Written accounts, in some ways, they were like the modern game of football, to bet gold, slaves and houses, had been captured in wars and kept as prisoners, the ball had to be kept in the air, to touch the ground, hips, knees, getting the ball through stone rings, as long as possible, to hit the ground, to fill with hair, to use back, chest, shoulders, as well as, to worry about kit, did not wear clothes at all, to enjoy playing the game, a rectangular pitch, the player with the ball could be tackled, a record of the game, at least.
Read the text:
Early Ball Games
Ball games have a very long history. Young men and women have been getting together to play them for thousands of years. The earliest games were played in Mexico, South America, at least three thousand years ago. Later games, which had their own rules, were part of the culture of the ancient1 Olmec and Aztec peoples.
We do not know a lot about these ball games because it is very difficult to understand the written accounts of them. But they were all very similar and in some ways they were like the modern game of football. The games were played on a special piece of ground – the ‘pitch’.
The spectators – the men, women and children who watched the game – stood on the terraces and they often bet their gold, slaves and houses on the result of the game. Small figures of the players could be bought by their ‘fans’.
In these early ball games, there were two teams of seven players. The players were men who had been captured in wars and kept as prisoners. They played with a ball made of black rubber that probably weighed about five or six kilos. The ball had to be kept in the air – it was not allowed to touch the ground. But the players did not kick the ball. They used their hips, their knees and their arms to keep it in the air and they wore pads to protect themselves.
The players tried to score a ‘goal’ by getting the ball through one of the two stone rings above the terraces. Perhaps the game ended with this goal, but we are not sure. We know that in some games, the goalscorer was given gold and fine clothes.
How long did the games last? We do not know, but they usually ended in a terrible way, so the players would play for as long as possible. The games were not just about winning a cup, gold or clothes. They were a matter of life and death because they were part of the people’s religion. Each game ended in a sacrifice ordered by the priests . When the ball hit the ground, the captain of the losing team would have his head cut off or his heart torn out! Sometimes every player in the losing team was sacrificed. The fans went mad with excitement. The games were followed by a lot of eating and drinking.
These games were still being played in South America when the Spanish arrived in 1519. The soldiers took a team back to Spain, but the game was soon banned there. The Church did not like it.
Some Chinese writing, dating from 50 BC, describes football games played between China and Japan. The teams played with a leather ball which was filled with hair. The players could use their backs, chest and shoulders as well as their feet. They could not use their hands. These players must have been very clever. They learnt to do tricks and flicks, just like modern players do.
The Japanese game, kemari, is also very old and is still played today. The game is not competitive and there are no teams. The players stand in a circle. They pass the ball to each other and must keep it in the air as long as they can.
Records show that the Ancient Greeks also played a kind of football from about 2000 BC. There were two teams and the ball could be kicked or thrown. The ball was made from an inflated pig’s bladder, covered with leather. The Greeks did not have to worry about their kit11 getting dirty. The players, both men and women, did not wear any clothes at all!
Later, in Italy, in the streets of Rome, boys played a similar game that they called harpastum: ‘the small ball game’. Roman soldiers enjoyed playing the game too and it kept them fit. The soldiers played on a rectangular pitch, with lines marking the two halves. Only the player with the ball could be tackled. The fans shouted out advice as they do today: ‘Too far! Too short! Pass it back!’
When the Romans invaded Britain in the first century AD, they played the game there too. We do not know how the players scored goals, but a record of one game tells us that the Roman soldiers won: England 1– Italy 3.
Answer the questions: Can you say for sure how old the ball games are?
Can you find any similarities between ancient and modern ball games?
What impressed you most about the participants of ancient ball games ? What kind of people were they?
What did the players play with?
How was the game organized?
Why is the game ended in a terrible way?
What is particular about playing games in China, Japan, Ancient Greece and Italy?
Define the parts of speech of the following words and translate them:
to write writer writing written
to play play player played
to prison prison prisoner imprison
to goalscore goalscorer
to terrify terror terrible terrific
to excite exciter exciting excitement
to compete competition competitive
to record record recorder
to invade invader invasion
dirt dirty dirtiness
similar similarity similarly
Write down seven things you can do with a ball.
five games where you can hit the ball (with various kinds of equipment)
four games where you can pass the ball (with hands of feet)
three games where you can catch the ball
two games where you can kick the ball
one game where you can head the ball
6. Choose the most appropriate word to complete the following sentences.
1) Nobody could have predicted that France would ______________ both the 1998 World Cup and the 2000 European Cup.
A. succeed B. win C. gain D. beat
2) Which team are you going to ___________ in the Cup final?
A. support B. encourage C. accept D. promote
3) When I was young I wanted to ____________ football for England?
A. do B. make C. play D. take
4) If we ____________ the game, we`ll be out of the competition.
A. defeat B .lose C. fail D. withdraw
5) The players will have to _____________hard over the next few weeks in order to win.
A. rehearse B. train C. learn D. study
6) We ____________ the other team 4:2.
A. won B. succeeded C. beat D. conquered
7) Our team were _____________ by two goals to one.
A. won B. lost C. defeated D. destroyed
7.Try to recall some ball games and fill in the columns bellow. Use your dictionary to look up any new words that you need.
Things you can do with the ball
Some words to make things easier : court, whistle, hit, basket, catch, racket, bat, stick, tennis, club, pass, stadium, volleyball, hockey, crowd, basketball, throw, head, net.
Неособові форми дієслова
Інфінітив відповідає на питання що робити? Ознакою інфінітива є частка to : to read, to write.
Інфінітив вживається у функції підмета, додатка, обставини мети, означення та ін.
Інфінітив у функції підмета стоїть в реченні на першому місці (на початку)
To know English well is very important nowadays. У наші дні дуже важливо гарно знати англійську мову.
Інфінітив може вживатись у функції додатка до дієслів та
He asked me to stay. Він попросив мене залишитись.
I’ll be happy to visit you. Я буду щасливий відвідати тебе.
Інфінітив у функції обставини мети може стояти в реченні як на
початку, так і після додатку:
To know English well we must work hard at it. Щоб гарно знати
англійську мову, ми повинні наполегливо працювати.
We must work hard to know English well. Ми повинні наполегливо працювати, щоб гарно знати англійську мову.
Інфінітив вживається у функції означення:
I have no right to ask. Я не маю права запитувати.
Інфінітив вживається без частки to:
Після модальних дієслів can(could), may (might),must, should, need
You must do morning exercises every day.
May I go out?
You shouldattend classes regularly.
Після дієслів let ( дозволяти), make ( змушувати), help (допомогати)
Let him watch this match.
My mum makes me eat soup every day.
He helped me brings heavy bags.
У конструкції « об`єктний відмінок з інфінітивом» після дієслів to see, to hear, to watch, to feel , та ін.
I saw him come in. Я бачив, як він зайшов.
We heard a girl crying. Ми чули, як дівчинка плакала.
Після сполучень had better, would rather
I would rather stay at home. Краще б я залишився вдома.
You had better visit a doctor. Тобі б краще сходити до лікаря.
Інфінітивні конструкції .
Обєктний відмінок з інфінітивом Complex Object. Конструкція вживається після таких дієслів:
to want, to wish, would like, to like, to hate.
to expect- очікувати
to think - думати
to know - знати
to believe , to suppose, to consider – вважати
to order- наказувати
to ask- просити
to allow- дозволяти
to see, to hear, to feel, to watch
Українською мовою Complex Object перекладається підрядним додатковим реченням:
I like people to tell the truth. Я люблю, коли люди говорять правду.
I suppose her to be in Kyiv now. Я гадаю, що вона зараз в Києві.
I heard Ann play the piano. Я чув, як Анна грала на піаніно.
Перекладіть словосполучення, які мають інфінітив.
The hotel to stay, the first to come, a sport to go in for, a garden to play in, articles to be translated, changes to be made, the problems to be discussed, too cold to swim, to translate a text we used a dictionary, to go for a walk to sleep better.
Перекладіть речення українською мовою. He asked me to wait a little.
It was difficult to answer the teacher`s question.
He will go to the stadium to see a football match.
We stopped to have a rest.
The athletes have a good gym to train.
The winters in England are never cold enough to freeze the rivers.
3. Complete each sentence using the most suitable
verb in the box. Use each verb only once.
'Would you like a cup of tea?'
'I'd rather have coffee.'
Eat hurry tell type wear lend sit promise cry wait use have
1 It's very cold today. You'd better _____________ a coat when you go out.
2 'I haven't got any money.' 'Let me you __________________ some'.
3 Chopping onions makes me _________________.
4 'I'm tired of walking.' 'Let's _______________ down for a while, then.'
5 I can't you what Sally said. She made _______________ me that I wouldn't tell anyone.
6 'Why don't we dinner now?' 'I think I'd ______________ rather until later.'
8 I couldn't the letter because my brother _________________ wouldn't let me his typewriter.
4 Sally is speaking about her boyfriend, Peter.Complete what Sally says using the correct form of make or let and the verbs in the box. 'Peter's very funny. He makes me laugh a lot. We usually get on very well together, but sometimes I get really angry with him because he's so jealous and won't me ______________ out on my own. He ____________ me jealous, too, when he talks about his exgirlfriends! But I always ________________ him his own friends and never ask him who he is going out with. I've talked to him about this, but I can't ______________ him that his attitude is unfair.'
EXERCISE 5. Complete the sentences.
I couldn't do the job on my own, so I / ask | Simon | help me.
/ couldn 't do the job on my own, so I asked Simon to help me.
1I was surprised that my brother failed his driving test. I / expect | him | pass | easily.
2 Annie wanted to stay up late, but her parents | tell | her | go to bed at 9 o'clock.
3 Simon phoned Sarah yesterday. He | invite | her | go to a party on Saturday.
4 I was going to buy the car, but a friend of mine | persuade | me | change my mind.
5 Don't tell Sue what I've done. I / not | want | her | know.
6 One of the plane's engines caught fire, which | force | the pilot | land.
7 When I was a child, my mother | warn me | not | talk to strangers.
8 If you hadn't | remind j me | lock the door, I would have forgotten.
EXERCISE 6. What did they say? Complete the sentences using
an object + to infinitive ...
'Remember to phone Chris,' Sue told Peter. Sue
reminded Peter to phone Chris.
'Can you lend me some money?' I asked him. I
asked him to lend me some money.
1 'Close the door,' Ken told Andrew.
Ken told _________________.
2 'Can you help me?' I asked her. I asked ____________________.
3 'Would you like to go to a party?' they asked
us. They invited ___________________.
4 'Please don't be late home,' Kate said to
Sally. Kate asked ____________________________.
5 'Get out of your car,' the policeman told the
woman. The policeman ordered ____________________________.
6 'Don't be late for work again,' my boss told
me. My boss warned . ______________________.
Exercise 7. Put “to” where necessary.
1. I think you ought ______ apologize.
2. Make him ______ speak louder.
3. Help me ______ carry this bag.
4. My son asked me ______ let him ______ go to the theatre.
5. I must ______ go to the country.
6. It cannot ______ be done to-day.
7. She asked me ______ read the letter carefully and ______ write an answer.
8. The man told me not ______ walk on the grass.
9. Let me ______ help you with your work.
10. She ought ______ take care of her health.
11. We had better ______ stop to rest a little.
12. I don‘t know what ______ do.
13. He was seen ______ leave the house.
14. We have come ______ ask whether there is anything we can ______ do.
15. We heard the siren ______ sound and saw the ship ______ move.
16. I cannot ______ go there now, I have some work ______ do.
17. During the crossing the passengers felt the ship ______ toss.
18. You must make him ______ practice an hour a day.
19. He is not sure that it can ______ be done, but he is willing ______ try.
20. I looked for the book everywhere but could not ______ find it.
21. He said that she might ______ come in the evening.
22. She was made ______ repeat the song.
23. Would you rather ______ learn shorthand than typewriting?
8. Перекладіть речення із інфінітивними конструкціями англ. мовою.
Я ненавиджу, коли він запізнюється. I hate him to be late.
Ми очікуємо, що вони скоро прийдуть.
Я знаю, що вони праві.
Я вважаю,що вона зараз у Польщі.
Ми почули, як задзвонив телефон.
Я вважаю його чесною людиною.
Аня думає, що йому 40 років.
Ми бачили, як він біг по вулиці
Він хоче , щоб ми прийшли в суботу.
Ми не помітили, як він пішов.
Вони знали, що він гарний спортсмен.
Exercise 9. Поставте, де потрібно , частку «to» перед інфінітивом. My daughter asked me ___________ let her _____________ go to the theater.
Make him ____________ speak louder.
She asked me ___________________ read the letter and _____________ write an answer.
We had better ______________ stop ______________ rest a little.
We have come ______________ ask if there is anything we can _____________ do.
He said that she might _____________ come in the evening.
The man told me not ____________ walk in the grass.
I saw him _________________ run.
I heard the girl ____________ play the piano.
Would you rather ______________ train in the gym than outside?
Герундій (-ing forms:)
The Gerund. Participle of gerund
Герундій – це неособова форма дієслова із закінченням –ing, що має властивості як дієслова, так і іменника. Ця форма відсутня в українській мові. На українську мову герундій може перекладатися дієсловом, іменником, інколи дієприкметником або підрядним реченням.