Office: Room 2171 hours: Thursdays 4: 00-5: 00pm or by appointment website

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Oakton Community College


4 credit hours: Spring Semester 2014

INSTRUCTOR: Professor Meghan Growe

OFFICE: Room 2171

HOURS: Thursdays 4:00-5:00pm or by appointment

MEETING TIMES: Lecture: Room 2848 Tuesday and Thursday 5:00-6:15PM

Lab: Room 1200 Thursday: 6:30-9:15pm

I. Course

Prefix Number Course Name Credit LecTURE Lab

BIO 231 Human Anatomy and 4 3 3

Physiology I
II. PREREQUISITE: BIO 101 or BIO 121 or one year of high school biology. In order to register for BIO 231, students must demonstrate entry level competency for EGL 090, 097, or 101 by placement testing. Recommended: CHM 101 or CHM 105


Laboratory course presents basic biochemical principles, cytology, histology, immunology, integument system, osteology, arthrology, muscle anatomy and physiology, and anatomy and physiology of spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. Cadavers and other appropriate specimens used. First of two-part sequence. Intended primarily for student in health fields.

IV. Learning Objectives:

After successfully completing this course, a student should be able to:

  1. Apply mechanisms of homeostasis to the regulation of body functions.

  2. Utilize the appropriate relational anatomic terms as they apply to position, plane and location.

  3. Examine basic chemistry of biologically important molecules and reactions.

  4. Differentiate between organelles within human cells.

  5. Compare tissue types by anatomy, physiology and location.

  6. Compare the physiology and anatomy of the major components of the integumentary system.

  7. Analyze the inflammatory process and the role of blood in this process.

  8. Compare the mechanisms of nonspecific immunity with specific immunity.

  9. Differentiate between antibody and cell mediated immunities.

  10. Identify bones and bone markings of axial and appendicular divisions of the skeletal system.

  11. Compare the major anatomical features of bone tissue and the functions of bone tissue.

  12. Classify joints according to structure and function.

  13. Compare major synovial joints by anatomy and physiology.

  14. Compare energy sources used for muscle contraction.

  15. Analyze the events of muscle contraction and relaxation.

  16. Identify principal skeletal muscles on cadavers/models.

  17. Explain the ionic basis of the resting membrane potential and the changes that occur during an action potential.

  18. Examine the steps of synaptic transmission.

  19. Compare excitatory and inhibitory synapses.

  20. Compare reflex pathways.

  21. Differentiate between cranial nerves by location and function.

  22. Identify the major peripheral nerves of the nerve plexi on cadavers/models.

  23. Identify the major components of the spinal cord and a spinal nerve.

  24. Compare the anatomical and physiological components of the autonomic nervous system divisions.


By the completion of your biology courses at Oakton, you will have gained the experience to:

  • Think critically- identify, define, analyze, interpret, and evaluate ideas, concepts, information, problems, solutions, and consequences. This includes the ability to compute and comprehend quantitative information and to engage in the scientific process.

  • Communicate- ideas, concepts, and information through written and oral means. Collaborate with people of diverse backgrounds and abilities.

  • Demonstrate literacy- the ability to read critically within content areas. Use technology to locate, evaluate, and communicate data, information, ideas, and concepts. Assess, critique, and select from a variety of information resources.

  • Demonstrate responsibility- an understanding of personal responsibility and ethical behavior in one’s own academic and civil life.


Students and employees at Oakton Community College are required to demonstrate academic integrity and follow Oakton’s Code of Academic Conduct. This code prohibits:

  • cheating,

  • plagiarism (turning in work not written by you, or lacking proper citation),

  • falsification and fabrication (lying or distorting the truth),

  • helping others to cheat,

  • unauthorized changes on official documents,

  • pretending to be someone else or having someone else pretend to be you,

  • making or accepting bribes, special favors, or threats, and

  • any other behavior that violates academic integrity.

There are serious consequences to violations of the academic integrity policy. Oakton’s policies and procedures provide students a fair hearing if a complaint is made against you. If you are found to have violated the policy, the minimum penalty is failure on the assignment and, a disciplinary record will be established and kept on file in the office of the Vice President for Student Affairs for a period of 3 years. Details of the Code of Academic Conduct can be found in the Student Handbook.

Textbook: Human Anatomy and Physiology 9th Edition by Marieb and Hoehn

Laboratory Manual: Human Anatomy and Physiology I &II (Custom lab manual, bluedoor 2009).

There are many optional atlases, textbooks, flashcards, etc that are available for anatomy students. While none of these are required, students may find these extremely helpful when studying.

In addition to face-to-face discussions, notes and helpful study materials will be posted on the instructor’s website ( Although these are not required assignments, referring to them may help your performance the examinations.


During weeks 5, 10, and 15, you will be given an exam on material presented during that five-week unit in lab and lecture. The lecture exam will consist of multiple-choice questions, fill in the blank, essay questions, and other types of questions may be included. Material will be drawn from ALL lectures, tutorials/discussion sessions, and corresponding textbook chapters. A final comprehensive examination will be administered during finals week. During your assigned lab session in weeks 5, 10, and 15 you will take a lab practical examination where you will be asked to identify structures you have studied.

IF YOU MISS AN EXAM, YOU MUST NOTIFY THE INSTRUCTOR BY 5:00 P.M. OF THAT DAY, AND A MAKE-UP EXAM WILL BE SCHEDULED. FAILURE TO NOTIFY INSTRUCTOR WILL RESULT IN A GRADE OF 0 FOR THAT EXAMINATION. Under certain circumstances, make up exams are administered. Only 1 make up exam per student will be allowed during the course. Missed lab activities may not be made up.
Four components of this course will be used to determine your final grades. Your lecture exams and attendance will count for 232 points, or 58% of your final grade. Each of the 3 unit lecture exams will count for 43 points and your lecture final is 83 points. Attendance is not monitored daily, but will be counted into your final grade via 4 random pop quizzes given throughout the semester. Each quiz is worth 5 points (20 points total).
Your lab assignments (6) and lab exams (3) will count for 168 points, or 42% of your final grade. The 6 lab worksheets in your lab manual are worth 10 points each, for a total of 60 points. You will have 3 laboratory exams, each worth 36 points. There is no laboratory final. Combined with lecture, there is a total of 400 points in the course.
LECTURE: 43 + 43 + 43 + 20 + 83= 232 points

LAB: 60 + 36 + 36 + 36= 168 points

You will be assured of the following grades with total scores of:

A = 358 - 400

B = 318 - 357

C = 278 - 317

D = 238 - 277

F = 237 or below

There will be no exceptions to this scale no matter what the circumstances.

Please take advantage of the following student services available to you:

  • Learning Center- Room 2400. Tutors are available to assist you with writing skills, study skills, test taking skills, and course materials. Bones and models are available for use. Assistance may require an appointment.

  • Open Labs- See website for current schedule

  • If you have a documented learning, psychological, or physical disability you may be entitled to reasonable academic accommodations or services.  To request accommodations or services, contact the Access and Disability Resource Center at the Des Plaines or Skokie campus.  All students are expected to fulfill essential course requirements.  The College will not waive any essential skill or requirement of a course or degree program.


January 21- Spring 2014 semester begins

February 16- Last Day to withdraw from 16-week courses with course dropped from record

February 17- Presidents Day- College closed

March 17-23- Spring Break- College closed

March 30- Last day to withdraw with a ‘W’ from 16-week courses. Students will receive a grade in all courses in which they are enrolled after March 30

April 9- Registration opens for Fall 2014 sessions

May 15, 16- Evaluation days

May 16- Last day of student attendance
Any student who is unable, because of his or her religious beliefs, to attend classes or participate in any required exam, study, or work on a particular day shall be excused from that exam, study, or work requirement and shall be provided with an opportunity to make up any requirement that he or she may have missed on that day, provided that he or she notifies the faculty member or instructor well in advance* of any anticipated absence or conflict between a scheduled class and the religious observance, and provided that the make-up exam, study, or work does not place an unreasonable burden upon the institution.


All chapters listed refer to the book Human Anatomy and Physiology by Marieb and Hoehn

Exam dates are denoted in blue font. Syllabus subject to change at the instructor’s discretion.
Tuesday, Jan 21- Introduction to BIO 231

An overview of Anatomy and Physiology, The Language of Anatomy, The Axial Skeleton

Syllabus & 1. Course structure, grading, and scheduling

Chapter 1 2. Laboratories

3. What is anatomy and physiology?

4. An overview of anatomy and physiology

5. The language of anatomy

6. Anatomical position and directional terms

7. Regional terms

8. Body planes and sections

9. Body cavities and membranes

10. Abdominopelvic regions and quadrants

Chapter 7 1. The skull

2. The vertebral column

3. The bony thorax

Thursday, Jan 23- The Appendicular Skeleton (Upper extremity and Lower Extremity)

Chapter 7 1. The pectoral (shoulder) girdle

2. The upper limb

3. The pelvic (hip) girdle

4. The lower limb

Tuesday, Jan 28- Classification of Joints and Joint Ligaments

Chapter 8 1. Classification of joints

2. Fibrous joints

3. Cartilaginous joints

4. Synovial joints

Chapter 7 & 1. Vertebral column

Chapter 8 2. Selected synovial joints

Thursday, Jan 30- Anatomy Jeopardy Review and Case Studies (The Woman with Sore Knees/ The Bike Rider with the Broken Hip)

Tuesday, Feb 4- Chemistry Comes Alive
Chapter 2 1. Basic chemistry: matter, atoms, elements, isotopes, energy

2. Mixtures: solutions, concentrations, colloids, suspensions

3. Chemical bonds: ionic, covalent, hydrogen

4. Chemical reactions: equations, synthesis, decomposition, exchange

5. Factors affecting reaction rates

6. Inorganic compounds: water, salts, acids, and bases: buffers

7. Organic compounds: carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins

8. Structure of proteins

9. Enzyme and enzyme activity, molecular chaperones

10. Nucleic acids: DNA, RNA, ATP

Thursday, Feb 6- Structure & Function of the Cell

Chapter 3 1. Overview

2. Cytoplasm and organelles: mitochondria, ribosomes, ER,

Golgi, lysosomes, peroxisome

3. Cytoskeleton, centrosomes, centrioles, cilia, and flagella

4. Nucleus: envelope, nucleoli, chromatin

5. Cell growth and reproduction: interphase, DNA replication/division

6. Protein synthesis: transcription, translation

7. Extracellular materials

8. Developmental aspects of cells

Tuesday, Feb 11- Tissues and Bone Growth and Osteogenesis

Chapter 4 1. Epithelial tissue: characteristics, classification, glands

2. Connective tissue: characteristics, structural elements, types

3. Epithelial membranes: types

4. Nervous tissue

5. Muscle tissue

Chapter 6 1. Bones: functions, classifications, structure, composition

2. Osteogenesis: intramembranous and endochondral ossification

3. Growth: endochondral appositional

4. Remodeling and repair, hormonal and mechanical effects

5. Homeostasis

Thursday, Feb 13- The Integumentary System

Chapter 5 1. Epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, thick and thin skin

2. Skin color

3. Hair, hair follicle, hair growth, baldness

4. Nails and glands

5. Functions of the integument

Tuesday, Feb 18- Anatomy and Physiology Review

Thursday, Feb 20- Lecture Test I and Lab Test I

Tuesday, Feb 25- Muscle Mechanics and Control and the Superficial Muscles of the Anterior and Posterior Thorax

Chapter 10 1. General Muscle Movement

2. Neural Control

3. Muscle of the anterior thorax

4. Muscle of the posterior thorax

Thursday, Feb 27- Muscles of the Shoulder and Muscle Movement Tutorial

Chapter 10 1. Muscles crossing the shoulder joint

Tuesday, March 4- Muscles of the Arm and Forearm

Chapter 10 1. Muscles crossing the elbow joint

2. Forearm- Anterior compartment

3. Forearm- Posterior compartment

Thursday, March 6- Muscles of the Hand and Case Study (The Pitcher with the Sore Arm)

Chapter 10 1. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand

Tuesday, March 11- Membrane Structure/Function and Membrane Potential and Cellular Excitation

Chapter 3 1. Plasma membrane structure and specializations

2. Plasma membrane functions: diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, filtration

3. Active transport, bulk transport, endocytosis,exocytosis, phagocytosis

4. Cell-stimuli interactions: adhesions, receptors

Chapter 11 1. Basic electricity principles: Ohm's law, channels

2. Resting membrane potential: polarized

3. Potential changes: signaling, graded

4. Action potentials: depolarization, repolarization

5. Action potential: propagation, threshold, all-or-none, refractory period

Thursday, March 13- Action Potential Tutorial and Muscle Architecture: The Fasciculus to Sarcomere

Chapter 9 1. Muscle types: skeletal, cardiac, smooth

2. Muscle functions and characteristics

3. Connective tissue, muscle, fascicle, fiber, myofibril, myofilament

4. Sarcoplasmic reticulum, T-tubules, triads, terminal cisternae

Tuesday March 18 and Thursday March 20- NO CLASS SPRING BREAK
Tuesday, March 25- Contraction of the Muscle Fiber and Physiology of Muscle Contraction

Chapter 9 1. Sliding filament mechanism: effect on sarcomere

2. Regulation of contraction: excitation-contraction coupling, ACH, calcium action, muscle relaxation

3. The motor unit: muscle/nerve ratio

4. Muscle twitch: latent, contraction, relaxation periods

5. Graded muscle responses: summation, tetanus, treppe

6. Types of contractions: isometric, isotonic, eccentric, concentric

Thursday, March 27- Physiology of Muscle Contraction Continued and Energy for Muscle Contraction
Chapter 9 1. Force of contraction

2. Velocity and duration of contraction: fiber types

3. Smooth muscle

Chapter 24 1. Metabolism: anabolism, catabolism, cellular respiration

2. Oxidation - reduction reactions

3. Carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism for ATP production

4. Anaerobic sources of ATP: stored ATP, creatine phosphate, glycolysis

5. Increased muscle work: energy production, fatigue, O2 debt, heat production

6. Aerobic pathways: Krebs cycle

7. Electron transport chain: oxidative phosphorylation

8. Carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism for ATP production

9. Interconvertability of fuels

Tuesday, April 1- Anatomy and Physiology Review

Thursday, April 3- Lecture Test II and Lab Test II

Tuesday, April 8- Deep Muscles of the Back and Muscles of the Abdominal Wall
Chapter 10 1. Deep muscles of the back

2. Muscles of the abdominal wall

Thursday, April 10- Muscles of the Hip

Chapter 10 1. Muscles crossing the hip joint

2. Anterior muscles crossing the knee joint

3. Gluteal region

4. Posterior muscles crossing the knee joint

Tuesday, April 15- Muscles of the Leg and Foot

Chapter 10 1. Muscles of anterior leg

2. Muscles of lateral leg

3. Muscles of posterior leg

4. Dorsal foot

5. Plantar foot

Thursday, April 17- Spinal Cord Anatomy and Brachial and Lumbo-Sacal Plexus

Chapter 12 1. Spinal cord

2. Spinal nerves

3. Distribution of spinal nerves

Chapter 13 1. Brachial plexus serving the upper limb

2. Lumbo-sacral plexus serving the lower limb

Tuesday April 22-Cells of the Nervous System and Synapses of the Nervous System
Chapter 11 1. Neurons: cell body, axon, dendrites, myelin

2. Classes of neurons: unipolar, bipolar, multipolar, sensory, motor, association

3. Supporting cells: glia, Schwann, satellite

4. Conduction velocity of neurons: diameter, myelin

5. The synapse: electrical, chemical, information transfer, EPSP, IPSP

6. Integration of synaptic events: potentiation, neuromodulation

7. Neurotransmitter and receptors

Thursday, April 24- Neurotransmitter, Circuitry, and Reflexes and Case Study
Chapter 11 & 1. Neural integration

Chapter 13 2. Reflex activity

Tuesday April 29- Locomotion Tutorial

Thursday, May 1- Anatomy and Physiology Review
Tuesday, May 6- Lecture Test III

Thursday, May 8 Final Review and Lab Test III
Tuesday, May 13 Final Comprehensive Lecture Exam (It's Over!)

Fall 2014 Lab Schedule

Thursday 6:30-9:15pm





-Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

-Lab Manual Ch. 1


-Axial Skeleton

-Appendicular Skeleton

-Group and individual bone review


-The Microscope and Cells

-Joint Ligaments

-Axial/Appendicular Skeleton review

-Lab manual Ch. 2 (2.1-2.6)

-Group and individual bone and ligament review


- Tissues

-Integumentary System

-Full skeleton and ligament review

-Lab manual Ch. 3

-Lab manual Ch. 4

-Group and individual bone and ligament review




-Muscles of Anterior/Posterior thorax

-Group and individual muscle review


-Muscles of Upper Extremity

-Group and individual muscle review


-Muscle review

- Revisit lab manual Ch. 2

-Group and individual muscle review


-Muscle Physiology

-Muscle review

-Lab manual Ch. 5

-Group and individual muscle review




-Muscles of Deep Back/Abdominals

-Group and individual muscle review


-Muscles of the Lower Extremity

-Group and individual muscle review


-Spinal Cord and Brachial/Lumbosacral Plexus

-Muscle Review

-Group and individual muscle review


-The Nervous System: Peripheral Nervous System

-Muscle review

-Lab Manual Ch. 6

-Group and individual muscle review



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