Analysis usually implies

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Analysis Notes, Mizell’s Analytical Essay, and Guidelines for Extra Credit Paper

The word analysis usually implies at least two elements: (a) a breakdown of something into parts or ideas, and (b) a discussion or description of those parts using a point of view or a method. If, for example, you were asked to analyze the text of a reading, you would choose several main or important ideas from it, then discuss each in turn using some kind of special point of view, theory, or method. An analysis in its purest form differs from other types of writing in that its primary concern simply is to explain something in greater or newer detail using a unique point of view, whereas the main purposes of many kinds of papers may be to argue or to evaluate. In fact, some assignments may require you to use analysis to argue a point or to evaluate something. However, if you are required to do nothing but a simple analysis, then your primary goal is to explain something from a unique point of view.

It may be useful to think of an analysis as helping someone younger or less experienced than you order from a menu at your favorite restaurant. If you are being thoughtful, first you will choose the viewpoint of the other person: e.g., an eight-year-old’s view of the food, a vegetarian’s view of it, or perhaps the viewpoint of someone who has never eaten in this kind of restaurant. Then you might explain the basic organization of the menu or simply dive in and explain in more detail the kinds of foods you think the person might find most interesting.

One famous example of an analysis is Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address: it is his analysis of a current situation, using a particular view—idealistic and hopeful—of history. Another example is an analysis of someone who has been interviewed for a job at your place of work: a written or oral description—from the viewpoint of what your place of work wants—of the applicant’s strengths and weaknesses.

Organize the body paragraphs of your essay in three sections or as several point-by-point discussions.  In the beginning of each main point, first offer a sentence summarizing the overall subject of the entire body paragraph, and explain it briefly, if necessary.  Then support your analytical statements with quotations from your text/source and other details.  Your other details may include one or more of the following: personal-experience examples and stories; the experiences of others you know; and facts, details, and/or experiences from documented sources.  In your introduction and conclusion, clearly indicate the type of paper you are writing (an analysis), your overall analytical method, and interesting quotations, stories, and/or facts from the text of your reading itself.   

            If you are writing an analytical essay, each body paragraph must include quotations and/or paraphrases from additional sources.  These quotations and/or paraphrases should support your own points of analysis, should be substantial in quality and quantity, and should come from authoritative sources.  Also attach a Works Cited Page following MLA guidelines.

In a nutshell, ANALYSIS moves beyond description and narration to make judgments or evaluations about persons, places, objects, ideas, or situations. In analyzing, you seek to answer questions; therefore, you can use the journalist’s “five Ws” –Who? What? When? Where? Why? – to develop your thesis. By answering questions, you are forced to find evidence and provide answers instead of simply retelling a story or describing a situation.


Who’s Listening to Your Cell Phone Calls?

By: Louis R. Mizell Jr.

Context: Before reading this passage from Invasion of Privacy, consider how often have you sued or have seen friends use a cell phone. Do people assume their conversations are private?

More than forty million cellular phones are currently in use in the United States, and the numbers are dramatically increasing each year.

2 On any given day, thousands of eavesdroppers intercept, record, and listen to conversations made from cellular and so-called cordless phones. These eavesdroppers include curious neighbors, business competitors, stalkers, journalists, private investigators, and even espionage agents.

3 In California, spies for hire cruise the highways of Hollywood and the Silicon Valley, hoping to steal valuable trade secrets from executives talking on their car phones. Armed with radio scanners, tabloid reporters in New York monitor conversations of the rich, famous, and infamous, hoping to get a front-page scoop. In Florida, a ham operator monitoring the poolside conversations of a prominent lawyer got incredible inside information on three divorce cases.

4 Cellular telephone conversations can be easily monitored by anyone with a radio scanner, but it is a violation of state and federal law to do so intentionally. A 1993 law made it illegal to make or sell radio scanners that pick up cellular calls, but the law didn’t make it illegal to own the old scanners. Furthermore, it is rather easy, although illegal, to modify a legal police scanner so that it will pick up cellular conversations.

5 The problem is that there are hundreds of thousands of the old radio scanners in circulation and an equal number of people who don’t care about the law. “How are they going to catch me and how are they going to prove it?” said one ham operator who listens to his neighbors’ cellular conversations “just for the fun of it.”

6 In truth, only a very small percentage of the people who have been monitored ever learn that their calls were intercepted. An even smaller percentage of the perpetrators are ever caught. Curious kooks, corporate snoops, and spies for hire who use intercepted information are usually smart enough not to publicize where they got it.

7 “I really couldn’t care less if someone listens to my conversations,” said a schoolteacher from Indiana. “I’m not discussing my love life or national security.” One of the biggest problems concerning privacy and portable phones is that most people do not realize how even innocent information can be used by criminals and other opportunists. Another problem is that just because you don’t care if someone is listening to your conversation, the person you are talking to might care very much.

8 Burglars are known to monitor the calls of people discussing evening or weekend plans. Knowing that the occupants are going to be away, the burglars enter their homes.

9 Doctors and lawyers frequently discuss everyday business on cellular phones. In one case, a doctor was notified that a VIP patient had tested positive for AIDS. The information was intercepted , and before long, the VIP’s medical status was common knowledge. In another case, a lawyer from Ohio reviewed a client’s prenuptial agreement with a second lawyer who was using a cellular telephone. A teenage neighbor of the second lawyer intercepted the conversation. “Before long, the whole damn neighborhood knew about our secret wedding and my financial situation,” said the angry groom-to-be.

10 Stalking, or in appropriate pursuit, has become a dangerous epidemic in the United States and is evolving into one of the most insidious threats to personal privacy. Many researchers estimate that more than two hundred thousand women, men, and children are currently being harassed, threatened, and endangered by stalkers.

11 Stalking may begin with and innocuous contact and then, through misinterpretation or delusion, the pursuer escalates to harassment, surveillance, threats, and sometimes murder.

12 I have been involved in seven cases and am aware of many more in which stalkers intercepted cellular phone conversations and used the intelligence to harass their targets.

13 A jobless and toothless forty-one-year-old man, hooked on amphetamines, became infatuated with a fifteen-year-old girl whom he first noticed at a state swimming competition. “He’s really scary and keeps showing up wherever I go,” explained the frightened swimmer. “It’s like he always knows where I’m going to be.”

14 The young lady had good reason to be scared; the man had a long history of bizarre and criminal behavior. On one occasion, he burglarized a home and fell asleep in a teenage girl’s bed. The horrified family called the police who arrested the man and confiscated handcuffs and a number of stolen house keys.

15 Released on good behavior, the “nonviolent” criminal was once again free to victimize others. We can’t prove what his ultimate plans were concerning our fifteen-year-old client, but we did prove that he had a scanner in his car and had recorded the swimmer’s mother as she talked on various cell phones, including a car phone. Two of the taped conversations informed the stalker where his target would be. “I’ve got to pick my daughter up at McDonald’s at 4:30,” she mentioned to one friend. “The swim team is celebrating at the Hyatt tonight,” she told her neighbor. Needless to say, the stalker showed up at both locations.

16 Eavesdropping on cellular phones is only one of the issues that worry privacy advocates. There is also concern that cellular phones will be used by police and sophisticated criminals to locate the caller.

17 Unbeknownst to most consumers, cellular phones are portable homing devices that allow police and others to pinpoint the caller’s position. Police have used this tool to locate a wide range of criminals and kidnap victims. Privacy advocates worry that police will abuse this tool to spy on innocent citizens.

18 When a cellular phone is switched to the On position, it emits a low-power signal to the network to announce which cell site it is in. A cell site is a zone served by a single relay station and is generally several square miles in size. When a caller moves out of one cell site, the call is automatically switched to a different cell site.

19 By using a technique called triangulation, police are able to get a directional fix on the cellular signal and pinpoint the phone’s cell site or location. This is the technique police used to locate the car owned by the slain father of basketball great Michael Jordon. Triangulation techniques have also been used by intelligence agencies to locate enemy radio sites and by ocean search-and-rescue teams to pinpoint the location of vessels.

20 There are dozens of cases in which triangulation techniques have assisted law enforcement worldwide.

21 When the Los Angeles police needed to locate O.J. Simpson during the now-famous highway chase, they received court-ordered help from a mobile phone company and were able to locate the Ford Bronco by tracing its cellular phone radio signal. In Colombia, ruthless drug boss Pablo Escobar was finally located and shot dead by police after they traced his mobile telephone’s radio signal. Police in the United States located fugitive lawyer Nicholas Bissell, Jr., in Nevada on November 26, 1996, after tracing calls he made on his cellular telephone. Bissell was running from the law after being convicted of fraud, embezzlement, and abuse of power.

22 Another advantage of cellular tracing from a law enforcement perspective is that cellular phones can tell police not only where a suspect is going but also where he has been.

23 A federal drug informant is accused of booby-trapping a briefcase in an unsuccessful attempt to kill a U.S. prosecutor. Using the informant’s cellular phone records, prosecutors showed that he was in the same town on the same day where the would-be assassination kit was purchased.

24 Unlike hard-line telephones that most people have in their homes, customers pay for each local cellular call. The billing record for each cellular call shows the cell site from which it was made.

25 Privacy advocates recognize that cellular call tracing can be a great tool for law enforcement, but they argue that the bad will outweigh the good if police abuse their powers.

26 “Police have no right to know my location just because they reason that I might be relevant to some investigation,” explained a law-abiding political science professor. “I want to make sure police cannot track and follow a person using a mobile phone unless they obtain a full wiretap warrant.” At present, police only need a simple subpoena, which is easier to obtain that a wiretap warrant, to legally intercept cell phone signals.

27 “I bet the good professor would change his mind real quickly if his daughter were kidnapped,” countered a police captain. “We don’t have the time, the resources, or the inclination to snoop on law-abiding citizens…. We only use cellular tools to catch criminals,” he protested. “Shouldn’t we be more worried about the way rapists and burglars invade our privacy and less worried about taking crime-fighting weapons from police?”

Extra Credit Paper: (500-600 words) Write an essay analyzing HOW technology –cell phones, e-mail, computers, the internet, security video cameras – have robbed citizens of their privacy. Conclude by making a clear recommendation of how people can protect themselves from others who seek to invade their privacy. Be sure to cite from Mizell’s essay as well as from at least two other sources. Due Date: Weds. June 29, 2016 via Engrade turn-in by 10 a.m!! Only papers that have been submitted via engrade turn-in will be considered for grading.

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