Unit 1: The Chemistry of Life Test (M) Multiple Choice



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Unit 1: The Chemistry of Life Test (M)

Multiple Choice
1. The three particles that make up atoms are

A

neutrons, isotopes, and electrons.

B

protons, neutrons, and electrons.

C

protons, neutrons, and isotopes.

2. The space surrounding the nucleus of an atom contains



A

neutrons.

B

protons.

C

electrons.

3. The nucleus is made up of



A

protons, neutrons, and electrons.

B

protons and electrons.

C

protons and neutrons.

4. Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same number of protons and



A

the same number of neutrons.

B

a different number of molecules.

C

a different number of neutrons.

5. Which of the following is a use of radioactive isotopes?



A

can determine the ages of rocks and fossils

B

can be used to treat cancer and kill bacteria that cause food to spoil

C

can be used as “tracers” to follow the movements of substances within organisms

D

all of the above

6. If an atom contains 11 protons and 12 neutrons, its atomic number is



A

23.

B

11.

C

1.

7. Which of the following terms describes a substance formed by the combination of two or more elements in definite proportions?



A

enzyme

B

isotope

C

compound

8. Which of the following makes up a molecule of water?



A

one atom of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen

B

one atom of sodium and one atom of chlorine

C

two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen

9. A covalent bond is formed as the result of



A

transferring protons.

B

sharing a proton pair.

C

sharing an electron pair.

10. What type of electron is available to form bonds?



A

nucleus

B

valence

C

ionic

11. What type of ion forms when an atom loses electrons?



A

possibly positive or negative

B

negative

C

positive

12. Ice floats on water because



A

water expands when it freezes.

B

ice has a higher density than water.

C

water shrinks when it freezes.

13. Water molecules are polar, with the



A

oxygen and hydrogen sides being slightly negative.

B

oxygen side being slightly negative and the hydrogen side being slightly positive.

C

oxygen side being slightly positive and the hydrogen side being slightly negative.

14. If you stir salt into boiling water, you produce a



A

mixture only.

B

mixture called a solution.

C

solution and suspension.

15. When salt is dissolved in water, water is the



A

reactant.

B

solvent.

C

solution.

16. A monosaccharide is a



A

nucleic acid.

B

carbohydrate.

C

protein.

17. Which of the following organic compounds is the main source of energy for living things?



A

proteins

B

lipids

C

carbohydrates

18. Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins?



A

store and transmit heredity

B

help to fight disease

C

control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes

19. Which statement is true?



A

Simple sugars are made of polysaccharides.

B

Glycerol is made of fatty acids.

C

RNA molecules are made of nucleotides.

20. In chemical reactions, atoms are



A

rearranged.

B

destroyed.

C

created.

21. When hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water, water is



A

a reactant.

B

both a product and a reactant.

C

a product.

22. Identify the reactant(s) in the chemical reaction, CO2 + H2O ® H2CO3.



A

H2CO3

B

CO2

C

CO2 and H2O

23. What is the term used to describe the energy needed to get a reaction started?



A

chemical energy

B

activation energy

C

adhesion energy

24. If a reaction in one direction releases energy, the reaction in the opposite direction



A

destroys energy.

B

also releases energy.

C

absorbs energy.

25. A substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction is called a(an)



A

molecule.

B

catalyst.

C

element.



Short Answer
26. What accounts for water’s properties of adhesion and cohesion?
27. What are the four groups of organic compounds found in living things?
Using Science Skills


Element

Symbol

Protons

Neutrons

Electrons

Atomic Number

Mass Number

Hydrogen

H

1







1




Helium

He

2










4

Carbon

C




6




6




Oxygen

O




8

8







Neon

Ne







10

10

20

Aluminum

Al

13










27

Zinc

Zn







30

30

65


Figure 2–1
28. Based on Figure 2–1, what is the mass number of carbon?
29. Based on Figure 2–1, what is the atomic number of oxygen?
30. Using Figure 2–1, how many electrons does an atom of aluminum contain?


pH Values of Some Common Substances

Substance

pH

Hydrochloric acid

1.0

Sulfuric acid

1.2

Tomatoes

4.2

Rainwater

6.2

Pure water

7.0

Sea water

8.5

Ammonium chloride

11.1

Sodium hydroxide

13.0


Figure 2–2
31. What is the strongest acid listed in Figure 2–2?
32. What is the pH of the weakest acid listed in Figure 2–2?
33. What is the pH of the strongest base listed in Figure 2–2?


Figure 2–3
34. According to Figure 2–3, which enzyme would you expect to find in a bacterium growing in a hot spring?
35. According to Figure 2–3, at what temperature do the two enzymes have the same amount of activity?
36. Based on Figure 2–3, which enzyme is active over the largest temperature range?
Short Answer
37. Explain the difference between ionic compounds and covalently bonded compounds.

Unit 1 Test

Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: B REF: p. 35

OBJ: 2.1.1 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


2. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: A REF: p. 35

OBJ: 2.1.1 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


3. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B REF: p. 35

OBJ: 2.1.1 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


4. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B REF: p. 36

OBJ: 2.1.2 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


5. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: A REF: p. 36

OBJ: 2.1.2 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


6. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: p. 36

OBJ: 2.1.2 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


7. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B REF: p. 37

OBJ: 2.1.3 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


8. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: A REF: p. 37

OBJ: 2.1.3 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


9. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B REF: p. 38

OBJ: 2.1.4 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


10. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: A REF: p. 38

OBJ: 2.1.4 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


11. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: A REF: p. 38

OBJ: 2.1.4 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


12. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: A REF: p. 40

OBJ: 2.2.1 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


13. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: B REF: p. 40

OBJ: 2.2.1 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


14. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: p. 42

OBJ: 2.2.2 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


15. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: A REF: p. 42

OBJ: 2.2.2 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


16. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: A REF: p. 46

OBJ: 2.3.1 STA: 3.1.12.A.2


17. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B REF: p. 45

OBJ: 2.3.1 STA: 3.1.12.A.2


18. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: B REF: p. 48

OBJ: 2.3.1 STA: 3.1.12.C.2


19. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: A REF: p. 46 | p. 47

OBJ: 2.3.1 STA: 3.1.12.C.2


20. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: p. 49

OBJ: 2.4.1 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


21. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: A REF: p. 49

OBJ: 2.4.1 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


22. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: p. 49

OBJ: 2.4.1 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


23. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: B REF: p. 50

OBJ: 2.4.2 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


24. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: A REF: p. 50

OBJ: 2.4.2 STA: 3.1.10.E.1


25. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: B REF: p. 51

OBJ: 2.4.3 STA: 3.1.12.B.2


SHORT ANSWER
26. ANS:

The ability of water to form multiple hydrogen bonds accounts for water’s properties of adhesion and cohesion.

PTS: 1 DIF: A REF: p. 41 OBJ: 2.2.1

STA: 3.1.10.E.1


27. ANS:

The four groups are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.

PTS: 1 DIF: B REF: p. 45 OBJ: 2.3.1

STA: 3.1.12.A.2


OTHER
28. ANS:

12

PTS: 1 DIF: B REF: p. 35 | p. 36 OBJ: 2.1.2



STA: 3.1.10.E.1
29. ANS:

8

PTS: 1 DIF: B REF: p. 35 | p. 36 OBJ: 2.1.2



STA: 3.1.10.E.1
30. ANS:

13

PTS: 1 DIF: B REF: p. 35 | p. 36 OBJ: 2.1.2



STA: 3.1.10.E.1
31. ANS:

hydrochloric acid

PTS: 1 DIF: A REF: p. 43 OBJ: 2.2.3

STA: 3.1.10.E.1


32. ANS:

6.2


PTS: 1 DIF: A REF: p. 43 OBJ: 2.2.3

STA: 3.1.10.E.1


33. ANS:

13.0


PTS: 1 DIF: A REF: p. 43 OBJ: 2.2.3

STA: 3.1.10.E.1


34. ANS:

enzyme Y


PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: p. 50 | p. 51 OBJ: 2.4.3

STA: 3.1.12.B.2


35. ANS:

about 45°C

PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: p. 50 | p. 51 OBJ: 2.4.3

STA: 3.1.12.B.2


36. ANS:

enzyme Y


PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: p. 50 | p. 51 OBJ: 2.4.3

STA: 3.1.12.B.2


ESSAY
37. ANS:

In an ionic compound, valence electrons of atoms of one element have been transferred to the atoms of another element. Thus, ionic bonding involves the gain and loss of electrons. In covalently bonded compounds, atoms of different elements share electrons.



PTS: 1 DIF: A REF: p. 38 OBJ: 2.1.4

STA: 3.1.10.E.1

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