Agriculture Education aff plans/Drafts

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Agriculture Education AFF


Important Note

The examples below are draft 1ACs and plans to serve as models for how this can be organized. These are not final products. Each advantage section also has a draft version you can use as a model.

Plan Ideas

Resolution (for reference when writing plan texts):

Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially increase its funding and/or regulation of elementary and/or secondary education in the United States.

Plan Text Model:

The United States federal government should increase its funding and/or regulation of elementary and secondary education in the United States by requiring that schools receiving Career and Technical Education and/or Farm to School grants incorporate school-based agricultural education and nutrition programming, including, but not limited to: teaching certification, performance incentives, and curriculum for agricultural science education.

Potential Programs/Concepts to incorporate into plan, based on solvency evidence

  • Career and Technical Education/Perkins/Perkins Plus

  • Incentives

  • Citizen Science

  • School Based Agriculture Education

  • Supervised Agricultural Experiences

  • Work-based

  • Project-based

  • Curriculum for Agricultural Science Education

  • Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act

  • Farm to School

  • Teacher development

  • Review committee

  • Charter schools

  • Food Corps

Nutrition 1AC Model

Advantage 1 – Food Justice

Millions of American Households go hungry- Fed key to bring food security to low income communities and end institutionalized racism in food supply.

Meals, social worker, writer, JD from St. Mary’s 12 [Kate,” St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice, “Unearthing the Impact of Institutionalized Racism on Access to Healthy Food in Urban African-American Communities – A. Who Are the Hungry,”, 7/1/17, KF]


Over the past decade, the United States has seen a dramatic increase in awareness of the state of our food supply, urban agriculture, and nutrition. Often missing from these discussions, however, is an understanding of food oppression's structural causes. Instead, the focus typically lies on personal responsibility and the need to bring in outside information to educate communities deemed to be suffering from hunger and health problems. Because many people who work to address food access are outsiders to urban communities of color, “many community organizations remain unaware or closed to the ways racism works in the food system.” Such food organizations often overlook the histories of institutionalized racism when proposing “solutions” or goals such as self-sufficiency. Funding needs often demand allegiance to organizations outside of the community and thus do not challenge the power structures that create racial disparities.

Throughout the United States, many low-income communities and communities of color face a daily food crisis. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 17.2 million households were “food insecure” in 2010, and struggled to acquire adequate food due to lack of financial resources. In addition to facing food insecurity, urban areas often exist in what are commonly called “food deserts” or grocery gaps, locales in which there are no grocery stores or other opportunities to purchase fresh, healthy food, which typically co-exist with “food swamps,” areas which have a high prevalence of unhealthy food options, such as fast food and convenience stores. In a 2009 report to Congress, the USDA also found that “higher levels of racial segregation and greater income inequality” define urban areas. The USDA also found that close to six percent of all U.S. households lacked access to obtain the food they “wanted or needed,” and over half of these households also lacked sufficient financial resources for food.

Community production is key to food justice– current lack of access to resources prevents change.

Purifoy, J.D. Harvard Law School, Ph.D, Duke University, 14 - [Danielle M., 2014, Duke Law Scholarship Repository, "Food policy councils: integrating food justice and environmental justice,”, pp. 379-380, 7/1/17, KF]

Food Justice is an emerging movement that can be understood as a departure from the sustainable food movement.24 Like environmental justice, food justice centers its activities on achieving equality for low-income and low-access communities.25 Rather than aiming for food practices and policies—like do-it-yourself food cultivation and expensive fresh food markets—which require significant disposable income and presume easy access to other necessary resources26, food justice aspires to establish healthy food as a fundamental right and to eliminate barriers to its access.27 The term “food justice” is defined in several ways, likely as a result of its recent emergence as a social movement. Some have attempted to define it in terms of the injustices it is designed to combat, such as advocating against “the maldistribution of food, poor access to a good diet, inequities in the labour process and unfair returns for key suppliers along the food chain.”28 Others, like attendees of the 2012 Food + Justice = Democracy conference, define it as “the right of communities everywhere to produce, process, distribute, access, and eat good food regardless of race, class, gender, ethnicity, citizenship, ability, religion, or community.29 The conference attendees also defined “good, healthy food and community wellbeing” as “basic human rights.”30 In the 2000 edition of the journal Race, Poverty, and the Environment, which was devoted to the food system, the editors observed that the environmental justice definition of the environment as the place “where we live, work, and play,” could be extended to “where, what, and how we eat.”31 In all these interpretations, the food justice movement is a direct critique of the global industrial food system and the negative impacts of its policies, laws, and practices on human health, the environment, culture, and equity.

Plan is necessary to facilitate food security - cultivates a skilled workforce needed for scientific and technological innovation

Doerfert, Texas Tech University, Agricultural Communications Associate Chair & Professor, 11

[Doerfert, D. L. (Ed.) (2011), American Association for Agricultural Education, “National research agenda: American Association for Agricultural Education’s research priority areas for 2011-2015,”, pg. 19-20, accessed 6.28.2017]//TRossow

With the global population expected to increase to nine billion by 2050, food security is of paramount importance to countries everywhere. Failure to address food security concerns could cause political instability in many parts of the world. Riveria and Alex (2008) connected this global need to a need for change in the development of the agricultural workforce:

Greater commercialization of agricultural systems and increasing trade liberalization dictate the need for better capacity on the part of the agricultural workforce in the 21st century. Global changes in the roles of the public and private sectors and dramatic advances in technology have also strongly affected agricultural workforce development needs. These evolving changes have important policy, institutional, and programmatic implications. (p. 374)

The need to provide a highly educated, skilled workforce capable of providing solutions to 21st century challenges and issues has never been greater. The issues that face our society have grown increasingly complex and harder to solve, even with the products of sophisticated scientific discovery and application. In the meantime, our educational system is being challenged by cultural, economic and structural factors that threaten our nation’s standing as a global leader in scientific and technological innovation. There is therefore a growing need to develop strategies to create a society of diverse, highly educated professionals and knowledge workers to address major societal challenges and develop innovations that drive the engines of economic growth.

There is also a commensurate need for relevant, rigorous, and actionable research into the human factors that influence educational preparation, quality teaching and learning outcomes and life-long human capital development of our workforce, especially in discovery science and STEM disciplines. This will require changes in university-level agricultural education.

If we are to be able to recruit and retain students to study in and prepare for careers in agriculture and natural resources related fields, we must be able to better understand the models, strategies, and tactics needed to best prepare, promote, and retain new professionals who demonstrate the requisite content knowledge, technical competence, and cultural awareness, coupled with communication and interpersonal skills. ,mThis will require that adequate numbers of well-prepared, highly effective agricultural educators, communicators, and leaders be made available to meet current and future needs.

Opportunities to Respond The agriculture industry represents a major driver of economic growth and development; it requires a stable, qualified workforce that possesses a diverse range of skill sets suitable for employment in jobs ranging from the on farm setting to positions as Ph.D. scientists in highly sophisticated laboratories. However, attracting the best and the brightest to pursue careers in agriculture remains a challenge. According to the Coalition for a Sustainable Agricultural Workforce (n.d.), major obstacles exist to recruiting students into careers in the agricultural sciences, including budget constraints, student misconceptions and competition for the most talented from the basic sciences and industry.

These challenges also represent our opportunities. The National Academy of Sciences (2009) stated that:

During the next ten years, colleges of agriculture will be challenged to transform their role in higher education and their relationship to the evolving global food and agricultural enterprise. If successful, agriculture colleges will emerge as an important venue for scholars and stakeholders to address some of the most complex and urgent problems facing society. (p. 1)

Our discipline is uniquely positioned for an immediate, positive impact on this need as research outcomes are quickly communicated and integrated into K-12, pre-professional, and professional-level educational opportunities. Our profession’s knowledge base is rich with cognitive, affective, psychomotor and experiential research and practical understandings. Collectively, we have a foundation towards a comprehensive theory of human learning. This includes retraining existing and developing new human capital in agriculture as part of a lifelong learning system.

Our specializations in teacher education, agricultural communication, leadership development, and extension education are grounded in the applied research tradition of solving problems, and our knowledge bases focus on understanding the dimensions of human and social capital in educational and organizational settings. The research endeavors of those in the agricultural education profession are focused on discovering, testing and refining those very models, strategies, and tactics that will be needed to create a sufficient scientific and professional workforce that can effectively address current and future challenges.

Urban Gardening cannot solve long-term­– permanent school programs can solve.

Meals, social worker, writer, JD from St. Mary’s 12 [Kate, 2012, St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice, “Unearthing the Impact of Institutionalized Racism on Access to Healthy Food in Urban African-American Communities - VI. Institutional Barriers to Urban Land Use,”, 7/1/17, KF]

The permanence of urban gardens is consistently in question. Often, rather than repeal or rewrite restrictive zoning ordinances to allow for urban agriculture, cities prefer to grant informal permission to community groups to create gardens on vacant lots. This structure is problematic because community groups have no legal recourse when the city decides to use the land for another purpose. In New York City Environmental Justice Alliance v. Giuliani, plaintiffs argued that “community gardens are highly beneficial to minority communities and that the elimination of gardens would therefore have an adverse impact on some aspects of the lives of the neighborhood residents.” Rejecting testimony that there were other available parcels suitable for development that would be less harmful to communities of color, the court held that the harm from eliminating the community garden was justified by the city's plan to “build new housing and foster urban renewal.” Here, as in the case of the Morning Glory Community Garden, the city prioritized other types of land use over urban agriculture. Community gardeners seeking to secure land sometimes achieve this goal thorough the use of intermediaries, such as land trusts to clear title, or through typically impracticable measures such as adverse possession or implied dedication.

Gardening allows children to experience a greater connection to nature, fostering self-confidence and focus at school and reducing obesity.

Parker, et al., Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board scholar, 12

[Lynn, Emily Ann Miller, Dietrician, Elena Ovaitt, Institute of Medicine Keck Center S enior Program Assistant, and Stephen Olson, Rapporteur, 2012, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, Medicine, “Alliances for Obesity Prevention: Finding Common Ground: Workshop Summary,”, pp.18-20, 6/28/17, KF]

Gardening has many positive effects on children, adults, and the community (Box 3-1), but its most enduring effects may be the least tangible. “Go back to a time when you found yourself in a garden. What does that bring to mind?” asked Mike Metallo, president and chief executive officer of the National Gardening Association (NGA). “For me, it hits a reset button. It helps me put everything in perspective. I have a sense of place. I understand myself in relation to the world.

Many children today, especially in the inner cities, lack opportunities to experience a garden. They live in an environment of concrete, asphalt, and maybe a few scraggly trees and other plants. They are not experiencing the benefits of having a connection with nature,” said Metallo.

Urban gardens can be any collection of plants with which children or adults are engaged. It can be herbs in pots on a fire escape. It can be plants in a raised bed indoors or outdoors. “There are all types of gardens, and each garden has its place and its purpose and its uses,” said Metallo.

NGA, a leading authority and resource for gardeners of all ages, has a grant program through which it works with corporate donors to install gardens in schools. The observed effects of these gardens are increased fruit and vegetable consumption, increased physical activity, and decreased sedentary behavior. Children also learn more about the sources of the foods they eat. “People don’t understand where their food is coming from because they don’t live in an environment where [unprocessed] food is easily accessible,” Metallo said. “It comes to them packaged, it comes to them in cans, it comes to them sorted out. But they have no idea what happened to get it there. And that is a serious issue.”

Besides its demonstrated potential to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and boost physical activity (see Box 3-1), gardening changes the relationships among children, parents, and the community. In this way, gardening contributes to a variety of social, cultural, and educational goals. For example, NGA has developed a curriculum that uses gardening to teach the academic content specified in education standards so teachers can achieve the same outcomes as they would using their usual curriculum.

Data compiled from educator observations of NGA’s garden grant program point to a variety of benefits, including better attitudes toward school, greater self-confidence, and improved social skills. Two of the attitude changes cited most frequently are in attitudes toward nutrition and the environment. “The children didn’t mean to learn about nutrition this way, but they did, just by engaging in the experience,” Metallo said. He ended by mentioning NGA’s initiative “A Garden in Every School,”17 a manifestation of the organization’s belief that school gardens are a component of positive change that will lead to achieving positive outcomes, such as a reduction in obesity.

A lack of healthy food disproportionately creates health issues along class and race lines.

Purifoy, J.D. Harvard Law School, Ph.D, Duke University, 14 - [Danielle M., 2014, Duke Law Scholarship Repository, "Food policy councils: integrating food justice and environmental justice,”, p. 386, 7/1/17, KF]

Historic outflows of capital from urban centers starting in the second half of the 20th century took many food retailers away from cities, where supermarkets proliferated rapidly in suburbia.66 Despite densely populated communities with considerable market power, many urban food deserts have not been able to attract supermarkets back to inner-cities in part because of misconceptions about lack of profitability and security embedded into decades’ old business plans.67 Higher development costs in low-income areas may create further barriers to entry for major food retailers.68 The result is a significant market failure, wherein food desert residents are left with few local healthy food choices, and supermarkets compete for a smaller share of an oversaturated suburban market.69 Further, the types of food retailers that are available in these neighborhoods— convenience stores, liquor stores, and fast food restaurants—often have few healthy food options.70 The lack of healthy food choice has major implications for health outcomes in these communities. Diabetes, heart disease, and other diet-related illnesses are prevalent in these environments, causing further disparities in the quality of life along race and class lines.7

Racism is a prior ethical question—refusing to reject racism normalizes animality and corrupts the foundation of society
Memmi, Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of Paris, 2000

(Albert Memmi, translated by Steve Martino, University of Minnesota Press, “Racism”, p.163-165)

The struggle against racism will be long, difficult, without intermission, without remission, probably never achieved, yet for this very reason, it is a struggle to be undertaken without surcease and without concessions. One cannot be indulgent toward racism. One cannot even let the monster in the house, especially not in a mask. To give it merely a foothold means to augment the bestial part in us and in other people which is to diminish what is human. To accept the racist universe to the slightest degree is to endorse fear, injustice, and violence. It is to accept the persistence of the dark history in which we still largely live. It is to agree that the outsider will always be a possible victim (and which [person] man is not [themself] himself an outsider relative to someone else?). Racism illustrates in sum, the inevitable negativity of the condition of the dominated; that is it illuminates in a certain sense the entire human condition. The anti-racist struggle, difficult though it is, and always in question, is nevertheless one of the prologues to the ultimate passage from animality to humanity. In that sense, we cannot fail to rise to the racist challenge. However, it remains true that one’s moral conduct only emerges from a choice: one has to want it. It is a choice among other choices, and always debatable in its foundations and its consequences. Let us say, broadly speaking, that the choice to conduct oneself morally is the condition for the establishment of a human order for which racism is the very negation. This is almost a redundancy. One cannot found a moral order, let alone a legislative order, on racism because racism signifies the exclusion of the other and his or her subjection to violence and domination. From an ethical point of view, if one can deploy a little religious language, racism is “the truly capital sin.”22 It is not an accident that almost all of humanity’s spiritual traditions counsel respect for the weak, for orphans, widows, or strangers. It is not just a question of theoretical counsel respect for the weak, for orphans, widows or strangers. It is not just a question of theoretical morality and disinterested commandments. Such unanimity in the safeguarding of the other suggests the real utility of such sentiments. All things considered, we have an interest in banishing injustice, because injustice engenders violence and death. Of course, this is debatable. There are those who think that if one is strong enough, the assault on and oppression of others is permissible. But no one is ever sure of remaining the strongest. One day, perhaps, the roles will be reversed. All unjust society contains within itself the seeds of its own death. It is probably smarter to treat others with respect so that they treat you with respect. “Recall,” says the bible, “that you were once a stranger in Egypt,” which means both that you ought to respect the stranger because you were a stranger yourself and that you risk becoming once again someday. It is an ethical and a practical appeal – indeed, it is a contract, however implicit it might be. In short, the refusal of racism is the condition for all theoretical and practical morality. Because, in the end, the ethical choice commands the political choice. A just society must be a society accepted by all. If this contractual principle is not accepted, then only conflict, violence, and destruction will be our lot. If it is accepted, we can hope someday to live in peace. True, it is a wager, but the stakes are irresistible.



The United States Federal Government should:

Increase federal funding for school gardens and provide money to buy land for larger scale farms in urban communities.

Establish funding for teacher development in agriculture and stipends for after-hours mentoring in work based learning programs.

Advantage 2 – Nutrition

Nutrition programs crucial for lowering obesity levels

Fox, NBC News senior health writer, 12

[Maggie, was Health and Science editor for 3 years at Reuters, and a Health and Science Correspondent for 11, 9/18/12, NBC News, “If you think we’re fat now, wait till 2030”,, accessed 7/1/17, JBC]

Think Americans are fat now? After all, a third of us are overweight and another 35 percent are obese. But a report out Tuesday projects 44 percent of Americans will be obese by 2030.
In the 13 worst states, 60 percent of the residents will be obese in less than two decades if current trends continue, the report from the Trust for America’s Health projects. That’s not chubby or a little plump – that’s clinically obese, bringing a higher risk of heart attacks, strokes, diabetes, several forms of cancer and arthritis.
“The initial reaction is to say, ‘Oh it couldn’t be that bad’,” says Jeff Levi, executive director of the Trust for America’s Health. “But we have maps from 1991 and you see almost all the states below 10 percent.” By 2011 every single state was above 20 percent obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI), the accepted medical way to calculate obesity. Those with a BMI or 30 or above are considered obese.
In August, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 12 states have an adult obesity rate over 30 percent. Mississippi had the highest rate of obesity at 34.9 percent. On the low end, 20.7 percent of Colorado residents are obese. CDC projections for obesity resemble those in Tuesday's report - it projects 42 percent of adults will be obese by 2030.
The problem isn’t just cosmetic. “The number of new cases of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke, hypertension and arthritis could increase 10 times between 2010 and 2020 — and then double again by 2030,” the report projects. “Obesity-related health care costs could increase by more than 10 percent in 43 states and by more than 20 percent in nine states.”
That’s bad news when states are already strapped to pay for public health programs such as Medicaid and the federal government is struggling to fund Medicare.
Over the next 20 years, more than 6 million patients will be able to blame obesity for their diabetes, 5 million will be diagnosed with heart disease and 400,000 will get cancer caused by obesity.
And some of them are frighteningly young.
"Now I am seeing 25-year-olds weighing 350 pounds who present with chest pain or shortness of breath," says Dr. Sheldon Litwin, a cardiologist at Georgia Health Sciences University. “Everything from the heart disease process to its diagnosis and treatment are affected by obesity. We see it every day. This really is the number-one issue facing us," added Litwin, who worked on one of a series of obesity studies published in this week’s issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
The trend is not inevitable, according to the report, entitled “F as in Fat.” Some programs are beginning to make a dent in the rising rates. “We certainly see, in some communities, the beginning of some changes,” says Levi. “We know what some of the answers are.”
For instance, making it easier for people to exercise day in and day out, and making it easier to get healthy food. “A large-scale study of New York City adults found that increasing the density of healthy food outlets, such as supermarkets, fruit and vegetable markets, and natural food stores is associated with lower BMIs and lower prevalence of obesity," the report reads.
What about initiatives like New York’s controversial ban on the largest sodas? “Every community is going to experiment with different approaches. It is going to be very interesting to see what happens in New York and whether this makes a difference,” Levi said.
New York’s health commissioner, Dr. Thomas Farley, defends the move in the medical journal’s obesity issue. "How should government address the health problems caused by this successful marketing of food? To do nothing is to invite even higher rates of obesity, diabetes, and related mortality,” he wrote.
Trust for America's Health

Many studies have also shown that people who live in big, walkable cities such as New York and Washington D.C. are thinner than their rural and suburban counterparts, and it’s almost certainly because they walk more and use public transportation instead of sitting in cars.

If everyone lost just a little weight, the savings would be enormous, the study predicts.
“If we could lower obesity trends by reducing body mass indices (BMIs) by only 5 percent in each state, we could spare millions of Americans from serious health problems and save billions of dollars in health spending —between 6.5 percent and 7.8 percent in costs in almost every state,” the report says.
Education can’t hurt, either. The more educated people are, the less likely they are to be obese. Higher-earners are also thinner. “More than 33 percent of adults who earn less than $15,000 per year were obese, compared with 24.6 percent of those who earned at least $50,000 per year,” the report notes. And several studies have shown that people who eat more fruits and vegetables are thinner, as well as healthier. “Seven of the 10 states with the highest rates of obesity were also in the bottom 10 for fruit and vegetable consumption,” the report says.
Levi believes it’s worthwhile targeting kids the hardest. New nutritional guidelines for schools will help, he said, as will initiatives to restore recess and physical education classes. Beverage makers have agreed to replace sugary sodas in vending machines with water and other low-calorie drinks. “It is as simple as an hour a day less of screen time and one less sugar beverage,” Levi says. “Just 120 calories can make a big difference as to whether a kid crosses over from being normal weight into overweight and obesity.”

Obesity biggest internal link to health care costs – destroys economic sustainability

Williams, Western State College of Law professor, 16

[Ryan T. Williams, The University of Toledo Law Review, “Size Really Does Matter: How Obesity is Undermining America’s National Security,”, Fall, 2016, 48 U. Tol. L. Rev. 21, page 14-16, RK]

IV. The Weight of the Nation Threatens National Security Because it Costs So Much Lack of eligible troops is not the only way obesity can be portrayed as a national security issue. Having nearly 70% of Americans overweight or obese places an enormous financial drain on America as well. Worse still, if unchecked, the burden will likely worsen over time. As will be explained below, the financial burden created by the obesity crisis strongly indicates that America may not be able to adequately defend itself in the future, because so much money will be going towards health care costs related to diseases associated with obesity.

A) Untenable Health Care Costs The rising share of U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) devoted to health care has been well documented and often lamented.81 In 2000, 13% of America’s GDP was spent on health care.82 By 2015, that number has climbed to 18%.83 Most nations spend less than 9% of their GDP on health care, many doing so with successful programs.84 More specifically, in 2014 the Commonwealth Fund did a survey of 11 similarly situated industrialized nations, including most European countries, the United States and Australia.85 The United States had the most expensive and also the worst performing health care system of any nation surveyed.86 Thus, most nations spend nowhere near what America spends on health care. Having health care costs account for 18% of GDP is an alarmingly high and unsustainable percentage, one that places America at a strategic disadvantage geopolitically. By spending so much to care for the diseases that come with being overweight and obese, America will continue to have less to spend on national security.

Too often people are consumed in debating what type of health care system America should employ rather than examining the sheer cost of taking care of its sick, regardless of the plan.87 In other words, because Americans are so overweight, the delivery of the health care plan is far less important to keeping health care costs down.88 This makes intuitive sense as well. If people are sick and need care, that care costs money. The less sick people a country has, the less money will have to be spent on health care.

There are undoubtedly a number of reasons for such high costs. But the obesity epidemic is far and away the greatest reason for rising health care costs.89 In fact, obesity has surpassed smoking as the number one contributor to high health care costs.90 As a result, the Pentagon has declared the obesity epidemic as a serious national security issue.91

The following two projections help explain. First, if Americans continue to gain weight at their current pace, by 2075 America is projected spend nearly 40% of its GDP on health care costs.92 18% is already more than double every major developed nation, many of which have arguably better health care as well.93 40% is simply untenable.

Second, according to an article published in the U.S. National Library of Medicine by the National Institutes of Health, it is projected that 100% of Americans will be overweight or obese by 2048. 94 That is not a typo. Sometimes statistics are misleading and fail to tell the whole story. Unfortunately here, there is nothing too confusing or misleading about an entire nation comprised of overweight or obese citizens. This will lead to increases in health care expenditures that America simply cannot afford.

One does not need an advanced economics degree to understand this is problematic. In sum, if everyone in America is overweight or obese, thereby facilitating well beyond 18% GDP spent on health care, there will be little money for anything else. No nation as large and powerful as the United States can effectively defend itself when everyone is overweight or obese and some much of it’s GDP is devoted to health care expenditures.

Continued health care crisis trades off detrimentally for military spending

Williams, Western State College of Law professor, 16

[Ryan T. Williams, The University of Toledo Law Review, “Size Really Does Matter: How Obesity is Undermining America’s National Security,”, Fall, 2016, 48 U. Tol. L. Rev. 21, page 18-19, RK]

D) Problems With Cutting The Military’s Budget To Pay For America’s Obesity Crisis In order to cover the increase in health care costs, a significant reduction in military spending would likely be necessary. Significantly reducing the military’s budget may not inherently be a negative outcome, though. Many people (including the author of this Article) feel the current military is probably too bloated and could benefit from less money and wiser allocation of resources. 103 However, such a focus misplaced. The point is not to debate whether or not military spending should be reduced, but rather the dangerous consequences if it has to be reduced. There is a difference between the federal government deciding, based on the current international and political landscape, that military spending can safely be reduced, versus forcibly shrinking the military because too many Americans are overweight or obese forcing unsustainably high health care costs.

Even the most ardent anti-military advocates and political theorists would have to admit that a forced, substantial reduction in military spending, amidst an already growing troop shortage problem, would likely weaken America for several reasons. First and most basically, America would have fewer troops available to defend itself from future attacks. The necessity of a healthy military, ready to deploy at any time in defense of the nation should not be underestimated. September 11, 2001 showed that people do not fear attacking mainland U.S. Reducing the military to the point where we would not be able to defend the nation could have the domino effect of emboldening America’s enemies, making them more likely to strike while America’s defense are depleted.

If healthcare costs increase, Congress will be forced to cut military – other large expenditures are fixed and smaller programs not enough

Williams, Western State College of Law professor, 16

[Ryan T. Williams, The University of Toledo Law Review, “Size Really Does Matter: How Obesity is Undermining America’s National Security,”, Fall, 2016, 48 U. Tol. L. Rev. 21, 17-18, RK]

B) What to Cut As shown above, the two largest categories of government spending per year are on Social Security, Unemployment and Labor, and Medicare and Health Care.97 Those two comprise 60% of the budget, with the military being the next largest expenditure at 15.8%.98 The two next largest expenditures are interest on America’s outstanding debt (7%) and veteran’s benefits (4%). 99 Every other category of expenses comprises 3.5% or less of the federal budget.100

Thus, the above diagram provides a useful context for the growing health care expenditures. Currently, with over two-thirds of Americans overweight or obese, onethird of America’s budget is spent on Medicare and Health Care. This is an alarming high amount and an unsustainable situation. America cannot sustain its current pace of health care expenditures.

Of even greater concern, however, is what happens if America does not reverse the obesity trend and all of Americans are overweight or obese as projected? If the remaining 1/3 of Americans that are currently not overweight or obese become so, then the already too large Medicare and Health Care expenditures will likewise increase to keep pace. Hence the looming national security concern - where is that increase in spending going to come from? What program or programs are most likely to be cut in order to pay for America’s sick?

The most logical starting point for cutting is to examine the greatest expenditure. For America’s budget, that means Social Security and Unemployment and Labor. However, any such move would be extremely difficult to effectuate. It would take a massive, bipartisan collaboration, the likes of which America hasn’t seen in decades, to eliminate so called “entitlement” programs. This is in part because the baby boomer generation, which still comprises a large part of Congress, is unlikely to reduce benefits, such as social security, to themselves or their children. It is unwise to expect Congressmen to take the counterintuitive measure of voting to cut programs that reduce the amount of money they will receive in the future. 101

The remaining major non-military categories do not offer much relief for rising health care costs. Seven percent of the budget is used to pay off interest on the federal debt, which is a fixed cost. After that, the next highest cost is veteran’s benefits. Thus, like social security, one could conceivably cut veteran’s benefits, although even the smallest cuts are likely to face fierce backlash. 102 Even if one did cut veteran’s benefits, that still only amounts to 4.5% of the budget total. In sum, unless more drastic and unlikely measures are undertaken, the most logical choice to ensure America cares for it’s sick is to significantly reduce the 15.8% of the budget devoted to the military.

Military cuts from nuclear weapons programs – triggers nuclear proliferation

Williams, Western State College of Law professor, 16

[Ryan T. Williams, The University of Toledo Law Review, “Size Really Does Matter: How Obesity is Undermining America’s National Security,”, Fall, 2016, 48 U. Tol. L. Rev. 21, page 19-20, RK]

America will undoubtedly retain enough nuclear weapons to sufficiently destroy/retaliate against any nation that attacks her. Currently, America has approximately 7,100 nuclear weapons available. 104 Thus, this Article is not saying that if America’s military budget is reduced, America would lose if Venezuela invaded and attempted to take over the country. America will likely maintain its nuclear capabilities to discourage/stop such an attack. But nuclear weapons as a primary defense have their limitations. Having the largest nuclear arsenal in the world did not prevent 9/11. Nor has it played a role in, much less ended, the war on terror. Individual groups and/or smaller factions require something less than nuclear bombs to defeat. Asymmetric warfare and on the ground guerilla tactics are often better utilized when fighting terrorist organizations, the type of enemy the U.S. is likely to face in the future.

Thus, even though America will likely retain nuclear preeminence in the world, to ward off relatively smaller in scale (but by no means small) attacks and attackers, America will likely need the rest of its military. Keeping nuclear weapons but reducing military spending on almost everything else would not be an effective national security strategy. On the other hand, an obesity necessitated reduction in budget, that leads to significant military cuts from the nuclear weapons program, would also be problematic. It is expensive to properly dispose of, and maintain effective safeguards in so doing, for thousands of nuclear weapons. Without the money to maintain and keep safe track of all of our nuclear weapons, one can imagine a sort of Wild West in which advanced nuclear materials and weapons are siphoned off to the highest bidder. One need only look to what has happened with some of the states in the former Soviet Union and the disorganized dismantling of its nuclear weapons program as a model the U.S. does not want to follow.105

Note – “her” describing US


Incentives for teachers and accountability measures boosts education – fed key to remedy differences in state and local laws.

Solomonson, Orion High School CTE Director and Agriculture Teacher, 16

[Jay, November 2016, The Agricultural Education Magazine, “Crazy about Co-op: Best Practices to Create a Successful Work- Based, Cooperative Education Program at Your School”, p. 12, 6/30/17, KF]

Have adequate supervision time and conduct regular site visits.

Make sure your school administration provides adequate time for supervision as well as time to physically go out and make site visits at your students’ employment locations. In my state, the school code (educational laws and policies set forth by the state legislature) indicate that a cooperative education supervisor should receive a half hour per student, per week for supervision. I recommend reviewing your state’s policies before negotiating that time with your administration. School districts should always provide either release periods for making visits or some type of monetary compensation if the supervision occurs outside of school hours. Currently, my district offers one supervision period and a stipend to compensate for the time required to complete the coop duties beyond our regular contract.

Every nine weeks, have both employers and students complete a job performance review.

At the end of each nine-week period, I require all employers fill out a performance evaluation on their coop student. This essentially turns into the grade for the on-the-job component of the program. The performance review form I utilize asks employers to evaluate the student on criteria including attendance, punctuality, dependability, trustworthiness, attitude, work habits, and abilities, among others. I encourage all of the employers I work with to sit down and discuss the evaluation with students. This is an excellent opportunity for students to learn and grow personally and professionally. A week after the employer submits the evaluation, I have the students complete a self- assessment using the same evaluation instrument and we sit down to discuss both evaluations and how the student can improve work habits. I have found these student conferences and reflective pieces to be an invaluable component of the work-based experience.

Require a year- long classroom component to the program.

While some schools may only have the on-the-job component of the cooperative education program, our district requires that all students involved be concurrently enroll in a year-long cooperative education course. The classroom portion focuses on self-assessment, career exploration, finding a dream job, developing an effective résumé and cover letter, interviewing, workplace ethics, development of leadership skills and personal finance. This course also meets the consumer education graduation requirement. By having an actual sit down class, it not only allows me to see and communicate with students daily, but it is also a great way to reinforce concepts and habits they learn in the workplace.

Lack of funding presents problems to accessing healthy food in schools

Purifoy, J.D. Harvard Law School, Ph.D, Duke University, 14 - [Danielle M., 2014, Duke Law Scholarship Repository, "Food policy councils: integrating food justice and environmental justice,”, pp. 380-382, 7/1/17, KF]

One important example of a food justice challenge is the source and quality of food served in school cafeterias. Although problems are pervasive in school food programs across the United States,32 they are particularly dire in under-resourced public schools, which often do not have the means to create alternative school food programs or to secure resources for farm-to-school programs.33 However, the food justice framework views impacted communities as leaders in defining the problems and helping to craft viable solutions. In a case study in examined in Gottleib and Joshi’s Food Justice, public school students from New Orleans—a city with a rich local food culture—were served cafeteria food that was imported from distant sources, “tasted terrible” and did not support the local economy.34 The middle school activists in the study, called the Rethinkers, defined the problem in their schools not only as a matter of where their food came from and its quality, but also as a problem of the broader conditions of the cafeterias where they ate, and the amount of time they were given to eat their food.35 Their advocacy also extended to support the local shrimp industry, which, as they learned, was being displaced because of imports of cheap, chemical-laden shrimp from abroad.36 Rather than relying on an authoritative, top-down solution to the problem, the students ensured that they had a say in the outcome, appealing to the school district Superintendent for eliminating “junky eating utensils,” using healthy, local food sources,, and placing local shrimp on the menus.37

In this way, Gottlieb and Joshi suggest, the movement for food justice is about advancing “opportunities for moving toward a more just, healthy, democratic, and community-based system.”38

Advocacy around food justice in the United States has manifested in many forms, from activism around domestic food law and policy (most notably, around the federal Farm Bill, which has historically created farm subsidies for commodity crops (e.g., corn, soybeans, wheat) and public assistance funds for food to low-income individuals and families39)or around developing programs and institutions designed to reconfigure local and regional food systems such that they will provide all communities with greater and more equitable access to safe, healthy, and local food.40 Urban agriculture, community supported agriculture (CSAs), kitchen gardens, coops, and local food artisans joined the menu of other food initiatives, most of which targeted hunger at an individual level.41 Food policy councils, first established in Knoxville, Tennessee in 1981,42 have rapidly proliferated in the past decade as forums through which concerned citizens and government officials can collaborate on resolving critical challenges to the local food system. This concentration on local food systems, with which local residents are most familiar, creates new opportunities not only for bolstering local economies, but also for gradually altering the global food system as localized policies are replicated across the nation.

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