Example - Gives a specific situation or anecdote where the idea might apply.
Fact - Information from a study or from research. This often (but not always) comes in the form of a statistic.
Einstein - A professional opinion on a topic. This does not give a specific situation where it might be true (like an example), or support the idea with proven evidence (like fact).
Directions: Read the following pieces of evidence. Then decide if they are fact, example, or Einstein.
1. Students seem to lack an understanding of the concept of intellectual property.
2. Unlike previous generations, students are always quoting from different elements of pop culture.
3. Services such as Turnitin.com are so popular that they are currently processing upwards of 13,000 papers each day.
4. A large part of the plagiarism problem is that professors don’t distinguish between copying an entire paper from the internet and merely failing to cite sources properly.
5. Professors need to overcome the way they approach the issue of plagiarism.
6. Instead of acting like police, professors should talk to their students about why they value books less than their parents did.
Part II: Citing evidence appropriately Reasons to cite -
1. To let the reader know that your arguments are well-supported and carefully researched.
2. To tell reader the original source in case he or she wants to look it up to learn more about the topic.
3. To avoid plagiarism.
Turn over for more on citations!
The most common ways to cite a source… 1. Beginning-of-sentence citation
Author’s last name
argues that genetic factors have played a role in people’s need to take risks.
2. End-of-sentence citation
(Author’s last name, year).
Genetic factors have played a role in people’s need to take risks
Introduction, Context, Interpretation In order to use evidence effectively, you must be able to explicitly show how it relates to your topic.
Step 1: Introduce – what are you going to talk about? Topic sentence: Most students think that grades are more important than academic honesty.
Step 2: Contextualize– give details to expand the topic. Tell your reader why it is relevant. Context: Because good grades are required to get in to good schools, and subsequently get good jobs, many students focus on the grade, rather than on the process of learning.
Step 3: Quote or paraphrase – insert your evidence into the middle of this sandwich. Evidence Paraphrase: According to a survey of high school students, Slobogin (2002) found that students think that cheating is not a bad way to get the grades they need to get into a good school.
Step 4: Interpret – say what the paraphrase means. Evidence Interpretation: This perspective has allowed many students to rationalize their cheating. If students think of cheating as a tool to get into colleges, there is no reason for them to learn to produce their own work. This, in turn, may lead to even more plagiarism, as these students become adults and join the workforce.
adapted from Spitzer (2010); Dollahite and Haun (2006)