Skills focus



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Skills focus

  • Skills focus
  • Reading
  • recognizing the writer’s stance and level of confidence or tentativeness
  • inferring implicit ideas
  • Writing
  • writing situation-problem-solution-evaluation essays
  • using direct quotations
  • compiling a bibliography/reference list
  • Vocabulary focus
  • ‘neutral’ and ‘marked’ words
  • fixed phrases from psychology
  • fixed phrases from academic English
  • Make sure you understand these key phrases from psychology.
  • Recognizing fixed phrases from psychology (3)
  • Vocabulary bank
  • addictive behaviour
  • altered states of mind
  • behavioural addictions
  • compulsive behaviour
  • diagnostic criteria
  • impulse control disorder
  • mood modification
  • negative repercussions
  • obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • psychiatric disorder
  • repetitious enactment
  • rewarding behaviour
  • self-reporting
  • substance dependency
  • withdrawal symptoms
  • Make sure you understand these key phrases from general academic English.
  • Recognizing fixed phrases from academic English (3)
  • Vocabulary bank
  • One of the …
  • In some circumstances, …
  • Even so, …
  • … , as follows: …
  • The writers assert/maintain that …
  • In this sort of situation …
  • It is obvious/clear that …
  • It appears to be the case that …
  • Research has shown …
  • The evidence does not support this idea.
  • A Study the words in box a.
  • 1 Use your dictionary to find out the meanings.
  • 2 What part of speech is each word?
  • A Study the words in box a.
  • 10.1 Vocabulary
  • Word
  • Part of speech
  • Meaning/synonym
  • addiction
  • bulimia
  • compulsion
  • dependency
  • kleptomania
  • obsession
  • n (C/U)
  • the condition of being addicted to something
  • n (U)
  • an eating disorder characterized by excessive eating followed by vomiting
  • an irresistible desire to do something
  • the state of needing something so much that it is not possible to function without it
  • n (U)
  • an impulse control disorder that drives the afflicted person to steal unnecessary items
  • n (C)
  • an overpowering, repetitive thought or feeling
  • n (C/U)
  • n (C)
  • A Study the words in box a.
  • 10.1 Vocabulary
  • Word
  • Part of speech
  • Meaning/synonym
  • relapse
  • repetitious
  • salience
  • substance
  • withdrawal
  • n (C/U), v (T)
  • return to a previous state or behaviour pattern
  • adj
  • enacted again and again
  • importance or relevance
  • material or chemical composition; psychoactive drug
  • n (C/U)
  • n (U)
  • n (C)
  • 1 Use your dictionary or another source to check the meanings of the highlighted phrases.
  • B Read the Hadford University handout.
  • 10.1 Vocabulary
  • B Read the Hadford University handout.
  • 10.1 Vocabulary
  • substance abuse
  • repetitious use
  • social responsibilities
  • harmful effects
  • tolerance symptoms
  • withdrawal symptoms
  • behavioural disorders
  • taking a drug or chemical substance inappropriately or in excess
  • making use of something habitually
  • obligations to contribute to the community (work, study, look after the family)
  • damaging consequences
  • the need to increase the stimulus or behaviour in order to obtain the same satisfaction
  • the negative emotional and physical effects of removing the object of an addiction
  • psychiatric illnesses that are characterized by abnormal behaviour
  • 2 Which are the stressed syllables in each phrase? Which two phrases have the same stress pattern?
  • B Read the Hadford University handout.
  • 10.1 Vocabulary
  • substance abuse
  • repetitious use
  • social responsibilities
  • harmful effects
  • tolerance symptoms
  • withdrawal symptoms
  • behavioural disorders
  • Oo oO
  • ooOo O
  • Oo oooOoo
  • Oo oO
  • Ooo Oo
  • oOo Oo
  • oOoo oOo
  • Substance abuse and harmful effects have the same stress pattern.
  • 10.1 Vocabulary
  • C Look at the pictures on the opposite page. 1 What do you think is happening in each picture? 2 What addiction or compulsion does each one represent?
  • Internet addiction
  • 1 A man is sitting at a computer and chatting online. It’s three o’clock in the morning. He may be suffering from an addiction to the Internet.
  • 10.1 Vocabulary
  • Compulsive shopping disorder
  • 2 A woman returns home with a lot of new clothes in her shopping bags. She probably doesn’t need any more clothes. She may be suffering from a behavioural disorder.
  • C Look at the pictures on the opposite page. 1 What do you think is happening in each picture? 2 What addiction or compulsion does each one represent?
  • 10.1 Vocabulary
  • Mobile phone addiction
  • 3 A young man is busy sending a text message during a lecture. He may have an addiction to mobile phone .
  • C Look at the pictures on the opposite page. 1 What do you think is happening in each picture? 2 What addiction or compulsion does each one represent?
  • 10.1 Vocabulary
  • Gaming addiction
  • 4 Two young children are playing a video game. They may be suffering from an addiction to gaming.
  • C Look at the pictures on the opposite page. 1 What do you think is happening in each picture? 2 What addiction or compulsion does each one represent?
  • 10.1 Vocabulary
  • Eating disorder
  • 5 This shows a very thin woman, almost a skeleton. She may be suffering from an eating disorder like bulimia (eating, followed by vomiting), or anorexia (not eating enough).
  • C Look at the pictures on the opposite page. 1 What do you think is happening in each picture? 2 What addiction or compulsion does each one represent?
  • 10.1 Vocabulary
  • Kleptomania
  • 6 A man is in a shop stealing small, inexpensive objects that he probably doesn’t need. He may have kleptomania.
  • C Look at the pictures on the opposite page. 1 What do you think is happening in each picture? 2 What addiction or compulsion does each one represent?
  • D Study the words in box b.
  • 10.1 Vocabulary
  • 1 Check the meanings, parts of speech and stress patterns.
  • 2 Put the words into the correct box in the table below, as in the example.
  • Many common words in English are ‘neutral’, i.e., they do not imply any view on the part of the writer or speaker. However, there are often apparent synonyms which are ‘marked’. They show attitude, or stance.
  • Recognizing ‘marked’ words
  • Vocabulary bank
  • Examples:
  • Internet use rose by 15% last year. (neutral)
  • Internet use soared by 15% last year. (marked)
  • Soared implies that the writer thinks this is a particularly big or fast increase.
  • When you read a sentence, think: Is this a neutral word, or is it a marked word? If it is marked, what does this tell me about the writer’s attitude to the information?
  • When you write a sentence, particularly in paraphrasing, think: Have I used neutral words or marked words? If I have used marked words, do they show my real attitude/the attitude of the original writer?
  • Extend your vocabulary by learning marked words and their exact effect.
  • Recognizing ‘marked’ words
  • Vocabulary bank
  • Examples:
  • Neutral
  • Marked
  • go up, rise, increase
  • soar, rocket
  • go down, fall, decrease
  • sink, plummet, plunge
  • say, state
  • assert, maintain, claim, argue, allege
  • eat, drink
  • binge, gorge, indulge
  • habitual
  • compulsive, obsessive, uncontrollable
  • D Study the words in box b.
  • 10.1 Vocabulary
  • 1 Check the meanings, parts of speech and stress patterns.
  • 2 Put the words into the correct box in the table below, as in the example.
  • Neutral
  • Marked
  • rise, increase
  • fall, decrease
  • big, large, high
  • good
  • small
  • ’rocket, soar (v)
  • co’llapse (v and n), ’plummet (v), ’tumble (v and n)
  • e’normous, huge, ’massive, sig’nificant, tre’mendous (adj), extra’ordinary
  • ’brilliant, great, su’perb, tre’mendous (adj), fan’tastic, out’standing
  • insig’nificant, ’minimal (adj), least
  • In an academic context, writers will usually indicate the level of confidence in information they are giving. There is a strong tendency also for writers to be tentative when stating facts.
  • Recognizing levels of confidence in research or information
  • Vocabulary bank
  • Examples:
  • It appears to be the case that … / This suggests that … (tentative)
  • The evidence shows that … / It is clear that … (definite/confident)
  • When you read a ‘fact’ in a text, look for qualifying words before it, which show the level of confidence.
  • Recognizing levels of confidence in research or information
  • Vocabulary bank
  • 100% ***
  • definitely true. The writer is very confident
  • 75% **
  • probably true. The writer is a little tentative
  • 50% *
  • possibly true. The writer is very tentative
  • X caused Y
  • X probably/is likely to have caused Y
  • X may/might/could have/possibly caused Y
  • E Read the extract from the newspaper article.
  • 1 Use a marked word in place of each of the italicized (neutral) words.
  • 10.1 Vocabulary
  • It’s generally accepted that Internet use has risen recently because of the large expansion of networks across the world. Undoubtedly, this is the cause of a big increase in the number of Internet addicts.
  • We probably all know someone at work, or amongst our friends, who can’t resist the urge to spend all night playing games or chatting on the Internet, even when it’s clear that they’ll be too tired in the morning to carry out the smallest of their daily tasks.
  • enormous/huge/massive
  • rocketed/soared
  • most insignificant/least significant
  • extraordinary/tremendous
  • E Read the extract from the newspaper article.
  • 1 Use a marked word in place of each of the italicized (neutral) words.
  • 10.1 Vocabulary
  • We can also be fairly sure that their performance levels at work or school will decrease.
  • In psychological journals, it has been suggested that Internet addictions may fall into the category of impulse control disorders, which could also include other behavioural disorders, such as kleptomania.
  • plummet/tumble
  • 2 Look at the bold phrases. How strong or confident are they?
  • 10.1 Vocabulary
  • Very confident
  • Fairly confident
  • Tentative
  • ( = not confident)
  • It’s generally accepted that
  • Undoubtedly
  • We probably all know
  • it’s clear that
  • We can also be fairly sure
  • it has been suggested
  • may
  • could
  • E Read the extract from the newspaper article.
  • A Study the sentence on the right. Each phrase in box a could go in the space. What effect would each one have on the base meaning? Mark from *** = very confident to * = very tentative
  • 10.2 Reading
  • 10.2 Reading
  • A Study the sentence on the right. Each phrase in box a could go in the space. What effect would each one have on the base meaning? Mark from *** = very confident to * = very tentative
  • Word/phrase
  • Rating
  • Words which show less than 100% confidence
  • probably caused
  • may have contributed to
  • was possibly one of the factors which contributed to
  • could have been a factor which led to
  • caused
  • seems to have caused
  • * *
  • * *
  • *
  • *
  • *
  • * * *
  • probably
  • may contributed (i.e., there were other reasons)
  • possibly one of the factors (i.e., there were several factors) contributed
  • could a factor (i.e., there were other factors)
  • seems
  • B Survey the text on the opposite page.
  • 10.2 Reading
  • Teaching tips:
  • Remind students that surveying the text means scanning and skim-reading to get an approximate idea of the text contents. They should:
  • look at the title
  • look at the first few lines and the final few lines of the text
  • look at the first sentence of each paragraph
  • 1 What will the text be about?
  • 2 Write three research questions.
  • C Read the text. Does it answer your questions?
  • 10.2 Reading
  • Teaching tips:
  • Set for individual work followed by pairwork discussion.
  • D Answer these questions.
  • 1 What is the connection between peyote and enlightenment?
  • Peyote produces hallucinations which are similar to visions, and
  • may result in new perceptions.
  • 2 Why did some of the Romantic poets take opium?
  • To stimulate their imagination and creativity.
  • 3 Which addictions are the result of modern technology and lifestyles?
  • Internet addiction, eating disorders, compulsive shopping.
  • 10.2 Reading
  • D Answer these questions.
  • 4 How do substance dependencies differ from behavioural addictions?
  • Substance dependencies cause physiological damage as well as psychological and social harm.
  • 5 Does Griffiths accept that Internet addiction exists?
  • Griffiths thinks that the majority of Internet addicts may be using the Internet to compensate for other disorders.
  • 6 How do the results of the Korean research differ from those of China?
  • The Korean research found that 86% of Internet addicts had other psychiatric disorders, but in China, Internet addiction was recognized as a specific disorder.
  • 10.2 Reading
  • E Find the phrases in box b in the text. Is the writer confident (C) or tentative (T) about the information which follows?
  • 10.2 Reading
  • E Find the phrases in box b in the text. Is the writer confident (C) or tentative (T) about the information which follows?
  • 10.2 Reading
  • Without doubt, drug addiction is not a modern phenomenon.
  • It is important to recognize that although addictive behaviour is often associated with the abuse of chemical substances like drugs and alcohol, it is not necessarily confined to these.
  • Many writers these days seem to agree that it can include compulsive shopping, eating, playing video games and chatting on online social networks.
  • … it could be claimed that there is a major difference.
  • … it can be argued that excessive usage in a majority of cases appears to be purely symptomatic …
  • … this analysis is largely supported by recent research carried out in the Republic of Korea, …
  • … where research has identified massive levels of Internet addiction.
  • C
  • C
  • C
  • C
  • T
  • T
  • T
  • T
  • F Look at the writer’s description of Internet addiction in China (para. 5). 1 Underline the marked words.
  • 10.2 Reading
  • However, it must be noted that a decidedly different view has been adopted in China, where research has identified massive levels of Internet addiction. At a recent conference, Tao Ran, Ph.D., Director of Addiction Medicine at Beijing Military Region Central Hospital, revealed that ‘13.7% of Chinese adolescent Internet users meet Internet addiction diagnostic criteria – about 10 million teenagers’ (Block, 2008, p. 306). These extraordinary figures have led the Chinese government to introduce innovative ways to control online gaming for young people, details of which were published in an article in the People’s Daily (2007).
  • F Look at the writer’s description of Internet addiction in China (para. 5). 2 What does the choice of these words tell you about the writer’s opinion of the levels of Internet addiction in China?
  • 10.2 Reading
  • The choice of words emphasizes the high numbers of young people with Internet addiction in China and gives the impression that the writer is concerned about them. The writer clearly approves of the ways the Chinese government is controlling online gaming, and thinks that their solution is creative and original.
  • 10.2 Reading
  • Marked word
  • Neutral alternative
  • decidedly
  • massive
  • extraordinary
  • innovative
  • very
  • significant, high
  • high, unexpected
  • new
  • F Look at the writer’s description of Internet addiction in China (para. 5). 3 Find neutral words to use in their place.
  • G Study the example sentence on the right, and then sentences A and B.
  • 10.2 Reading
  • Example:
  • 1 Divide sentences A and B into small parts, as in the example sentence.
  • 2 Underline any joining words (e.g., conjunctions).
  • B
  • A

Identifying the parts of a long sentence

  • Long sentences contain many separate parts. You must be able to recognize these parts to understand the sentence as a whole. Mark up a long sentence as follows:
  • Locate the subjects, verbs and objects/complements and underline the relevant nouns, verbs and adjectives.
  • Put a dividing line:
  • at the end of a phrase which begins a sentence
  • before a phrase at the end of the sentence
  • between clauses
  • Put brackets round extra pieces of information.
  • Skills bank

Identifying the parts of a long sentence

  • Example:
  • In recent years, young women have become increasingly preoccupied with their body image, in some cases even following life-threatening dietary regimes in order to match the size and shape of excessively thin fashion celebrities.
  • Skills bank
  • In recent years, | young women have become (increasingly) preoccupied | with their body image, | in some cases | (even) following life-threatening dietary regimes | in order to | match the size and shape of (excessively) thin fashion celebrities.
  • G Study the example sentence on the right, and then sentences A and B.
  • 10.2 Reading
  • 1 Divide sentences A and B into small parts, as in the example sentence.
  • 2 Underline any joining words (e.g., conjunctions).
  • B
  • A
  • Whereas| drug abuse | involves | ingesting substances| that | have a direct effect on brain function | and | cause |physiological,| as well as | psychological harm, | behavioural addictions | have | only psychological and social consequences.
  • However,| it must be noted | that | a decidedly different view | has been adopted | in China, | where | research | has identified | massive levels of Internet addiction.
  • 10.2 Reading
  • G Study the example sentence on the right, and then sentences A and B. 3 Find the subjects, verbs, objects/complements and adverbial phrases which go together.
  • Subject noun phrases
  • Verb phrases
  • Object/complement
  • noun phrases
  • Adverbial phrases
  • Example
  • Although drug dependency and impulse control disorders such as obsessive texting
  • may be considered
  • similar
  • it
  • appears that
  • there
  • is
  • a major difference.
  • A
  • Whereas drug abuse
  • involves
  • ingesting substances
  • that
  • have
  • a direct effect
  • on the brain function
  • and cause
  • physiological, … harm,
  • behavioural addictions
  • have only
  • psychological …consequences
  • 10.2 Reading
  • G Study the example sentence on the right, and then sentences A and B. 3 Find the subjects, verbs, objects/complements and adverbial phrases which go together.
  • Subject noun phrases
  • Verb phrases
  • Object/complement
  • noun phrases
  • Adverbial phrases
  • Example
  • Although drug dependency and impulse control disorders such as obsessive texting
  • may be considered
  • similar
  • it
  • appears that
  • there
  • is
  • a major difference.
  • B
  • However, it
  • must be noted that
  • a decidedly different view
  • has been adopted
  • in China,
  • where research
  • has identified
  • massive levels of Internet addiction.
  • 10.2 Reading
  • A
  • G Study the example sentence on the right, and then sentences A and B. 4 Make several short simple sentences which show the meaning.
  • Drug abuse involves ingesting substances.
  • Substances have a direct effect on the brain function.
  • Substances cause physiological harm.
  • Substances cause psychological harm.
  • Behavioural addictions have psychological consequences.
  • Behavioural addictions have social consequences.
  • B
  • A different view has been adopted in China.
  • Research has identified massive levels of Internet addiction.
  • A Read the three essay questions. What types of essay are they?
  • 10.3 Extending skills
  • 1 Description and evaluation.
  • 2 Definition, analysis and evaluation.
  • 3 Description, analysis, then comparison and evaluation/argument/opinion,
  • plus support.
  • B Look at text A on the opposite page. Copy and complete Table 1.
  • 10.3 Extending skills
  • Situation
  • Research method 1
  • Research method 2
  • Comparison of
  • 1 & 2
  • Two studies of body weight, diet and eating disorders.
  • 10.3 Extending skills
  • Table 1
  • B Look at text A on the opposite page. Copy and complete Table 1.
  • Rizvi, Stice & Agras’ study: participants – postpartum women; data collection method – self-reporting questionnaire + Eating Disorder Inventory, Body Mass index; results – (i) abnormal dieting patterns decreased over time, (ii) scores in body dissatisfaction increased
  • Heatherton, Mahamedi, Striepe and Keel’s field study: participants – college students, age 20–22; data collection method - assessment and EDI; results – risk of eating disorder decreases with maturity
  • Rizvi study – self-reporting and questionnaire results conflicted; limitation – only one gender, only two data sources, recent childbirth affected results. Heatherton study – assessment → results clear; limitation – only two data sources
  • C Look at text B on the opposite page. Copy and complete Table 2. How do Koran’s criteria for addiction match those described by Griffiths?
  • 10.3 Extending skills
  • C Look at text B on the opposite page. Copy and complete Table 2. How do Koran’s criteria for addiction match those described by Griffiths?
  • 10.3 Extending skills
  • Table 2
  • Proposition
  • Supporting point 1
  • Supporting point 2
  • compulsive buying is a psychiatric disorder.
  • compulsive buyers obsessed with urge to buy unnecessary items
  • compulsive buyers suffer distress and conflict with social responsibilities
  • Koran’s criteria match Griffiths’ criteria of: salience, tolerance and conflict with social functions.
  • D Look again at the methods described in Exercise B (Table 1). What are their possible advantages and disadvantages?
  • 10.3 Extending skills
  • Data Collection Methods
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Self-reporting
  • Questionnaires & assessments
  • responses reflect individual perceptions
  • easy to apply
  • standardized questions
  • objective responses easy to convert to statistics
  • questions may not apply to individual participants
  • responses may not be accurate
  • interpretation of statistics may be affected by researcher bias
  • subjective
  • may be inconsistent/inaccurate
  • interpretation may be affected by researcher bias
  • E Read the title of essay 3 again. 1 Make a plan for this essay.
  • 10.3 Extending skills
  • Introduction
  • Examples of ideas
  • Body
  • eating disorders changes over time
  • In this essay, I will discuss two studies of eating disorders …
  • I will illustrate/describe … (examples)
  • I will consider … (the research methods)
  • Finally, I will suggest … (the most effective method)
  • Para 1: situation/problems
  • (general)
  • eating disorders – defined by DSM-IV = binge eating, fasting and strict dieting
  • young women most commonly affected
  • research into evolution of disorder over time (evidence – Rizvi, Heatherton)
  • Para 2:
  • study 1
  • (specific example)
  • Rizvi’s study – participants – postpartum women; data collection method – Eating Disorder Inventory + 2 questionnaires; baseline – after childbirth + 6-year follow-up; results – binge eating, fasting and dieting patterns decreased, but increases in scores of body dissatisfaction
  • introduce the topic area
  • give the outline of the essay
  • 10.3 Extending skills
  • Introduction
  • Examples of ideas
  • Body
  • Conclusion
  • Heatherton, Mahamedi, Striepe, Field, and Keel’s study – participants – college students, age 20–22, both genders; data collection method – 2 assessments + 10-year follow-up; results – risk of eating disorder decreases for women over time
  • Para 4:
  • evaluation of research methods
  • 1. Rizvi’s study – results inconsistent; limitation: sample – women only – recent childbirth may have affected results.
  • 2. Heatherton study – clearer results; sample homogeneous in age + both genders – BUT results over-simplified? (evidence – Keel’s 20-year study)
  • Para 3:
  • study 2
  • (specific example)
  • In my view/As I see it, the best option is … because …
  • Firstly …
  • Secondly …
  • Thirdly
  • E Read the title of essay 3 again. 1 Make a plan for this essay.
  • 10.3 Extending skills
  • Para 1
  • Para 2
  • Para 3
  • Para 4
  • Eating disorders are defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) as disorders that involve disturbances of body perception and eating patterns.
  • In contrast, Heatherton’s study focused on the body perceptions and eating patterns of college students over ten years.
  • Rizvi’s study investigated changes in the attitudes and eating behaviours of a group of postpartum adult women over a period of six years.
  • The results of Rizvi’s and Heatherton’s studies differed significantly.
  • E Read the title of essay 3 again. 2 Write a topic sentence for each paragraph in the body of the essay. 3 Write a concluding paragraph.
  • Possible topic sentences
  • A Expand these simple sentences. Add extra information. Use the ideas in Lesson 10. 3.
  • 10.4 Extending skills
  • 1 Eating disorders include binge eating.
  • Eating disorders, as defined by DSM-IV, include binge eating, which is a pattern of excessive eating followed immediately by vomiting.
  • 2 Young women are most commonly affected.
  • Taking into account the current fashion for thinness, it is not surprising that young women represent the social group most commonly affected by eating disorders.
  • 3 Research has been carried out to trace changes in eating patterns.
  • In order to develop more effective treatments for eating disorders, research has been carried out to trace shifts in eating patterns and attitudes to body image from adolescence to adulthood.
  • A Expand these simple sentences. Add extra information. Use the ideas in Lesson 10. 3.
  • 10.4 Extending skills
  • 4 The study by Rizvi et al. produced inconsistent results.
  • Rizvi et al.’s (1997) study produced inconsistent results, showing that although abnormal eating patterns decreased over time, body dissatisfaction increased.
  • 5 The study by Heatherton et al. produced clearer results.
  • Heatherton et al.’s (1998) study produced clearer results, possibly because the age group of the sample was restricted.
  • B Look at text C on the opposite page. Copy and complete Tables 1–3.
  • 10.4 Extending skills
  • See Skills bank
  • Writing a bibliography/reference list
  • Skills bank
  • The APA (American Psychological Association) system is probably the most common in the social sciences. Information should be given as shown in the following source references for a book, an Internet article and a journal article. The final list should be in alphabetical order according to the family name of the writer.
  • Author
  • Date
  • Title of book
  • Place of publication
  • Publisher
  • Gleitman, H., Fridlund, A. J., & Reisburg, D.
  • (2006).
  • Psychology
  • New York:
  • W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  • Writing a bibliography/reference list
  • Skills bank
  • Writer or organization
  • Date
  • (or ‘n.d.’)
  • Title of Internet article
  • Date of retrieval
  • Full URL
  • PsychNet.UK.
  • n.d.
  • Kleptomania.
  • Retrieved September
  • 12,2009,from
  • http://www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/kleptomania.htm
  • Author
  • Date
  • Title of article
  • Title of journal
  • Volume and page numbers
  • Keel, P. K., Baxter, M. G., Heatherton, T. F., & Joiner, Jr., T. E.
  • (2007).
  • A 20-year longitudinal study of body weight, dieting, and eating disorder symptoms.
  • Journal of Abnormal Psychology,
  • 116(2), 422-432
  • 10.4 Extending skills
  • Author(s)
  • Place of publication
  • Date of publication
  • Publisher
  • Gross, R.
  • Oxford
  • 2005
  • Hodder Arnold
  • Table 1
  • B Look at text C on the opposite page. Copy and complete Tables 1–3.
  • Name of journal
  • Volume
  • Pages
  • American Journal of Psychiatry
  • American Journal of Psychiatry
  • 165(3)
  • 12(5)
  • 165(10)
  • 306 - 307
  • 246 - 251
  • 1806
  • Table 2
  • Retrieval date
  • URL
  • September 17, 2009
  • http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200704/10/eng20070410_364977.html
  • Table 3
  • C Look at text D on the opposite page. 1 Complete a further row of Table 1. 2 How could you write this as a reference?
  • 10.4 Extending skills
  • C Look at text D on the opposite page. 1 Complete a further row of Table 1. 2 How could you write this as a reference?
  • 10.4 Extending skills
  • Author(s)
  • Place of publication
  • Date of publication
  • Publisher
  • McDonald, E.
  • London
  • 2007
  • Wentworth & Bourne
  • 2. McDonald, E. (2007). Case studies in behavioural addictions.
  • London: Wentworth & Bourne.
  • 10.4 Extending skills
  • D What do the abbreviations in box a mean?
  • &
  • ©
  • cf.
  • edn.
  • ed(s).
  • et al.
  • and
  • copyright
  • compare
  • edition
  • editor(s)
  • and other authors
  • 10.4 Extending skills
  • D What do the abbreviations in box a mean?
  • ibid.
  • n.d.
  • op. cit.
  • p.
  • pp.
  • vol.
  • same place in a work already referred to
  • no date (used in a reference list if there is no date – as is often the case with web articles)
  • the work already referred to
  • page
  • pages
  • volume
  • E Look back at the text on page 81 (Lesson 10. 2) and at text B on the opposite page.
  • 10.4 Extending skills
  • 1 Find all the research sources (e.g., Gross, 2005, p. 125).
  • 2 Mark the page numbers for the books next to the correct reference in the list (C) on the opposite page.
  • 3 What punctuation and formatting is used before and within each direct quote? Why?
  • 4 What words are used to introduce each direct quote? Why does the writer choose each word?
  • Quote
  • Source
  • Punctuation/formatting before/with-in each direct quote
  • Introducing phrase + reason for choice
  • ‘xxx’.
  • 10.4 Extending skills
  • E Look back at the text on page 81 (Lesson 10. 2) and at text B on the opposite page.
  • ‘the persistent and repetitious enactment of a behaviour pattern’
  • page 125 of Gross, R. (2005).
  • Psychology: The science of mind and behaviour. Oxford: Hodder Arnold.
  • According to Walters
  • (1999) addiction can
  • be defined as,
  • reason: what follows is
  • a definition
  • Quote
  • Source
  • Punctuation/formatting before/with-in each direct quote
  • Introducing phrase + reason for choice
  • ‘xxx’.
  • 48 words
  • new line, indented
  • five spaces
  • 10.4 Extending skills
  • E Look back at the text on page 81 (Lesson 10. 2) and at text B on the opposite page.
  • page 249 of Griffiths, M. (1999). Internet addiction: fact or fiction?
  • The Psychologist, 12(5), 246–251.
  • Griffiths (1999)
  • questions whether …
  • reason: what follows is
  • an argument
  • Taking all the case study and survey evidence together, it can be argued that excessive usage in a majority of cases appears to be purely symptomatic (i.e., the Internet is being used as a tool to engage in other types of rewarding behaviour, like being in a relationship).(op.cit. p. 249)
  • Quote
  • Source
  • Punctuation/formatting before/with-in each direct quote
  • Introducing phrase + reason for choice
  • ,‘xxx’(ref).
  • 10.4 Extending skills
  • E Look back at the text on page 81 (Lesson 10. 2) and at text B on the opposite page.
  • page 306 of Block, J. J. (2008).
  • Issues for DSM-V: Internet addiction. American Journal of
  • Psychiatry, 165:(3), 306-307.
  • At a recent conference,
  • Tao Ran, Ph.D., …
  • revealed that, …
  • reason: what follows is
  • a statistic
  • ‘13.7% of Chinese adolescent Internet users meet Internet addiction diagnostic criteria – about 10 million teenagers’ ...
  • Quote
  • Source
  • Punctuation/formatting before/with-in each direct quote
  • Introducing phrase + reason for choice
  • ,, ‘xxx.’
  • 10.4 Extending skills
  • E Look back at the text on page 81 (Lesson 10. 2) and at text B on the opposite page.
  • page 1806 of Koran, L. M., Faber, R. J., Aboujaoude, E., Large, M. D., & Serpe, R. T. (2006). Estimated Prevalence of Compulsive Buying Behavior in the United States. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(10), 1806.
  • His criteria for defining
  • compulsive buyers included,
  • reason: this is a definition
  • ‘being frequently preoccupied with buying or subject to irresistible, intrusive, and/or senseless impulses to buy;
  • frequently buying unneeded items or more than can be afforded; shopping for periods longer than intended;’
  • Quote
  • Source
  • Punctuation/formatting before/with-in each direct quote
  • Introducing phrase + reason for choice
  • ‘xxx’
  • 10.4 Extending skills
  • E Look back at the text on page 81 (Lesson 10. 2) and at text B on the opposite page.
  • page 1806 of Koran, L. M., Faber, R. J., Aboujaoude, E., Large, M. D., & Serpe, R. T. (2006). Estimated Prevalence of Compulsive Buying Behavior in the United States. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(10), 1806.
  • Koran (ibid.) also outlined the negative
  • effects of compulsive
  • buying as,
  • reason: Koran is
  • quoting the results of
  • previous research
  • ‘marked distress, impaired social or occupational functioning, and/or financial problems’.
  • 10.4 Extending skills
  • E Look back at the text on page 81 (Lesson 10. 2) and at text B on the opposite page.
  • Correct versions are:
  • Atkinson, R.L., Atkinson, R.C., Smith, E.E., & Benn, D.J. (1990). Introduction to Psychology (10th Ed.). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  • Pervin, L.A., Cervone, D., & John, O.P. (2005). Personality: Theory and research (9th Ed.). USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • Shafran, R. (1999). Obsessive compulsive disorder. The Psychologist, 12 (12), 588-591.
  • Walters, G.D. (1999). The addiction concept: working hypothesis or self-fulfilling prophecy. Needham Heights, MA: Alleyn and Bacon.
  • Tips for Reference
  • 10.1 Vocabulary部分,教师可让学生结成对子,完成Vocabulary bank中有关心理学的固定短语。课堂介绍英语中性词及带有感情色彩的词汇;介绍表达观点时完全确定、比较确定以及有所疑问的句型。
  • 10.2 Reading部分,教师课堂讲解快速阅读技巧,讲解Skills bank中句子意群等知识,学生课后完成练习G 。
  • 10.3 Extending skills部分,让学生课前完成练习A、B、C,课堂提问并说明答案理由。重点分析练习E,引导学生积极发言,讨论、学习如何列作文提纲。
  • 10.4 Extending skills部分,重点讲解Skill bank 关于参考文献的引用格式,完成练习A、B、C、D、E。
  • 谢谢欣赏!


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