Precede/proceed what is precede/proceed?

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  • PRECEDE/PROCEED is a community-oriented, participatory model for creating successful community health promotion interventions.

PRECEDE has five phases:

  • Phase 1: Social diagnosis
  • Phase 2: Epidemiological diagnosis
  • Phase 3: Behavioral and environmental diagnosis
  • Phase 4: Educational and organizational diagnosis
  • Phase 5: Administrative and policy diagnosis

PROCEED has four phases:

Assumptions behind PRECEDE/PROCEED:

  • Since behavior change is by and large voluntary, health promotion (and, by extension, the promotion of other community benefits) is more likely to be effective if it’s participatory.
  • Health and other issues must be looked at in the context of the community.
  • Health and other issues are essentially quality-of-life issues.
  • Health is itself a constellation of factors that add up to a healthy life for individuals and communities.


  • A logic model provides a procedural structure for constructing an intervention.
  • A logic model provides a framework for critical analysis.
  • PRECEDE/PROCEED is participatory, thus assuring community involvement.
  • Community involvement leads to community buy-in.
  • PRECEDE/PROCEED incorporates a multi-level evaluation, which means you have the chance to constantly monitor and adjust your evaluation.
  • The model allows leeway to adapt the content and methods of the intervention to your particular needs and circumstances.

How do you use PRECEDE/PROCEED?

  • In Phase 1, social diagnosis, you ask the community what it wants and needs to improve its quality of life.
  • In Phase 2, epidemiological diagnosis, you identify the health or other issues that most clearly influence the outcome the community seeks.
  • In these two phases, you create the objectives for your intervention.

How do you use PRECEDE/PROCEED? (cont.)

  • In Phase 3, behavioral and environmental diagnosis, you identify the behaviors and lifestyles and/or environmental factors that must be changed to affect the health or other issues identified in Phase 2, and determine which of them are most likely to be changeable.
  • In Phase 4, educational and organizational diagnosis, you identify the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors that act as supports for or barriers to changing the behaviors and environmental factors you identified in Phase 3.
  • In these two phases, you plan the intervention.

How do you use PRECEDE/PROCEED? (cont.)

  • In Phase 5, administrative and policy diagnosis, you identify (and adjust where necessary) the internal administrative issues and internal and external policy issues that can affect the successful conduct of the intervention.
  • Those administrative and policy concerns include generating the funding and other resources for the intervention.

How do you use PRECEDE/PROCEED? (cont.)

  • In Phase 6, implementation, you carry out the intervention.
  • In Phase 7, process evaluation, you evaluate the process of the intervention – i.e., you determine whether the intervention is proceeding according to plan, and adjust accordingly.
  • In Phase 8, impact evaluation, you evaluate whether the intervention is having the intended impact on the behavioral and environmental factors it’s aimed at, and adjust accordingly.
  • In Phase 9, outcome evaluation, you evaluate whether the intervention’s effects are in turn producing the outcome(s) the community identified in Phase 1, and adjust accordingly.

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