Ssci e101 Education Policy Analysis and Research Utilization



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SSCI E101

Education Policy Analysis and Research Utilization

In Comparative Perspective


Fall 2012

Harvard Extension School

http://www.extension.harvard.edu/


Professor: Fernando Reimers

Office: Gutman 461

Phone: (617) 496-4817

E-mail: Fernando_Reimers@harvard.edu

Website: http://gseacademic.Harvard.edu/~reimers

Teaching Fellow: Vanessa Beary

Online Office Hours: By Appointment

E-mail: veb682@mail.harvard.edu
Teaching Fellow: Vidur Chopra

Online Office Hours: By Appointment



E-mail: vidur_chopra@mail.harvard.edu


Overview:
What are some of the core educational policy challenges internationally? What should students learn in the 21st century? What can we learn from comparative educational research? How can governments, non-government organizations and international institutions throughout the world support the work of teachers and school leaders in ways that foster the academic success and development of all students? How can comparative education inform education policy reform? What do policy advisors do and which are the institutions that engage their services? This course examines these and related questions about the theory and practice of international and comparative education.
This introductory course to education policy analysis and comparative and international education reviews some of the main issues affecting the opportunity to access and learn in schools in several national contexts. The course is divided into three parts. The first section is an introduction to the field of comparative and international education in which we examine contemporary education challenges and the factors that influence educational opportunity. The second section of the course reviews the process of education policy analysis, evaluation and research as avenues to inform policy choices. We discuss how education policy is shaped and review alternative ways to conceptualize the role research and analysis play in policy formation. The last section of the course reviews comparative and international research on policy options to improve the functioning of schools and opportunity to learn.
Participants in the class will develop their skills as policy analysts, writing two short policy memos and a final policy analysis paper that uses research-based knowledge to improve education in a specific country.
Each week students will watch a lecture that will address the central issues covered in the readings. The lecture will ordinarily be available on Fridays after 2pm.

Objectives:
This course is designed to help students develop policy analysis skills and acquire knowledge about the implications of comparative and international education research for policy reform. Specifically the course will:


  1. Familiarize course participants with the field of comparative and international education and with contemporary global education challenges and policy alternatives to improve education internationally.




  1. Develop an understanding of the process of policy formation, and of methodologies to assess education needs and to formulate policy priorities.




  1. Develop the ability among course participants to draw policy implications from comparative educational research on school purposes and curriculum, teacher quality, school leadership and system reform.


Course Requirements
Lectures
Students are expected to watch all lectures online and be fully prepared to participate in discussions, having done the assigned readings. Since the lectures are pre-recorded, we will provide as many opportunities for involvement in online discussions with the Teaching Fellows as possible. If students have questions while watching the lecture, they send it to their assigned TF or post it as part of their “Minute Paper’ (see below). The teaching team will respond to the question either in writing or during section. All questions and responses will be shared with the entire class.
Course Participation
Course participation is expected and required both as a way to enrich discussion of the broad range of diverse experiences and perspectives brought by each student to the course and as a way to help each student integrate new concepts and ideas with past knowledge and experience. Course participation requirements are detailed below and accounts for 25% of the course grade.
0. Readings

Completing required readings is central to maximizing the material covered in the lectures. Students should watch lectures having completed the required readings and, if possible, reading or scanning the optional readings as well.


1. Reading Questions (Estimated time requirement: 15 minutes)

After completing the assigned reading each week, students should post two questions to the appropriate box on the course site. Questions may be related to implications of the readings, make connections between the readings and other course contents, or about contents, processes, methodologies or frameworks related to the readings. Please post your questions before watching the lecture.


2. Minute paper (Estimated time requirement: 5 minutes)

Students should write “a minute paper” after watching each lecture. This is a brief (no more that 50 words) reflection on an idea from the lecture – could be something that gives you new insight, could an issue that you are struggling with or that you understand differently, could be implications for your work or your community. Minute paper could include questions for follow-up by colleagues or the teaching team. All minute papers will be shared with the rest of the class through the discussion board. Please post your minute paper immediately after watching the lecture.



3. Online Forum (Estimated time requirement: 20 minutes)

The course will have a forum which will host a discussion each week. The teaching team will post a question which might be based on the reading, the lecture, or the comments, questions or minute papers of members of the class. Course participants are required to post written responses to the discussion question/topic each week. Posts should be no more than 250 words.


4. Participate in Discussion Section (Estimated time requirement: 1.5 hours)
Using Elluminate (an online software), course participants will meet virtually weekly to discuss the material for the week. Discussion sections provide an opportunity to share views with colleagues, develop new skills, and clarify issues from the lecture and readings. Discussions will be facilitated by the teaching fellows with appearances by Professor Reimers as required.
Each student should attend one of the sections which will last for 1.5 hours on [dates to be determined].

Assignments
Paper 1: Identification of a Policy Issue. Write an eight page double spaced memo identifying an education policy issue that you believe is relevant to the opportunities of children to learn in a country or region of your choice. Explain why this issue is important and provide appropriate empirical evidence to justify your claims. For example, you could talk about access issues –about the exclusion of particular groups from the opportunity to be schooled--, you could talk about quality issues, you could talk about the relevance of education for employment opportunities, you could talk about inequalities in accessing quality education, you could talk about efficiency issues in the use of education resources.
This paper is due on Friday, October 12, 2012 by 5 PM EST. Students are encouraged to write about an issue that they wish to focus on for the rest of the semester. This paper can be done individually or in groups of up to three students. This paper will account for 20% of your final grade. If you obtain a grade of B- or less in this paper you have the option to re-write this paper and resubmit it a week after receiving the grade. The final grade in this paper will be the average of the initial grade and the grade of the revised paper.

Paper 2: Literature Review and Implications for Policy. The minister of education a country or jurisdiction in which you are working has asked you to write a brief paper to guide her thinking on one of the key policy issues in education in that jurisdiction. In this paper you will identify the issue, examine policy alternatives to address it and make a recommendation. You will use literature to inform your analysis of these alternatives.
In order to fulfill the minister’s requirement, your paper should:

  • Identify the issue clearly

  • Use evidence to explain why this issue is important

  • Review pertinent empirical research on the issue, in the specific jurisdiction or internationally, and on the effects of policies, programs and practices which have been used to address it, marshal the existing evidence on the issue, and discuss the key implications of the readings for policy decisions

  • Make a recommendation

  • Focus on telling a story that is consistent, articulate and crisp

  • Be a maximum of 10 pages, double spaced

  • This paper can be done individually or in groups of 3.

Empirical research is a particular form of discourse that differs from anecdotal observations or speculative argument; but a form of discourse where the claims made are supported by qualitative/quantitative/ research evidence. Evidence is generated by systematic efforts to describe reality such as testing the competencies of students, their attitudes, assessing teacher practice, school organization, the implementation of curriculum and interventions and the like. Research is generally published in specialized journals, as evaluation reports, it can include comparative education articles, journal articles, books or reports about single national education systems, synthesis of other research (Asia Society), etc.


Research differs from essays --arguments and claims not explicitly supported by evidence-- or from newspaper articles or on reflections from personal experience.
This paper will comprise 20% of your grade and is due Friday November 2, 2012 by 5pm. If you obtain a grade of B- or less in this paper you have the option to re-write this paper and resubmit it a week after receiving the grade. The final grade in this paper will be the average of the initial grade and the grade of the revised paper.
Paper 3: Final Research Paper. Write a policy analysis research-based paper which proposes a policy, program or other national level initiative to improve education in a specific country. In this paper, review pertinent research literature and formulate program or a set of policy recommendations to address the issue you have identified. This paper should integrate research and analytic frameworks discussed in different sessions of the course, but you are also welcome to go beyond the readings in this course to provide evidence for your paper. This paper may be done individually or in groups of up to three members.

It may be possible to substitute the final research paper for a paper that reflects a project in which students are involved –a program or project evaluation, a policy analysis or a publication. The paper needs to provide evidence of knowledge gained in this course. Students interested in pursuing this option will submit a two page proposal outlining the paper, describing the proposed project and how it will provide evidence of the skills gained in this course. This proposal is due on Friday October 12.


This paper should have a maximum of 25 double-spaced pages and will count for 35% of the final grade. The paper is due Friday, December 21, 2012 by 5pm. Unlike papers 1 and 2, this paper cannot be resubmitted.
Final Conference
We will organize a final conference at which some of the final papers will be presented. We will invite as discussants outstanding practitioners in the development field. Students will be invited to present their papers and all students will be invited to attend the conference. The precise date for the conference will be established attempting to accommodate the majority of students in the course who are interested in participating. In the past this final conference has proven to be a valuable opportunity to learn from the work of other students in the course, to develop presentation skills, and to receive feedback and network with development practitioners.


Grading Rubrics For Papers 1-3

Paper 1: Criteria for evaluating paper 1




Grades

A

B

C

D

Content

- Clearly identifies an education problem that can be addressed through policy interventions

- Focuses on one country or region and provides a brief description of that context


- Provides a pertinent description of the problem, supported by data

- Articulates a clear argument regarding the importance of the issue for policy




- Identifies an issue for policy
- Some arguments unclear or unsupported by evidence


- Policy issue is not clearly identified
- Argument not fully developed or supported


Shows effort to complete assignment but fails to fulfill basic requirements



Writing: style, organization,

- Is organized and written logically and clearly, without errors that may prohibit comprehension
- Ideas are explained clearly
- Language is precise; words are used parsimoniously



- Is organized and written logically and clearly

- Ideas need further development

- Lacks focus


- Includes writing and organization errors that seriously prohibit comprehension

Organization and presentation of the paper prohibits comprehension of the core argument of the paper.



Assignment Instructions

Fulfills instructions

Fulfills more than 75% of instructions

Fulfills less than 75% of instructions

Fulfills less than 50% of instructions

Paper 2: Criteria for evaluating the paper 2



Grades

A

B

C

D

Content

Clearly identifies a policy challenge
Focuses on one country or region and and provides a description of the policy challenge supported by relevant data sources

Synthesizes the central arguments and findings advanced by research literature on the selected policy challenge


I Identifies original implications of this research for policy in the given context, making specific policy recommendations



Satisfies the core paper requirements
Argumentation about the relevance of the policy challenge to selected country or region is underdeveloped
Weak use of research
May not reflect an original or unique analysis of the policy challenge


  • Policy recommendations may not demonstrate originality of thought or be clearly grounded in the selected context




Shows effort to respond to assignment but significantly lacking in key areas including:
- Identification of policy challenge
- description of context
- use of evidence
- analysis

Shows effort to complete assignment but fails to clearly identify a policy challenge
Fails to use research to support argument


Writing

Is organized and written logically and clearly, without errors that may prohibit comprehension

- Contains a clear introduction, a conclusion, and arguments follow a logical sequence supported by evidence, and thoughtful transitions


- Content is of appropriate range and depth
- Sources are varied, research-based and cited appropriately
- Contains an appropriately formatted reference page

Contains writing and organizational errors
- Missing or has weaknesses in one or two of the following: introduction, conclusion, and

logic and flow of arguments


- Errors in use and citation of sources
- Reference page contains errors in formatting

Writing errors prohibit comprehension
- Missing or has weaknesses in: introduction, conclusion, and

logic and flow of arguments


- Errors in use and citation of sources and reference list


Writing errors prohibit comprehension
- Missing or has weaknesses in: introduction, conclusion, and

logic and flow of arguments


- Lacks citation of sources and references


Assignment Instructions

Fulfills instructions

Fulfills more than 75% of instructions

Fulfills less than 75% of instructions

Fulfills less than 50% of instructions

Paper 3: Criteria for evaluating the final paper




A

B

C

D

Content

Identifies a problem in education that needs to be addressed
Focuses on a specific country or region
Provides relevant descriptive data on the selected problem
Justifies the need for action to address the problem
Critically summarizes pertinent research literature (from the course readings and elsewhere) related to the issue
Proposes a detailed and systematic program to address the problem, informed by the research literature reviewed

Applies one of the analytic frameworks from the course



Satisfies the basic requirements of the assignment
Definition of barrier or other key aspects of the framing of the problem may be underdeveloped
Makes only partial use of the pertinent research literature
Program is incomplete or unfeasible
Missing one or two key elements that hinders comprehension

Shows serious effort to define and respond to a policy issue
Lacks evidence to define the problem and the proposed response
Program is incomplete and infeasible
Missing multiple key elements that hinders comprehension

Shows effort to complete assignment but is seriously deficient in multiple ways making it an insufficient response to the assignment



Writing

Is organized and written logically and clearly, without errors that may prohibit comprehension

- Contains a clear introduction, a conclusion, and arguments follow a logical sequence supported by evidence, and thoughtful transitions


- Content is of appropriate range and depth
- Sources are varied, research-based and cited appropriately
- Contains an appropriately formatted reference page

Contains errors in writing and organization
- Missing or has weaknesses in one or two of the following: introduction, conclusion, and

logic and flow of arguments


- Errors in use and citation of sources
- Reference page contains errors in formatting

Writing errors prohibit comprehension
- Missing or has weaknesses in: introduction, conclusion, and

logic and flow of arguments


- Errors in use and citation of sources and reference list


Writing errors prohibit comprehension
- Missing or has weaknesses in: introduction, conclusion, and

logic and flow of arguments


- Lacks citation of sources and references


Assignment Instructions

Fulfills instructions

Fulfills more than 75% of instructions

Fulfills less than 75% of instructions

Fulfills less than 50% of instructions

Summary Schedule and Weight of Assignments


  1. Class participation. Attendance and contribution to scheduled discussion sections and other opportunities. 25% of final grade.

  2. Paper presenting a key policy challenge (8 pages). Due October 12. 20% of final grade.

  3. Discussion (10 pages) of policy implications of research on a topic. Due on November 2. 20% of final grade.

  4. Individual final research paper (20-25 pages). Final Paper due December 21. 35% of final grade.


All papers must be submitted in the dropbox in the course website by the assigned dates at 5pm.



Office Hours
Consultations with the Teaching Fellows via elluminate can be scheduled individually.
Reading List and Schedule
The following books are available in Gutman Library and at the Coop should you wish to purchase them.
Required supplemental articles and handouts are contained in the course packet, which students must purchase.
A number of the readings are only available on-line.
Books available at the Coop, Gutman library, and Online:
Bardach, Eugene. 2000. A Practical Guide for Policy Analysis. CQ Press.
Sahlberg, Pasi. 2011. Finish Lessons. What can the world learn from educational change in Finland? New York. Teachers College Press.
Phillips, D. and M. Schweisfurth. 2006. Comparative and International Education. An Introduction to Theory, Method and Practice. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.
Reimers, F. and N. McGinn. 1997. Informed Dialogue. Using research to shape education policy around the world. Praeger. ISBN. 0-275-95443-9.
Stewart, V. 2012. A world-class education. Learning from international models of excellence and innovation. Virginia, ASCD.
Weiss, C. 1998. Evaluation. Methods for Studying Programs and Policies. New Jersey. Prentice Hall.
Class Schedule and Reading List



Part I. Introduction. Comparative and International Education.
In this first part of the course we study the comparative approach to education and review the status of educational opportunity around the world, identify some of the key factors that constrain the opportunity of children to learn, and examine what goes on in schools and classrooms around the world.


  1. The purpose of comparison. What is comparative education? What is international education?


Friday, September 7. Lecture.
Monday, September 10. Discussion Section
Required:
Online:
Lloyd, Cynthia with Juliet Young. New Lessons. The Power of Educating Adolescent Girls. Chapter 1 Adolescent Girls’ Education and 2 Where and How are Girls’ Faring. Pages 1-33. New York. The Population Council.

http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/2009PGY_NewLessons.pdf


Review the website of the Fast Track Education Initiative. http://www.educationfasttrack.org/

Required books:
Phillips, D. and M. Schweisfurth. 2006. Comparative and International Education. An Introduction to Theory, Method and Practice. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. (Required book)

Chapter 1. Making Comparisons. Pages. 7—26.


Sahlberg, Pasi. 2011. Finish Lessons. What can the world learn from educational change in Finland? New York. Teachers College Press. (Required book). Pages 1-69.

Recommended:
Required books:
Phillips, D. and M. Schweisfurth. 2006. Comparative and International Education. An Introduction to Theory, Method and Practice. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. (Required book)

Chapter 2. How Comparative Education has developed. Pages 27--41

Chapter 3. Domains of Practice and Fields of Inquiry in International Education. Pages 42---59.
Part I. Introduction. Comparative and International Education.


  1. What is Education Policy?


Friday, September 14. Lecture.
Monday, September 17. Discussion Section.
Required:
Required books:

Bardach, E. 2000. A Practical Guide for Policy Analysis: The Eightfold Path to More Effective Problem Solving. New York. Chatham House Publishers. Pages 1 to 83. (Coop and Gutman Library). isbn: 1889119296.



Ipack:
Reimers, F., N. Cooc and J. Hashmi. 2011. Adapting Innovations Across Borders to Close Equity Gaps in Education. In: Heymann, J. and A. Cassola (Eds.) Lessons in Educational Equality. Successful Approaches to Intractable Problems Around the World. New York. Oxford University Press.

Online:

Center for Universal Education. Brookings Institution. 2011. A Global Compact on Learning. Taking Action on Education in Developing Countries. Education Policy Paper.


http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports/2011/0609_global_compact/0609_global_compact_policy_brief.pdf
Part I. Introduction. Comparative and International Education.


  1. Comparative cross-national studies.



Friday, September 21. Lecture.
Monday, September 24. Discussion Section.
Required:

Online:
Jensen, B. 2012. Catching up: Learning from the best school systems in East Asia. Grattan Institute. http://grattan.edu.au/publications/reports/post/catching-up-learning-from-the-best-school-systems-in-east-asia/ Pages 1-115 in full report.

Study this website http://www.oecd.org/pisa/


Required books:

Phillips, D. and M. Schweisfurth. 2006. Comparative and International Education. An Introduction to Theory, Method and Practice. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. Chapter 7. Comparative Education Research: Survey Outcomes and their uses. Pages 118—129. (required book)

Stewart, V. 2012. A world-class education. Learning from international models of excellence and innovation. Virginia, ASCD. (Required book). Pages 1-78.

Part I. Introduction. Comparative and International Education.
4. Education and Development and Education as a Human Right.
Friday, September 28. Lecture
Monday, October 1. Discussion Section.
Required:
Required books:
Phillips, D. and M. Schweisfurth. 2006. Comparative and International Education. An Introduction to Theory, Method and Practice. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group. Chapter 4. Education and National Development. Pages 60—81. (required book)

Online:
Lloyd, Cynthia with Juliet Young. New Lessons. The Power of Educating Adolescent Girls. Chapter 1 Adolescent Girls’ Education and 2 Where and How are Girls’ Faring. Pages 48-81. New York. The Population Council.

http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/2009PGY_NewLessons.pdf


Unesco. The hidden crisis: Armed Conflict and Education (Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2011). Chapter 1. The six EFA goals pages 26-97 http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international-agenda/efareport/reports/2011-conflict/


Part I. Introduction. Comparative and International Education.


  1. Current Global Education Issues.


Friday, October 5. Lecture.
Monday, October 8. Columbus Day. No Discussion Section.
Online:

Asia Society. Teaching and Leadership for the Twenty-First Century. The 2012 International Summit on the Teaching Profession. Pages 1-27.

http://asiasociety.org/files/2012teachingsummit.pdf
Unesco. The hidden crisis: Armed Conflict and Education (Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2011). Chapter 3. Education and armed conflict –the deadly spirals pages 128-183 http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international-agenda/efareport/reports/2011-conflict/
Ipack:
Reimers, Fernando. Editor. (2000). Unequal Schools, Unequal Chances. Harvard University Press. Chapter 4, Pages 55-111. (reading packet)

Part II. The Process of Policy Analysis
In this second part of the course we review the process of policy formation and discuss alternative approaches to understand how policy is formulated and the role education research can play in this process.
6. How education policy is made.
Friday, October 12. Lecture. (First Paper Due).
Monday, October 15. Discussion Section

In this session we discuss a model that views education policy formation as proceeding in stages and review the applicability of this notion to several country cases. We discuss also the problematic nature of the relationship between policy and research and knowledge utilization.


Required:
Required books:
Reimers, F. and N. McGinn. Informed Dialogue. (Pp. 3-126). (Coop and Gutman Library). ISBN: 0275954420 and 0275954439.
Online:
Department for International development. Learning for All: DFID’s Education Strategy 2010-2015. UK AID.

http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/educ-strat.pdf


UNHCR. Education Strategy. http://www.unhcr.org/4af7e71d9.html
UNICEF. Education Strategy.
http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/All_Children_Everywhere_EN_072409.pdf
USAID. Education Strategy.
http://transition.usaid.gov/our_work/education_and_universities/documents/USAID_ED_Strategy_feb2011.pdf
World Bank. Education Strategy 2020.

http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTEDUCATION/0,,contentMDK:22474207~menuPK:282402~pagePK:210058~piPK:210062~theSitePK:282386,00.html



Part II. The Process of Policy Analysis
7. Assessing the performance of an education system.
Friday, October 19. Lecture.
Monday, October 22. No Discussion Section . Columbus Day.

In this session we discuss the methodology of education sector analysis and expand on the concept of policy formation as learning. We discuss the social context of policymaking and the approaches that can maximize opportunities for social learning, implementation and sustainability of reform.


Required:
Online:
Kemmerer, F. Utilizing Education and Human Resource Sector Analyses.
http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0009/000959/095971e.pdf#search=%22Utilizing%20education%20and%20human%20resource%20sector%20analyses%20Frances%20Kemmerer%22
OECD. Education at a Glance 2011 Highlights. Pages 1-97

http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/eag_highlights-2011-en/index.html;jsessionid=3msoa15i8j4pb.epsilon?contentType=/ns/Book,/ns/StatisticalPublication&itemId=/content/book/eag_highlights-2011-en&containerItemId=/content/serial/2076264x&accessItemIds=&mimeType=text/html



Required Book:

Reimers, F. and N. McGinn. Informed Dialogue. Chapters 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Pages 127-176.


Part II. The Process of Policy Analysis
8. Policy and Program Evaluation
Friday, October 26. Lecture (Second Paper Due).
Monday, October 29. Discussion Section

Required:
Required books:
Weiss, C. 1998. Evaluation. Methods for Studying Programs and Policies. New Jersey. Prentice Hall. Chaters 1, 2, 3, 4. Pages 1-96. required book

Recommended:
Online:
Marshall, J., Mejia, M. and Aguilar, C. Quality and Efficiency in a Complementary Middle School Program: The Educatodos Experience in Honduras. Comparative Education Review. May 2008. Volume 52(2) (online Hollis)

Van der Werf, G., Creemers, B., de Jong, R., Klaver, E. Evaluation of School Improvement Through an Educational Effectiveness Model: The Case of Indonesia's PEQIP Project Comparative Education Review, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Aug., 2000), pp. 329-355 (online Hollis)

 

Part III. Education Policy Options.
9. Curriculum, Standards and Assessment.
Friday, November 2. Lecture.
Monday, November 5. Discussion Session.

Required:
Online:
Partnership for 21st century skills. Framework for 21st century learning. http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/index.php
Pellegrino, J. and M. Hilton (Eds.) 2012. Education for Life and Work : Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century. (complete report)

http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13398


UNESCO. Global Monitoring Report 2012. Executive Summary.

http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international-agenda/efareport/reports/2012-skills/



Required books:
Stewart, V. 2012. A world-class education. Learning from international models of excellence and innovation. Virginia, ASCD. (Required book). Pages 122-155.

Part III. Education Policy Options.

10. Teacher Education
Friday, November 9. Lecture.
Monday, November 12. Veterans Day. No Discussion Secion.

Required:
Online:
Asia Society. 2011. Improving Teacher Quality Around the World. The International Summit on the Teaching Profession. Pages 1-27.

http://asiasociety.org/education/learning-world/worlds-education-leaders-support-teachers


Jensen, B., A. Sandoval-Hernandez, S. Knoll and E. Gonzalez (2008). The Experience of New Teachers. Paris. OECD. Pages 1-112.

http://www.oecd.org/edu/preschoolandschool/49846877.pdf

Villegas-Reimers, E. (2003). Teacher professional development: An international review of the literature. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning. Pages 11-18 and 67-144

http://www.oest.oas.org/iten/documentos/Investigacion/teacher%20ed%20lit%20review.pdf


Required books:
Sahlberg, Pasi. 2011. Finish Lessons. What can the world learn from educational change in Finland? New York. Teachers College Press. Required Book. Pages 70-95.

Part III. Education Policy Options.

12. School Leadership
Friday, November 16. Lecture.
Monday, November 19. Discussion Section.
Required:
Online:
Pont, B., D. Nusche and H. Moorman. 2008. Improving School Leadership. OECD. (full text in google book). Pages 1-182.
Required books:
Stewart, V. 2012. A world-class education. Learning from international models of excellence and innovation. Virginia, ASCD. (Required book). Pages 97-121.
Friday, November 23. No Class. Thanksgiving Day.
Monday, November 26. No Discussion Section
Part III. Education Policy Options.

13. System Reform
Friday, November 30. Lecture
Monday, December 3. Discussion Section
Paper 3 Due. Friday December 21.

Required:

Required books:
Sahlberg, Pasi. 2011. Finish Lessons. What can the world learn from educational change in Finland? New York. Teachers College Press. (Required Book). Pages 96-145.
Stewart, V. 2012. A world-class education. Learning from international models of excellence and innovation. Virginia, ASCD. (Required book). Pages 79-96.
Online:

USAID. Equip 2. The Power of Persistence. Education System Reform and Aid Effectiveness. Case Studies in Long-Term Education Reform.

http://www.equip123.net/docs/E2-Power_of_Persistence.pdf

The World Bank. Stepping Up Skills For More Jobs and Higher Productivity. Washington, DC. 2010.



http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTEDUCATION/0,,contentMDK:22640776~menuPK:4995933~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:282386~isCURL:Y~isCURL:Y,00.html

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