Personality is reflective of the order in which siblings are born
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
studied self-actualization processes of productive and healthy people (e.g., Lincoln)
the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved
the motivation to fulfill one’s potential
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
focused on growth and fulfillment of individuals
Unconditional Positive Regard
an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question, “Who am I?”
Endomorph -The Endomorph is physically quite 'round', and is typified as the 'barrel of fun' person. They tend to have:
Wide hips and narrow shoulders, which makes them rather pear-shaped. Quite a lot of fat spread across the body, including upper arms and thighs. They have quite slim ankles and wrists.
Psychologically, the endomorph is Sociable, Fun-loving, Love of food, Tolerant, Even-tempered, Good humored, Relaxed, With a love of comfort
William Sheldon - three personalities based on their physical make-up.
Ectomorph - The Ectomorph is a form of opposite of the Endomorph. Physically, they tend to have:
Narrow shoulders and hipsA thin and narrow face, with a high forehead. A thin and narrow chest and abdomen. Thin legs and arms. Very little body fat
Psychologically they are Self-conscious, Private, Introverted, Inhibited, Socially anxious, Artistic, Intense, Emotionally restrained, Thoughtful
Mesomorph -The mesomorph is somewhere between the round endomorph and the thin ectomorph. Physically, they have the more 'desirable' body, and have:
Large head, broad shoulders and narrow waist (wedge-shaped). Muscular body, with strong forearms and and thighs. Very little body fat. They are generally considered as 'well-proportioned'.
Psychologically, they are Adventurous, Courageous, Indifferent to what others think or want, Assertive/bold, Zest for physical activity, Competitive, With a desire for power/dominance, And a love of risk/chance
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons and their social context
our sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helpless
Albert Bandura (The Bobo Doll guy)
behavior and conduct of a person is influenced by his social environment as well as personal factors. Also the behavior of a person can create an impact on his surroundings
External Locus of Control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determine one’s fate
(identity from individual traits) identity from belonging)
Life task Discover and express one’s Maintain connections, fit in
What matters Me--personal achievement and We-group goals and solidarity;
fullfillment; rights and liberties social responsibilities and
Coping method Change reality Accommodate to reality
Relationships Many, often temporary or casual; Few, close and enduring;
confrontation acceptable harmony valued
The Origin of Trait Theory
In an essay entitled Pattern and Growth in Personality, Gordon Allport recounted his experience of meeting psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. In 1922, Allport traveled to Vienna, Austria to meet the famous psychoanalyst. After entering Freud's office, he sat down nervously and told a story about a young boy he had seen on the train during his travels to Vienna. The boy, Allport explained, was afraid of getting dirty and refused to sit where a dirty-looking man had previously sat. Allport theorized that the child had acquired the behavior from his mother, who appeared to be very domineering.
Freud studied Allport for a moment and then asked, "And was that little boy you?”
Allport viewed the experience as an attempt by Freud to turn a simple observation into an analysis of Allport's supposed unconscious memory of his own childhood. The experience would later serve as a reminder that psychoanalysis tended to dig too deeply. Behaviorism, Allport suggested, did not dig deeply enough. Instead, Allport chose to reject both psychoanalysis and behaviorism and embraced his own unique theory of personality.
Began trait theories by identifying common traits - traits that apply to everyone and cardinal traits - traits that apply to one’s persona(i.e. Scrooge)
a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors
used to assess selected personality traits
Contemporary Research-- The Trait Perspective
Barnum Effect : is a term that is used in psychology. It is the tendency for people to accept very general or vague characterizations of themselves and take them to be accurate. A good example of this can be seen when people believe what is said about them in psychometric tests, personality profiles, astrological predictions, and so on. This phenomenon is named after P. T. Barnum, who believed that a good circus had "a little something for everybody.”
The Trait Perspective
Hans and Sybil Eysenck use two primary personality factors as axes for describing personality variation
Personality researchers have proposed that there are five basic dimensions of personality. the five categories
Extraversion: This trait includes characteristics such as excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness and high amounts of emotional expressiveness.
Agreeableness: This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust, altruism, kindness, affection, and other prosocial behaviors.
Conscientiousness: Common features of this dimension include high levels of thoughtfulness, with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors. Those high in conscientiousness tend to be organized and mindful of details.
Neuroticism: Individuals high in this trait tend to experience emotional instability, anxiety, moodiness, irritability, and sadness.
Openness: This trait features characteristics such as imagination and insight, and those high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests.