Nationalism case studies: italy and germany nationalism



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NATIONALISM

NATIONALISM

  • Nationalism is the belief that one’s greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history. When the nation also had its own independent government, it became a nation-state.

BONDS THAT CREATE A NATION-STATE

  • NATIONALITY: A belief in a common ethnic ancestry – real or imagined.
  • LANGUAGE: Different dialects (forms) of one language; one dialect chosen as the “national language”.
  • CULTURE: A shared way of life (food, dress, behavior, ideals).
  • HISTORY: A common past, common experiences (real or imagined).
  • RELIGION: A religion shared by all or most of the people.
  • TERRITORY: A certain territory that belongs to the ethnic groups; its “land”.

NATIONALISM, A FORCE FOR UNITY: ITALY

ITALY

  • After the Congress of Vienna (1815), the land of Italy was still divided:
  • - Austria ruled the Italian provinces of Venetia and Lombardy.
  • The Spanish Bourbon family ruled the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
  • Pope controlled the Papal States (under French protection since 1848).

ITALY: LEADERS OF UNIFICATION

ITALY: LEADERS OF UNIFICATION

  • Mazzini:
    • Formed a nationalist group known as “Young Italy” in 1832.
    • He called for an end to foreign rule and the unification of Italy based on the common language and culture of the people. The Italian nationalist movement was called the Risorgimento (“resurgence”)
    • 1848: rebels failed and former rulers of Italian states drove Mazzini and other nationalist leaders into exile.

ITALY: LEADERS OF UNIFICATION

  • Cavour:
    • Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.
    • Used diplomacy and alliances to increase Piedmont-Sardinian power.
    • Would unify the North

ITALY: LEADERS OF UNIFICATION

  • Garibaldi:
    • Leader of the Red Shirts (Italian nationalist group that gained control of Sicily in 1860).
    • Would unify the South and merge with North (under pressure)

ITALIAN UNIFICATION - 1859

  • Agreement between Italy (Cavour) and France (Napoleon III) at Plombieres in 1858. Napoleon agreed to help drive Austria out of the northern provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.
  • Spring of 1859, Cavour provoked a war with Austria. A combined French-Saridinian army won two quick victories against Austria. Major battles were fought at Magenta (June 4, 1859) and Solferino (June 24, 1859) .
  • They drove Austria out of Lombardia but failed to drive them out of Venetia.
  • France was given Savoy and Nice in exchange for their help.

ITALIAN UNIFICATION

  • Victory over Austria awoke nationalist feelings among the states of Central Italy.
  • A plebiscite held in 1860, determined the incorporation into the kingdom of Sardinia of the states of Parma, Modena and Tuscany.

ITALIAN UNIFICATION - 1860

  • Secretly, Cavour was helping nationalist rebels in southern Italy. However, he would not send the Piedmontese army.
  • In May 1860, a small army of Italian nationalists (the 1000 Red Shirts), led by Giuseppe Garibaldi, sailed from Genoa and aided the Sicilian revolts, forcing the Bourbon army out of Sicily.
  • From Sicily, Garibaldi crossed to the Italian mainland and successfully marched north to Naples.
  • After Garibaldi took complete control and became leader of Southern Italy the people voted in a second plebiscite to unite with the north. (because Garibaldi received an ultimatum from King Victor Emmanuel II – unify or go to war against us.)

ITALIAN UNIFICATION - 1861

  • In March 1861, a parliament of all of Italy except Rome and Venetia, agreed on unifying Italy with Victor Emmanuel II as its first king.
  • Turin was the first capital,1861
  • Three months later Cavour died. Before dying, Cavour purportedly said: "Italy is made. All is safe."

But what about the Papal States in the middle? (oh, and Venetia and Rome?)

  • 1862 – Garibaldi sails for Rome intending to defeat it – he loses and is imprisoned briefly.
  • 1864 – Victor Emmanuel II meets with Napoleon III and negotiates the withdrawl of French troops within 2 years.
  • Florence became capital in 1864 -1865

ITALIAN UNIFICATION

  • In 1866, Italy joined Prussia in a war against Austria. When the Prussians won, Italy’s reward was Venetia.

When, in 1870, French troops withdrew from Rome so they could fight in the Franco-Prussian War; Italian forces seized Rome

  • When, in 1870, French troops withdrew from Rome so they could fight in the Franco-Prussian War; Italian forces seized Rome
  • Rome was declared Capital of Italy, in 1871, after final unification.
  • However, Pope Pius IX refused to acknowledge the Italian State and it was not until Mussolini came to power that Rome/Vatican finally “accepted” Italy.

Italian unity had at last been obtained more by diplomacy and astute timing than by military greatness

CHALLENGES AFTER UNIFICATION

  • Tension between the industrial north and agricultural south.
  • Different ways of life.
  • Different dialects of Italian.
  • Disorganized political parties caused an unstable parliament.
  • Strikes and riots in the south.
  • Italy entered the 20th century as a poor country.

NATIONALISM, A FORCE FOR UNITY: GERMANY

GERMANY

  • Following the Congress of Vienna, 39 German States formed the German Confederation. Austria and Prussia dominated the Confederation.

GERMANY

  • Prussian advantages:
    • Mainly German population
    • Most powerful army in Europe (emerging)
    • Industrialized faster than other German states
    • Rich resources in the Rhineland
    • Friendship between the two German states would turn to conflict in an attempt to unify Germany.

GERMANY

  • 1848: Democratic revolutions broke out all over Europe.
  • As a result, Prussia created a liberal constitution to limit the power of the King.

GERMANY: LEADERS OF THE UNIFICATION

  • King Wilhem I (King of Prussia)
    • Succeeded Frederick William to the throne in 1861.
    • Supported by the Junkers:
          • Wealthy landowning class
          • Strongly conservative and opposed liberal ideas.

LEADERS OF GERMAN UNIFICATION

    • Wilhem I
    • Wanted to increase the size and strength of the military (Parliament refused to give him the money)
    • Decided to pick a new Prime Minister in order to get what he wanted.

LEADERS OF GERMAN UNIFICATION

  • Otto von Bismarck (conservative junker):
    • Became Prime Minister in 1862.

LEADERS OF GERMAN UNIFICATION

  • Bismarck:
    • Realpolitik (“the politics of reality”): politics than leave no room for idealism.
    • Known as the “Iron Chancellor” for his realpolitik and his powerful rule.

LEADERS OF GERMAN UNIFICATION

  • Bismarck. First speech as prime minister to the members of the Parliament:
  • “Not by speeches and votes of the majority, are the great questions of the time decided — that was the error of 1848 and 1849 — but by iron and blood.”
  • Other quotes:
    • Hit the Poles so hard that they despair of their life; I have full sympathy with their condition, but if we want to survive, we can only exterminate them; the wolf, too, cannot help having been created by God as he is, but people shoot him for it if they can.
    • A conquering army on the border will not be stopped by eloquence.
    • Politics is not an exact science.
    • Politics is the art of the possible.

STEPS TO GERMAN UNIFICATION

  • 1864
    • Alliance between Prussia and Austria.
    • War against Denmark to win two border provinces: Shleswig and Holstein.
    • Quick victory. Prussia governed Schleswig and Austria, Holstein.

STEPS TO GERMAN UNIFICATION

  • 1866: Seven Weeks War
  • Bismarck purposely stirred up border conflicts with Austria over Schleswig and Holstein. (Bismarck had negotiated a secret agreement between Italy and Prussia to help each other and agreements of neutrality from France and Russia)
  • The tensions provoked Austria into declaring war on Prussia in 1866.

STEPS TO GERMAN UNIFICATION

  • 1866: Seven Weeks War
  • The war was over quickly. Prussia humiliated Austria.
  • The Austrians lost the region of Venetia (given to Italy).

STEPS TO GERMAN UNIFICATION

  • 1866: Seven Weeks War
  • Prussia took control of northern Germany. In 1867, the remaining states of the north, fueled by nationalist pride, joined a North German Confederation (dominated by Prussia)

STEPS TO GERMAN UNIFICATION

  • 1870-1871: The Franco-Prussian War

STEPS TO GERMAN UNIFICATION

  • 1870-1871: The Franco-Prussian War.
    • By 1867, a few southern German states remained independent of Prussia. Bismarck felt he could win the support of Southerners if they faced a threat from outside: a war with France would rally the South.
    • He published an altered version of a diplomatic telegram he had received from France (Ems telegram). Wilhelm seemed to insult the French. Reacting to the insult, France declared war on Prussia on July 19, 1870.

STEPS TO GERMAN UNIFICATION

  • 1870-1871: The Franco-Prussian War.
  • The Prussian army poured into northern France, and in September, they surrounded the main French force in Sedan. They took 80,000 French prisoners (even Napoleon III)

STEPS TO GERMAN UNIFICATION

  • 1870-1871: The Franco-Prussian War.
  • For four months, Parisians withstood a German siege. Finally, hunger forced them to surrender.

STEPS TO GERMAN UNIFICATION

  • 1870-1871: The Franco-Prussian War.
  • The Franco-Prussian War was the final stage in German unification. Now the nationalistic fever also seized people in southern Germany. They finally accepted Prussian leadership.

STEPS TO GERMAN UNIFICATION

  • Over a six-year period, Bismarck created a united Germany. He made skillful use of diplomacy and warfare to accomplish this task.

STEPS TO GERMAN UNIFICATION

  • JANUARY 18, 1871
  • - Wilhem I is crowned Kaiser (Emperor) at the Palace of Versailles (Picture)
  • - Second Reich: name given to the new German Empire

THE BALANCE OF POWER SHIFTS

  • The Congress of Vienna established five Great Powers in Europe: Britain, France, Austria, Prussia and Russia.
  • By 1871, however, Britain and Germany were clearly the most powerful. The European balance of power had broken down.


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