero (example of alliteration), was trapped against the wall at the opposite end. The engine revved…

  • Ellipsis – Three dots that indicate words have been left out of a quotation; they also can be used to create suspense. The dark car appeared at the end of the alley and Herman, the handsome hero (example of alliteration), was trapped against the wall at the opposite end. The engine revved…

Epanalepsis – Like Chiasmus, this figure repeats the opening word or phrase at the end of the sentence to emphasize a statement or idea, but is not an ABBA reversal. The demon descended in a crowd toward a village now afraid of the demon, or common sense is not so common.

  • Epanalepsis – Like Chiasmus, this figure repeats the opening word or phrase at the end of the sentence to emphasize a statement or idea, but is not an ABBA reversal. The demon descended in a crowd toward a village now afraid of the demon, or common sense is not so common.

Epistrophe – A minor device, epistrophe is the ending or a series of lines, phrases, clauses, or sentences with the same word or words. When it appears in a speech or essay, it is emotionally potent. One of the most famous is Lincoln’s This government of the people, by the people and for the people shall not perish from this earth.

  • Epistrophe – A minor device, epistrophe is the ending or a series of lines, phrases, clauses, or sentences with the same word or words. When it appears in a speech or essay, it is emotionally potent. One of the most famous is Lincoln’s This government of the people, by the people and for the people shall not perish from this earth.

Ethos – one of the fundamental strategies of argumentation identified by Aristotle. Ethos is basically an appeal to credibility. The writer is seeking to convince you that he or she has the background, history, skills, and/or expertise to speak on the issue. Whenever you encounter and Ethos argument, always ask yourself if the credibility is substantiated and valid. An essay advocating policy changes on drug rehabilitation programs if more powerful if the person is a former addict or counselor in a current rehab program.

  • Ethos – one of the fundamental strategies of argumentation identified by Aristotle. Ethos is basically an appeal to credibility. The writer is seeking to convince you that he or she has the background, history, skills, and/or expertise to speak on the issue. Whenever you encounter and Ethos argument, always ask yourself if the credibility is substantiated and valid. An essay advocating policy changes on drug rehabilitation programs if more powerful if the person is a former addict or counselor in a current rehab program.

Etymology – The study of the origin of words and their historical uses. This is a minor term and rarely appears on the test, but it is nice to know. The name for sandwich came from the Earl of Sandwich, an altogether unremarkable peer of the English realm.

  • Etymology – The study of the origin of words and their historical uses. This is a minor term and rarely appears on the test, but it is nice to know. The name for sandwich came from the Earl of Sandwich, an altogether unremarkable peer of the English realm.

Euphemism – To use a safer or nicer word for something others find inappropriate or unappealing. Euphemism generally appears only in the multiple-choice section. The English language offers many euphemisms for death and bodily functions, such as Bambi’s mother now grazes in the pastures forever to mean “died” or After a long night of partying, the young man spent the morning repenting at the altar of the porcelain god to mean “vomiting.”

  • Euphemism – To use a safer or nicer word for something others find inappropriate or unappealing. Euphemism generally appears only in the multiple-choice section. The English language offers many euphemisms for death and bodily functions, such as Bambi’s mother now grazes in the pastures forever to mean “died” or After a long night of partying, the young man spent the morning repenting at the altar of the porcelain god to mean “vomiting.”

Exclamatory Sentence – A sentence that conveys excitement or force. Egads, Wilton, we are being pursued by squirmy, nasty creatures with suckers on their feet!

  • Exclamatory Sentence – A sentence that conveys excitement or force. Egads, Wilton, we are being pursued by squirmy, nasty creatures with suckers on their feet!

Fallacy – A failure of logical reasoning. Fallacies appear to make an argument reasonable, but falsely so. The key, however, is for you to be able to spot when someone is not making sense or is failing to convince. When that happens, you ma y not remember the right label for the fallacy, but you should be able to identify where the author has messed up. In the chapter on rhetorical analysis, we discuss a variety of common fallacies, and we have included most of them alphabetically in the vocabulary list: ad hominem, begging the question, straw man, slippery slope, etc.

  • Fallacy – A failure of logical reasoning. Fallacies appear to make an argument reasonable, but falsely so. The key, however, is for you to be able to spot when someone is not making sense or is failing to convince. When that happens, you ma y not remember the right label for the fallacy, but you should be able to identify where the author has messed up. In the chapter on rhetorical analysis, we discuss a variety of common fallacies, and we have included most of them alphabetically in the vocabulary list: ad hominem, begging the question, straw man, slippery slope, etc.

False Analogy – An argument using an inappropriate metaphor. To help understand one thing in an argument we compare it to something else that is not at all relevant. The earth is like a watch and, just as a fine watch was made, so also the earth was made.

  • False Analogy – An argument using an inappropriate metaphor. To help understand one thing in an argument we compare it to something else that is not at all relevant. The earth is like a watch and, just as a fine watch was made, so also the earth was made.

False Dilemma – Also known as an either/or fallacy. The suggestion is made in the argument that the problem of debate only has two solutions. You can also call it the fallacy of the excluded middle. For example, There are only two options in gun control: when the guns are outlawed, only outlaws will have guns.

  • False Dilemma – Also known as an either/or fallacy. The suggestion is made in the argument that the problem of debate only has two solutions. You can also call it the fallacy of the excluded middle. For example, There are only two options in gun control: when the guns are outlawed, only outlaws will have guns.

Gerund – A verb ending in “ing” that serves as a noun. “Stabbing is what I do best,” said the thief.

  • Gerund – A verb ending in “ing” that serves as a noun. “Stabbing is what I do best,” said the thief.

Hyperbole – An exaggeration, fairly common in nonfiction prose arguments, that bolster an argument. I know you will all give one thousand percent defending this castle against the onslaught of the murderous mutants.

  • Hyperbole – An exaggeration, fairly common in nonfiction prose arguments, that bolster an argument. I know you will all give one thousand percent defending this castle against the onslaught of the murderous mutants.

Imagery – Any time one of the five senses (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, gustatory) is evoked by what you have read, you have encountered imagery. It was crucial to the old AP test’s style analysis, which asked about mood, tone, or attitude. It is less crucial in the new AP test format, but there may still be important images in an argument. If so, two things are usually happening. The first is that the argument is inductive and relying on examples. The second is that the images will often begin to carry a kind of pathos, or emotional feel which supports the argument in some way.

  • Imagery – Any time one of the five senses (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, gustatory) is evoked by what you have read, you have encountered imagery. It was crucial to the old AP test’s style analysis, which asked about mood, tone, or attitude. It is less crucial in the new AP test format, but there may still be important images in an argument. If so, two things are usually happening. The first is that the argument is inductive and relying on examples. The second is that the images will often begin to carry a kind of pathos, or emotional feel which supports the argument in some way.

Imperative Sentence – A command. You will rescue the maiden or surrender your sword to the round table.

  • Imperative Sentence – A command. You will rescue the maiden or surrender your sword to the round table.

Independent Clause – A clause that can stand alone as a sentence. It must have a noun and a verb (subject and predicate). The magician’s rabbit died.

  • Independent Clause – A clause that can stand alone as a sentence. It must have a noun and a verb (subject and predicate). The magician’s rabbit died.

Inductive – A form of logical argumentation that requires the use of examples. Inductive arguments are most like science: You get example after example until you reach a conclusion. These types of argument are fairly easy to spot and very common to argumentative essays. When you encounter an inductive argument, ask yourself two questions: are there enough examples, and are the examples relevant to the question being addressed? A writer who argues for the success of a particular diet plan would use testimony from success stories, a scientific study proving its effectiveness, and a few doctors who claim it has safe and natural ingredients.

  • Inductive – A form of logical argumentation that requires the use of examples. Inductive arguments are most like science: You get example after example until you reach a conclusion. These types of argument are fairly easy to spot and very common to argumentative essays. When you encounter an inductive argument, ask yourself two questions: are there enough examples, and are the examples relevant to the question being addressed? A writer who argues for the success of a particular diet plan would use testimony from success stories, a scientific study proving its effectiveness, and a few doctors who claim it has safe and natural ingredients.

Infinitive – The word “to” plus a verb, usually functioning as a noun and often as a predicate in a sentence. Infinitives fake out students because they look like prepositional phrases. To reach the other side of the river (infinitive phrase and noun and subject) was the desired goal (predicate nominative) of the nearly comatose ogre.

  • Infinitive – The word “to” plus a verb, usually functioning as a noun and often as a predicate in a sentence. Infinitives fake out students because they look like prepositional phrases. To reach the other side of the river (infinitive phrase and noun and subject) was the desired goal (predicate nominative) of the nearly comatose ogre.

Interrogative Sentence – A question To reach Dracula’s castle, do I turn left or right at the crossroads?

  • Interrogative Sentence – A question To reach Dracula’s castle, do I turn left or right at the crossroads?

Irony – The use of words to express something other than and often the opposite of the literal meaning. There are three types of irony: verbal irony, a contrast between what is said and what is meant (sarcasm); situational irony, a contrast between what happens and what was expected; and dramatic irony, a contrast between what the character things to be true and what the reader knows to be true. Familiarity with irony is absolutely essential in reading nonfiction prose and especially in doing rhetorical analysis on the exam, as it appears in nearly every piece in one form or another. Irony is often connected to satire or satiric speech. He bought the ring and brought it back to their apartment. She had left a note, “Gone to find myself in North Dakota.” An example on the linguistic level uses a metaphor: Your love is a fine cloth – a rag, actually, deteriorating as the elements take their toll.

  • Irony – The use of words to express something other than and often the opposite of the literal meaning. There are three types of irony: verbal irony, a contrast between what is said and what is meant (sarcasm); situational irony, a contrast between what happens and what was expected; and dramatic irony, a contrast between what the character things to be true and what the reader knows to be true. Familiarity with irony is absolutely essential in reading nonfiction prose and especially in doing rhetorical analysis on the exam, as it appears in nearly every piece in one form or another. Irony is often connected to satire or satiric speech. He bought the ring and brought it back to their apartment. She had left a note, “Gone to find myself in North Dakota.” An example on the linguistic level uses a metaphor: Your love is a fine cloth – a rag, actually, deteriorating as the elements take their toll.

Jargon – A pattern of speech and vocabulary associated with a particular group of people. It typically appears only in the multiple-choice section and is not significant. Computer analysts have their own vocabulary, as do doctors, astronauts, and plumbers. That is their jargon. To some extent, this glossary and book are an effort to provide you with a new (though we hope not entirely new) jargon.

  • Jargon – A pattern of speech and vocabulary associated with a particular group of people. It typically appears only in the multiple-choice section and is not significant. Computer analysts have their own vocabulary, as do doctors, astronauts, and plumbers. That is their jargon. To some extent, this glossary and book are an effort to provide you with a new (though we hope not entirely new) jargon.


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