English 467A: journalism steven Brill ●

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Steven Brill ● sb@brillbusiness.com ● (212) 332-6301

Fall 2018

DESCRIPTION: This seminar – the core course for Yale Journalism Scholars – is for those interested in understanding the changing role of journalism, in coming to grips with the challenges and opportunities related to the business model of journalism in a digital, global age, and in learning the practice of journalism. Grades will be based on participation and written work, with an emphasis on the final project.

We will focus on both imaginative and critical thinking as it applies to reporting and to creating ways and forms of telling a story so that it has maximum impact in a world cluttered with media and experiencing profound challenges to making journalism economically viable.

But this is not a theoretical exercise. We will be dealing with the hard core questions of how good and “bad” journalism happens – from understanding how Harvey Weinstein was unmasked (and why it took so long) to uncovering the workings or failings of some obscure but vital government agency (and getting people to care about it) to understanding the modern economic challenges of journalism. This is also a course about the nuts and bolts of effective writing and presentation.

One or perhaps two extra (and voluntary) sessions will take place in New York City, so that students can meet with working journalists there.

I will meet with each student individually during the term as often as necessary in order to provide feedback, help with the final project, and (if requested) career guidance.
Guest instructors during two of the sessions will be Bob Woodward and a variety of successful journalists who took this seminar in prior years.
Successful completion of this course and other aspects of the Yale Journalism Scholars program will qualify students to be designated Yale Journalism Scholars. For more information on the Yale Journalism Scholars and the Yale Journalism Initiative, see http://writing.yalecollege.yale.edu/journalism-initiative.


INSTRUCTOR:  Steven Brill, a graduate of Yale College and Yale Law School, worked as a writer for New York Magazine, Esquire, and Harpers while in Law School. In 1978, he was the author of a best-selling book on the Teamsters Union. A year later, he launched The American Lawyer Magazine and later expanded it into ten legal publications across the country. In 1991 Brill launched Court TV and, in 1998, Brill’s Content Magazine. In 2009, he founded Journalism Online, LLC, to enable newspapers, magazines, and online publishers to earn revenue from the journalism they publish online. In the last six years, he has also written feature articles for The New Yorker, the New York Times Magazine, The Atlantic, Fortune, and TIME. In 2011, he wrote Class Warfare: Inside the Fight To Fix America’s Schools. In 2013, he authored a special edition of TIME Magazine – “Bitter Pill: How Medical Bills Are Killing Us” – about healthcare prices and profits. His book about American healthcare and the fight over Obamacare, also a best-seller, was published in early 2015 by Random House. His latest book – TAILSPIN: The People and Forces Behind America’s Fifty-Year Fall – and Those Fighting to Reverse It – was published by Knopf in May of 2018 and also became a best seller.

Brill currently serves as the co-founder and co-CEO of NewsGuard, a company dedicated to rating the reliability of online news sites.
MEETINGS: Mondays, 9:00 – 10:50 a.m. in LC 103
ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS: The seminar is open to all sophomores, juniors, and seniors. In general, we are looking for a range of students – some with demonstrated commitment to and experience in journalism, others without that background but who can write well, want to learn, and perhaps have an added dimension to offer in class discussions (such as an intense interest in politics, the arts, law, or economics), which they might want to apply to journalism.
Each student must submit the following simple, two-part application package to sb@brillbusiness.com. Please submit the package by the evening of Monday, August 13, 2018.
I will post with the English Department the final list of those accepted by Friday, August 17, if not earlier. I will also email all accepted students. There will be a short wait list, too.
The two-part application should consist of:

  1. No more than two double-spaced pages: A written statement explaining your interest in the class and in the Yale Journalism Scholars program. This should also include your Yale class year, any previous writing courses that you have taken, a brief description of your extra-curricular activities and a description of your journalism experience.

  1. One writing sample – either an article that you have published in an on- or off- campus publication or something that you submitted for a class.

READINGS: The syllabus provides an outline of what we will cover in the course.  The course packet is available at TYCO, and all books are available at the Yale bookstore. Most of the reading will be from the “Other Reading” materials described below, supplemented by these books:

BOOKS: John Hersey, Hiroshima

James Stewart, Follow the Story: How to Write Successful Non-Fiction

Gay Talese, The Gay Talese Reader

Steven Brill, TAILSPIN – to be handed out in class.

OTHER READING: Various newspaper articles, magazine pieces and online postings intended to illustrate different forms and methods (and successes and failures) of journalism, ranging from Woodward and Bernstein’s original Watergate reporting, to celebrity profiles, to bulletins on Supreme Court decisions, to data-centric journalism at ProPublica. (All assembled in the course packet.)

ASSIGNMENTS: Please double space and have your name on all assignments.

  • Biographical profile -- 2,000 words -- of the person sitting next to you in this seminar.

  • Critiquing and editing of several published articles from time to time.

  • Critiquing and editing your fellow students’ work from time to time.

  • Coming to class with one original story idea every other week.

  • Writing a two-page strategic outline for an interview with a potentially hostile source.

  • Creating, with two partners, a journalism enterprise that does well and is financially self-sustaining.

  • Final Assignment: 3,500-4,000 word publishable magazine (or e-magazine) feature story or three-part newspaper series – to be edited by one of your classmates before final submission to me.

ADDITIONAL NOTE: Because we will regularly discuss current journalism, all participants in the program should be prepared to bring a laptop or tablet to class.

1. August 31, 2018: Introduction: In-class Discussion of What the Seminar Will Attempt to Do, and What Journalism is at Its Best
Reading (which will be discussed in class):

  • Jodi Kantor and Megan Twohey: “Harvey Weinstein Paid Off Sexual Harrassment Accusers For Decades,” The New York Times, October 5, 2017

  • Emily Jane Fox: “He Was Trying to Get Ahead of Things…,” VanityFair.com, July 2, 2018

  • Tom Junod, “Angelina Jolie Dies for Our Sins,” Esquire, July 2007

  1. Come to class prepared to discuss the differences in the journalism behind these three stories.

  1. Also, come to class prepared to discuss what’s wrong with this excerpt from the a New York Times article in its Sunday Review section from last spring. It’s an excerpt from a book by Times reporter Amy Chozick. The scene is the night of the 2016 Election:

Things were already looking bad when, several people told me, Chelsea Clinton popped the Champagne. It was just after 9 p.m. on election night and she was having her hair and makeup done in the family’s suite at the Peninsula hotel. She stopped to pour what someone said was Veuve Clicquot into everyone’s glasses, figuring that in a couple of hours Donald Trump’s run of early victories in red states (West Virginia, Oklahoma, Alabama) would end and the map would turn back in her mom’s favor.

Three hours later, the Rust Belt was awash in red, and somebody had to tell Hillary Clinton.


Robby Mook, the drained and deflated campaign manager, told his boss she was going to lose. She didn’t seem all that surprised.

I knew it. I knew this would happen to me,” she said, now within a couple of inches of Mr. Mook’s ashen face. “They were never going to let me be president.”

BEGIN WORK ON YOUR PROFILES. Profiles should be no more than 2,000 words. You must interview at least 15 people. You must have a headline that is more than the person’s name! DUE WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 2018 AT MIDNIGHT.
Assignment for next week: Write me a one sentence definition of journalism and email it to me by Thursday night, September 6, by midnight.
2. September 10, 2018: What is Journalism and Why is It Important?
The definition of journalism, the changing nature of journalism in the Information Age, and the role of journalism in a democracy and in a free market. What is the central role of journalism? What should the purpose of journalism be?  Is it a profession, a trade, or a hobby? What’s the difference? Who is a journalist? What about “community” or “participatory” journalism? What kind of blogging is journalism? What kind isn’t? What about social media?
And do any of these distinctions matter?

  • Learning to be a surrogate

  • Why it’s more important than ever

  • Can tweets be a substitute?

  • What is “fake news” -- and what can we do about it?

  • Review of sample NewsGuard Nutrition Labels (Breitbart.com; Dailykos.com; Infowars.com; NationalReview.com; CNN.com) To be handed out in class.


  • The Gay Talese Reader, Introduction and Profile of Frank Sinatra 

  • Mathew Ingram, “Thanks to the web, journalism is now something you do – not something you are,” Paid Content, June 30, 2013 (course packet)

  • Jennifer LaFleur, ProPublica Medicare Prescription data story; synopsis in course pack; link is here: http://www.propublica.org/article/how-we-analyzed-medicares-drug-data-long-methodology

  • Paul Steiger, “A Closer Look: Three Golden Ages of Journalism,” ProPublica, February 7, 2014 (course packet)

  • Ben Smith, “Why Buzzfeed News Published the Dossier,” New York Times, January 23, 2017 (course packet)

  • Joseph Bernstein, “How YouTube Serves As The Content Engine Of The Internet’s Dark Side,” Buzzfeed, February 24, 2017

  • Brietbart.com: Read the home page and two articles

  • Dailykos.com: Read the home page and two articles



  • Find a story in the Yale Daily News that has a significant fact or comment missing. Come to class with the story printed out and with your explanation written in the margin of what’s missing.

  • Come to class with one good story idea.

  • Make sure you have interviewed at least 7 people for your profiles.


3. September 17, 2018: Doing Journalism In the Digital Age:


  • Your story idea for today. Why should anyone care?

  • The difference between journalism and entertainment

  • Different types of journalism: straight news, “information,” “vicarious news,” and opinioned news and different media – print, online, video; how they work for different purposes; and why they are rarely interchangeable

  • “Types” of Journalism:

    • What? (Pure information)

    • What happened? (tweets…online…television…daily newspaper)

    • What it means? (online…daily newspaper…television…magazine…books)

    • Why it happened? (online…daily newspaper….television…magazine…books)

    • Who made it happen?

    • What WILL happen? (online…daily newspaper…television…magazine)

    • What I (the writer) think you should think about something: (Consumer news…restaurant reviews… editorials, books)

  • Where do Sinclair, Woodward and Talese fit in? What about Buzzfeed?

  • Overview of How You Gather Information – And How You Turn Policy Debates into Journalism:

    • Be there (Sinclair)

    • Talk to those who were there (Woodward and Bernstein)

    • Read about it (and now use sources’ prior emails!)

    • Use data

    • Combine them all: “TAILSPIN” tries to do this

  • What are you learning in preparing your profiles – and in being profiled?

  • Stewart’s definition of a “good story” and the rewards of journalism



  • James Stewart, Follow the Story: How to Write Successful Non-Fiction, pgs. 9-25

  • Woodward and Bernstein Watergate articles, 1972 (course packet)

  • Bob Woodward, How Mark Felt Became ‘Deep Throat’; As a Friendship – and the Watergate Story – Developed, Source’s Motives Remained a Mystery to Woodward,” The Washington Post, June 2, 2005 (course packet)

  • Excerpts from Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle, 1906 (course packet)

  • Read the first 57 pages of TAILSPIN, then see if you can find any gaps in the corresponding source notes for those pages.




  • Send me an email by Wednesday night, September 19, telling me in one sentence what is missing from Laurie Burkett’s Wall Street Journal article in next week’s reading.

  • Come to class with ONE GOOD STORY IDEA for a Yale publication.

  • Come to class with the first 200 words of your profile.



4. September 24, 2018:  Basic Journalism Standards: What’s a Good Story?

  • How do you turn your curiosity or amazement into a good story?

  • More on Finding Sources

  • Story idea for Yale Publication: Why is it a good story?

  • Turning Important Stuff Into a Good Story

  • The structure of newspaper articles, magazine features and television reports.

  • Discussion of what it is like to work on the profiles – and be profiled.

  • Discussion of Trump story

  • Discussion of why journalists ignore stories – ie., the hollowing out of America’s manufacturing economy. Is Joe Nocera’s comment about Macy’s book perceptive or pathetic?



  • Brill, “Trump U.” TIME, November 16, 2015 (course packet)

  • Laurie Burkett, “Foreign Auto Firms Under Fire in China,” Wall Street Journal, March 16, 2015 (course packet)

  • Sebastian Medina Taycac, “Cho Faces Additional Charges,” Yale Daily News, February 27, 2014 (course packet)

  • John Hersey, Hiroshima, pages 1-41

  • Read pages 148-168 of TAILSPIN. See especially Joe Nocera’s comment on page 158.


  • Profiles due Wednesday, September 26 at midnight (BRING HARD COPY to Monday’s class; electronic copy emailed to me.) REMEMBER: IF YOU DON’T HAVE A HEADLINE, THE ASSIGNMENT IS NOT COMPLETE.

  • Having read the Woodward and Bernstein Watergate stories, submit by Thursday, September 27 (11:59pm), a one page (double spaced) essay explaining how this story might have played out today in the age of digital journalism. Email it to me Thursday night and bring a hard copy to class on Monday.

  • Come to class prepared to tell me what’s wrong with the Brian Stelter story in next week’s reading.

5. October 1, 2018:  TELLING THE STORY

  • Class Guest: BOB WOODWARD

  • In-Class Sourcing Exercise

    • Figuring a new, legitimate angle

    • Sources

    • Scenes

    • Quotes

    • Taking the reader on your journey

  • Why there is no such thing as a bad source. But there are lots of examples of misusing a source!

  • Legitimate and illegitimate sourcing

  • When bad sourcing results in puffery

  • Discussion of some of the profiles


  • James Stewart, Follow the Story: How to Write Successful Non-Fiction, pgs. 167-193

  • Paul Farhi, “Anonymous sources are increasing in news stories, along with rather curious explanations,” The Washington Post, December 15, 2013 (course packet)

  • Brian Stetler, “What really happened with NBC and Ayman Mohyeldin,”

CNN.com, July 20, 2014 (course packet)

  • Sourcing Guidelines, The Washington Post and The New York Times (course packet)

  • Dana Priest and Anne Hull, “Soldiers Face Neglect, Frustration At Army’s Top Medical Facility,” The Washington Post, February 18, 2007 (course packet)

  • Kevin Roose, “How a CNN Investigation Set Off an Internet Meme War,” The New York Times, July 5, 2017 (course packet)

  • Read “Methodology and Source Notes” in back of TAILSPIN, pages 347-348.



Find a story – any story, either current or in the past – that you really admire and wish you had written. Send it to me by Wednesday night and list the 4-6 attributes of the story that make it so good.


NOTE:  We may also schedule one-on-one sessions for Friday, October 5 or Saturday October 6 to go over profiles.


6. October 8, 2018: WRITING THE STORY

  • Review of submissions of story you admired.

  • How much voice should you have?

  • Empathy

  • Basic Writing Do’s and Don’ts

  • Bad phrases and words

  • More discussion of profiles


  • Tim Radford, “A Manifesto For the Simple Scribe – My 25 Commandments for Journalists,” The Guardian, January 19, 2011 (course packet)

  • Jim Romenesko blog post on phrases banned at The Washington Post: http://jimromenesko.com/2013/03/20/washington-posts-outlook-bans-these-words-and-phrases/ (course packet)

  • A Digital Image Serial: Read at least the first chapter of “America’s Most Admired Lawbreaker” -- or listen to it: http://highline.huffingtonpost.com/miracleindustry/americas-most-admired-lawbreaker/

I will hand out a current story for you to edit for wording, sourcing queries and other substantive comments. You should bring to class a hard-copy line edit, with queries and comments written legibly in the margins.
To be handed out in class: NewsGuard’s criteria and guidelines for its analysts.

7. October 15, 2018: Avoiding Screw-ups

  • In-class editing quiz

  • Go over your edits

  • Understanding a source’s motives and psyche – Matt Apuzzo (New York Times) essay

  • Shielding sources versus deceiving readers (Brisbane column and Politico note about it)

  • Avoiding leaning on the most cooperative sources

  • Access isn’t a ticket to accuracy

  • Why getting comment from hostiles is the best sourcing

  • Take nothing at face value (Brill war hero anecdote)

  • Avoiding false equivalency

  • Does getting it first really matter?

  • Doing the extra mile to make sure the story is right – and complete. (Hint: Write your nightmare “letter to the editor” about an article you wrote.)

  • Discussion of mock stories

  • Discussion of NewsGuard’s rating criteria and guidelines for analysts



  • Matt Apuzzo, “Investigating Powerful Institutions: Inside and Out (An outsider’s perspective),” The New York Times, 2014 (course packet)

  • George Packer, “Rolling Stone and The Temptations of Narrative Journalism,” The New Yorker, April 6, 2015 (course packet)

  • Arthur Brisbane, “Why Redacting Emails Is a Bad Idea,” The New York Times, July 30, 2011 (course packet)

  • Politico note on Brisbane article, July 31, 2011 (course packet)

  • Max Abelson, “Kaiser Roll,” New York Observer, July 1, 2008 and email exchange with him (course packet)

  • The Boston Globe and Boston Herald stories about the “Big Dig” insider’s memo (course packet)

  • Dan Friedman, “Friends of Hamas: My Role in the Birth of a Rumor,” New York Daily News, February 19, 2013 (course packet)

  • Newsweek periscope item and Whittaker retractions (course packet)

  • “We’re getting wildly different assessments,” SCOTUSblog, July 7, 2012 (course packet)

  • Amy Sullivan, “Who Reported It First? Who Cares?” The New Republic, July 9, 2012 (course packet)

  • James Warren, “Lousy vetting by the media,” Poynter, June 2, 2016 (course packet)

  • NewsGuard’s guidelines and criteria for its analysts. To be handed out in class.


  • Bring to class a one-sentence description of your story idea for your major writing project, along with at least six sources.

  • Even numbers: Assignment re interviewing hero pilot following airliner crash.

Odd numbers: Assignment re interviewing Professor Martin Redish, the man who monetized the First Amendment. See pages 90-132 in TAILSPIN. (To be explained in class.) One page interview outline must be in my email inbox by Wednesday night, October 17.
Be prepared to tell me what makes you curious AFTER reading the Ilan Reich story.
8. October 22, 2018: Interviewing and Why Access Isn’t Everything

We’ve seen with some of the examples of “screw-ups,” that access has its pitfalls. It’s also the case that the best access can be access not to the headliners but to unknown people, to court papers, or even just to data.

  • Interviewing: How to prepare and how to choreograph. EVERY INTERVIEW NEEDS A STRATEGY.

  • Analyze your source’s goals – Revenge? Self-puffery? Sadness? To help?

  • Knowing Great Quotes – and Getting Them

  • Why access isn’t everything?

  • What interviews are missing in the NYT Nursing Homes article (July 2018)?

  • Dealing with Trump’s over-accessibility -- and his blacklist

  • Review of your interview outlines

  • Mini-sessions with each student, including review of story idea 

  • Reminder: For your story, you must get at least three real potential sources to reject you.

  • What makes you curious after reading the Ilan Reich piece?


  • TAILSPIN, pages 90-132

  • The Gay Talese Reader, Joe DiMaggio Profile

  • Susan Paterno, “The Question Man,” American Journalism Review, October 2000 (course packet)

  • Brill, “Death of a Career,” American Lawyer piece on Ilan Reich, December 1986 (course packet)

  • Matthew Yglesias, “Secrets of Hospital Pricing Revealed,” Slate, May 8, 2013, (example of using data)

  • Jordan Rau, “’It’s Almost like a Ghost Town.’ Most Nursing Homes Overstated Staffing for years, The New York Times, July 7, 2018.

  • Adam Bryant, “For Brent Wilson of TubeMogul, It’s All in the Follow-Through,” The New York Times, May 24, 2014

  • Dana Milbank, “The right response to Donald Trump? A media blackout.” The Washington Post, June 14, 2016

  • Margaret Sullivan, “‘No, Mr. Trump, that’s a lie’: What Lesley Stahl should have said Sunday night,” The Washington Post, July 18, 2016


  • Bring to class one page on your story idea. List 12 or more sources you will pursue. Also you must have a tentative headline. AND YOU MUST ALSO SHOW ME NOTES OF ONE INTERVIEW YOU HAVE DONE FOR THIS STORY.

  • First draft of final story is due in class on Monday, November 12th! Email a file by class time and bring a hard copy.  THIS MUST BE A FULL DRAFT. NO DELAYS ACCEPTED.

  • Bring to class at least one question about “TAILSPIN.”

  • Be prepared to tell me why I put the Brent Wilson interview with the Times in this reading packet.


8. October 29, 2018: Taking Apart the TIME Healthcare Piece

  • The Dubai Skyline

  • A different kind of access

  • If 300 million people have something, you ought to be able to get it

  • Interviewing strategies

  • How can you find out about lobbying?

  • Story of reluctant couple who ended up on TV

  • Getting or not getting a presidential interview: How important is it?

  • Not being intimidated by language and “experts”

  • Conveying astonishment

  • Getting the right voice

  • Strategizing about not being “political”: SHOW DON’T TELL

  • Language and Writing. Empathy and other basic tricks of communicating with your audience.


  • Brill, “Bitter Pill,” TIME, March 4, 2013 (course packet)

  • Reuters March 2013 column explaining the genesis of the story (course packet)

  • James Stewart, Follow the Story: How to Write Successful Non-Fiction, pgs. 59-86


  • Final article topic and idea, with first two paragraphs and elaborate OUTLINE OR MAP OF THE ARTICLE (at least 300 words) AND NOTES OF AT LEAST TWO MORE INTERVIEWS must be submitted by Wednesday, October 31 at midnight. Lead graphs must tell me why I should care.


10. November 5, 2018: THE JOURNALISM BUSINESS

  • Going Over Your Big Story Ideas

  • The Business of Journalism 101

  • Discussion of final article topics

  • Discussion of how technology has changed journalism AND SHIFTED IT FROM A UNITER TO A DIVIDER. AND WHAT CAN BE DONE ABOUT IT?

  • Business of Journalism 101: an introduction to the economics of journalism and how (or if) the high purpose of journalism can co-exist with the need to compete and be economically viable.

  • In-Class Market Profitability Quiz: You’ll be asked to pick the most profitable and least profitable magazines, newspapers, and television networks from a long list. (No advance research allowed.)

  • In-Class Market Profitability Quiz: Websites (including chart showing decline in prices paid for web advertising.)

  • Alternative models for Online Journalism



  • “The Story So Far: What We Know About The Business of Digital Journalism,” published by the Columbia Journalism School, pages 1-19 (course packet)

  • Press+ PowerPoint Presentation (course packet)

  • ProPublica Report to Stakeholders, January-April 2018 (couse packet)

  • TAILSPIN, pages 191-194 and pages 338-339 (about changes in the media’s fortunes)


  • With one partner, write a business plan for a new journalism business. You must include specifics on what your product will be, what it will cost to produce it, and where the money will come from. Who are your customers – ie., who is paying for this? Advertisers? If so, why? Viewers? Readers? Who else?

  • First draft of final paper due in class (hard copy) and via email by class time on Monday, November 12th! THIS MUST BE A FULL DRAFT. NO DELAYS ACCEPTED.


11. November 12, 2018: Review of Business Plans

  • Individual Meetings as needed


  • First Draft of Final Article Due


November 19, 2018: Thanksgiving Break

12. November 26, 2018:  Individual Meetings to Discuss Progress of Final Assignment
13. December 3, 2018: The Future of Journalism And Individual Meetings


  • The future of journalism.

  • Alternative career paths.



  • Gary Pruitt, “Brave News World,” The Wall Street Journal, March 16, 2006 (course packet)

  • Melanie Turner, “Analysts: McClatchy is vulnerable going into 2009,” Sacramento Business Journal, January 2, 2009 (course packet)

  • Steve Myers, “More Stories Result in More Subscription Revenue, Press+ Says,” Poynter, July 11, 2012 (course packet)

  • Joshua Benton, “The scariest chart in Mary Meeker’s slide deck for newspapers has gotten even a smidge scarier,” Neiman Journalism Lab, May 31, 2017 (course packet)

  • Megan McArdle, “You Want Advice? Don’t Ask Journalists,” Bloomberg View, February 10, 2015 (course packet)

  • Ken Doctor, “Trump Bump Grows Into Subscription Surge – and Not Just for the New York Times,” Newsonomics, March 4, 2017




No Class Held During Reading Period.



I will schedule office hours for an hour or two before each class as requested to go over writing and, if requested, do some informal career counseling.


Phone: 212-332-6301. Weekends: 914-232-6080.

Email: sb@brillbusiness.com

Directory: sites -> default -> files -> files
files -> American Pharmacists Association Academy of Student Pharmacists Chapter Achievement Awards Program Reporting Guidelines
files -> Appendix b essay guidelines
files -> A better Path Forward: How Corporate Culture Threatens the Quality of Higher Education and What We Can Do to Resist its Encroachment on our Campuses
files -> Jason Brennan
files -> Wars and State-Making Reconsidered: The Rise of the Interventionist Statei
files -> Curriculum Vitae Notarization. I have read the following and certify that this curriculum vitae is a current and accurate statement of my professional record. Signature Date: February 23, 2015 I. Personal Information
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files -> The Land in Gorkhaland: Rethinking Belonging in Darjeeling, India

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