Mountainous regions led to the development of hundreds of local, independent communities

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  • The Land
    • Mountainous regions led to the development of hundreds of local, independent communities
    • Rough terrain made land travel difficult and time consuming.
    • Land not suitable for an agricultural economy (did grow barley, olive trees)
    • Desire and need to support a large population forced Greeks to seek new land and colonize other parts of the Mediterranean

The Sea:

  • The Sea:
    • The sea acted as Greek highways as they were surrounded by waterways Mediterranean, Aegean, Ionian, and Black Sea)
    • Stimulates a trade economy for needed natural resources.
    • Creates a skilled sailing culture

Ancient/Early Greek Civilizations

  • Mycenaeans 1600 – 1100 BCE (Monarchies)
    • Ruled by a class of warrior-kings
    • Contact with the Minoans stimulates sea trade throughout the Mediterranean
      • Minoan influences – adapted the Minoan writing system to the Greek language, blend of cultures creates a core religious system, styles of art, and literature.
  • Dorians 1150-750 BCE: “Dark Age” (Monarchies)
    • War between the Mycenaean Greeks and the Trojans allows Mycenaen civilization to be easily conquered by a new group of Greeks called the Dorians. This is the time of the Illiad and Odyssey and the Trojan War.
    • Far less advanced
    • No written language
    • Learned through spoken word (Iliad and Odyssey)

Ancient Troy

Development of City-States: The “Middle Greeks” Period (750 B.C.E)

  • Polis (city-state): this became the fundamental political unit in Greece.
    • As the Dark Age came to an end local communities developed a strong sense of loyalty to their village area and formal governments began to form
    • Polis consisted of an urban center, with an acropolis (hilltop) and an agora (marketplace) and the surrounding countryside
    • These city-states were highly independent often leading them to war

The Acropolis

The Agora

Government Structures

  • Four Main Political Structures: See Greek Govt Chart
    • Monarchy:
    • Oligarchy:
    • Tyranny:
    • Democracy:
  • Steps Toward Democracy in Athens:
    • Draco: 621 BCE – developed a strict code of laws that harshly punished criminals but also based on the idea that all Athenian were equal under the law
    • Solon 594 BCE: Outlawed debt slavery, reorganized Athenian society based on class where only members of the top 3 could hold political office, but all citizens could participate in the Assembly.
    • Cleisthenese 500 BCE: extended political power to all citizens through the Council of 500, created the first constitution.

Athens vs. Sparta

  • With your table partner you will read about either Athens or Sparta more in depth and answer a series of questions in your notes.
  • Then you both will be paired with the opposite city-state to compare and discuss finding similarities and differences.
  • Your final product will be the creation of a detailed Venn Diagram showcasing the similarities and differences between Sparta and Athens.
    • The diagram should address these basic elements: government structure, culture/values, slavery, military, education, women. You may also need to use your textbook for some of these!
    • The diagram must be neat organized and color-coded to show common themes (ie. Info about anything military will be blue, culture red, art yellow etc… you can use whatever colors you want!)
    • D

The Persian Wars

  • Persian Empire – vast and powerful Empire spanning from southeastern Europe to the Middle East and Asia.
  • Why war broke out:
    • Greek colonies rebel against the expanding Persian Empire in what is called the Ionian Revolt assisted by the Athenians and other Greek city-states.
    • Persian King vows revenge against Greece for the uprising.

Persian Wars in a Nutshell

  • To punish the Athenians and discourage future interference, Darius attacked Athens in 490
  • Persians lose their fleet at Sea
  • The Athenians repelled the invasion
    • Marathon

Battle of Marathon: Details

  • The Persians landed at the Plains of Marathon on September 9, 490 BCE
  • For eight days, the two armies faced each other
  • On the ninth day, the Persians started to advance, forcing Miltiades, the commander in chief of the Athenian army, to deploy his entire army of 10,000 Athenians and 1,000 Plataeans for battle

Battle of Marathon

  • The Athenians surrounded the Persians in a double envelopment
    • Although the Athenians were outnumbered, their spears were superior to the Persians’ bows and short lances
  • The Persians fled to their ships
  • Persians lost 6,400 men and seven ships
  • Athenians lost 192

Battle of Marathon

  • However, Miltiades realized that the Persian fleet could sail and attack the undefended city of Athens
  • According to legend, he called upon Phidippides to run to Athens to tell them of the victory and warn them of the approaching Persian ships
  • Phidippides ran the 26 miles from Marathon to Athens in about three hours, successfully warning the Athenians who repelled the Persian invasion
  • Phidippides was exhausted from the fight at Marathon and the 26 mile run and died upon announcing the warning
  • Miltiades

Olympic Marathons

  • The marathon was part of the 1896 Olympics
    • The course was from Marathon to Athens (24.85 miles or 40 km)
  • At the London Olympics in 1908, the Olympic marathon course was set at 26 miles, 385 yards (42.195 km) to accommodate the Royal Family’s viewing
  • In 1921 the International Amateur Athletic Foundation made 42.195 km the official distance of a marathon


  • Darius’ successor Xerxes tried to avenge the Persian losses by launching another attack in 480
    • Thermopylae


  • The Greeks sent an allied army under the Spartan king Leonidas to Thermopylae, a narrow mountain pass in northeastern Greece 
  • The point was to stall the Persians long enough that the city states could prepare for later major battles after the Persians broke through


  • Twice the Greeks repelled the Persians
  • Then Ephialtes, a local farmer, traitorously led a force of Persian infantry through a mountain passage and the next morning they appeared behind the Greek lines
  • Leonidas ordered the rest of the army to withdraw and held the passage with just 300 Spartans
  • As true Spartans, they chose death over retreat
  • All died but they did hold off the Persians long enough to ensure the safe withdrawal of the rest of the Greek army.
  • Leonidas


  • “Stranger, go tell the Spartans that we lie here in obedience to their laws.” (Inscription carved on the tomb of Leonidas’ Three Hundred)
  • Leonidas at
  • Thermopylae by David

Battle of Salamis

  • The Persians captured and burned Athens but were defeated by the Athenian navy at Salamis and forced back to Anatolia

Consequences of the Persian Wars

  • After the Persian threat subsided, the Greek city-states had conflicts among themselves
  • The Athenians formed an alliance called the Delian League
    • Athens supplied most of the military force, mostly naval, and the other city-states provided financial support
    • In the absence of the Persian threat, eventually the other city-states came to resent financing Athens’ bureaucracy and construction projects
  • The resulting tensions led to the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) in which the poleis divided up into two sides led by Athens and Sparta


  • After the Persian Wars Athens became the greatest city-state in all of Greece
    • Led by a skillful politician and general named Pericles.
    • Pericles had 3 goals for Athens:
      • 1. Strengthen democracy - create more paid public offices to allow even poor citizens to serve in the governing of the city-state
      • 2. Build an Athenian Empire – built the largest and most powerful navy to increase trade and sea domination throughout the Mediterranean Sea
      • 3. Glorify /Beautify Athens – used money from the Delian League to rebuild Athens (paid artisits, sculptues, architects, purchase ivory, marble, gold, etc…)

The Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.)

  • War between Sparta and Athens.
    • Sparta challenged Athens status as leaders of the Delian League and the exploitation of the treasury
  • The war went back and forth for 3 decades until 404 BCE when the Spartans and their Greek allies forced Athens to surrender
    • Sparta finally defeated Athens at their own game – the navy! Financed by the Persians.
  • Conflicts continued however for another 150 years and the world of the poleis steadily lost power
    • Alexander the Great is going to step into this power vacuum

The Golden Age of Greece 480 BCE – 323 BCE

  • The conclusion of the Persian Wars brought about what is known as the Golden Age - an era of Greek history that is marked by leaps in art, architecture, literature, math and philosophy.
  • Let’s investigate!

Legacy of Greece’s Golden Age DBQ

  • In the Notes section of your Notebook answer ONLY the question(s) for each of the DBQ document questions.
  • As you answer the questions find the page number in your text that contains historical information that corresponds to the document in the packet and write it down after you finish answering the question.
    • As we present/discuss the documents you will be asked to give background details on 1 document so you gotta know your stuff!!!!!

Legacy of Greece’s Golden Age DBQ

  • Ok – now that we have the basics, let’s take it a step further!
    • For each document decide if it is a primary or secondary source and write a P/S next to the document in your NOTES.
  • Now lets talk develop a thesis statement to answer the Essay question with the documents and prior knowledge in mind.
    • Create a thesis statement with your table that everyone can agree with and write it down.

DBQ Thesis

    • Thesis 1: Ancient Greeks had many contributions to Western Civilization such as art, architecture, philosophy, theater and democracy.
    • Thesis 2: The modern day Western Civilization has taken many aspects from ancient Greece.
    • Thesis 3: Some of the contributions to Western Civilization from ancient Greeks were math, architecture, physics, art and drama.
    • Thesis 4: Ancient Greece contribute to Western Civilization because of its influences in their values, beliefs, building features, etc….
    • Thesis 5: THe Ancient Greeks laid the foundation for modern math, science and architecture.
    • Thesis 6: Ancient Greeks had many contributions to Western Civilization such as art, theater and the Olympic Games.
    • Thesis 7: Ancient Greeks have made many contributions to modern civilization in a plethora of ways.
    • Thesis 8: Most of todays thinking such as educational morals and socializing revolved around the Ancient Greeks.
    • The contributions made to Western Civ by the ancient Greeks were art, architecture, math, science and more.


  • Born in Athens (469 - 399 B.C.)
    • Ugly, yet mind was creative, clear, critical, and eager
  • Socrates was first interested in natural science, including “whether the earth is flat or not’, but he was not satisfied with the result of his research; so he abandoned the study of natural science and turned to the study of human life.
  • Socrates did not use “spoon-feeding” method of teaching, but “dialogue -- questions and answers”
    • Socrates liked using examples of daily affairs to enlighten his students.

Socrates’ divine mission “was to expose the ignorance of those who thought themselves wise”

  • Socrates’ divine mission “was to expose the ignorance of those who thought themselves wise”
    • To question the cultural values and allegiance to ideas people blindly followed.
    • his conversation aimed at discovering the truth, at acquiring that knowledge and understanding of life and its values that he thought was the very basis of the good life
  • “What did Socrates really know?”
    • Socrates did not claim to know anything
    • Socrates did not think he knew a lot.
    • Socrates knew that he was ignorant, but the others did not know that they were ignorant.

In 399 B.C., 3 Athenian citizens accused Socrates of (1) “heresy” (or “impiety”); (2) did not believe or observe the gods of the polis; and (3) “corrupted the minds of the youth”!

  • In 399 B.C., 3 Athenian citizens accused Socrates of (1) “heresy” (or “impiety”); (2) did not believe or observe the gods of the polis; and (3) “corrupted the minds of the youth”!

Socrates Trial

  • Juries randomly selected from volunteers who were paid.
  • Each side allowed to defend their claim or themselves.
  • Each side gets to suggest a sentence
  • How did Socrates defend himself? Let’s find out! (Greece Video Part 3)

Plato’s Apology Questions

  • Read Plato’s Apology and answer the following questions
    • 1. Who wrote this and when?
    • 2. According to Socrates, how has he been useful to Athens? (Use paragraphs 2-4 to give 2 specific examples – quotes from the text)
    • 3. Using paragraph 5 describe why Socrates is not “ashamed” of the charges brought against him.
    • 4. Using paragraph 7, describe how Socrates equates himself to a fly.
    • 5. Using paragraphs 8-9 what does Socrates consider worse than death? And what favor does he ask of his fellow Athenians
    • 6. Which paragraph best illustrates his method of teaching? Give an excerpt from the paragraph you chose as evidence.
    • 7. What is ironic about the title of this speech? Why do you think Plato named it the Apology?

True or False

  • Socrates was asking the jury to be acquitted for fear of a hellish afterlife
  • Socrates used metaphor as a tool to point out his unrighteous behavior
  • Socrates believed that a man without virtue is no man at all
  • Socrates spent his time showing that braggarts are often the most ignorant.

“Apology” Multiple Choice

  • Which quote is the best evidence to show Socrates values and beliefs about what it means to live a good life?
    • A. “God only is wise… the wisdom of men is little or nothing”
    • B. “either acquit me or not… but know I shall never alter my ways.”
    • C. “A man who is good for anything ought not calculate the chance of living or dying”
    • D. “that some inferior men were really wiser and better.”

“Apology” Multiple Choice

  • Which quote is the best evidence to show Socrates values and beliefs about what it means to live a good life?
    • A. “God only is wise… the wisdom of men is little or nothing”
    • B. “either acquit me or not… but know I shall never alter my ways.”
    • C. “A man who is good for anything ought not calculate the chance of living or dying”
    • D. “that some inferior men were really wiser and better.”

“Apology” Multiple Choice

  • Choose a quote below that best supports this statement: Socrates method of teaching relied on discourse not direct instruction.
    • A. “Socrates is an evil-doer, who searches into things under the earth and in heaven”
    • B. And so I go my way, obedient to God, and make acquisition into the wisdom of anyone”
    • C. “I interrogate and examine and cross examine him, and if I think he has no virtue… I reproach him”
    • D. “punish them… if they seem to care about riches, or anything, more than about virtue”

Alexander the Great Video

  • As you watch take notes in the Notes section of your notebook to assist you in a project to follow. Possible note topics:
    • Early life, becoming King, desires/goals, successes/failures, major battles, concerns, quotes from or about Alexander, death, legacy.

Alexander the Great Poster Assignment

  • Task: your task is to create a double-sided poster about the life, accomplishments and legacy of Alexander the Great.
  • Your poster must have a map and a timeline – see below for specific requirements.
    • Map: draw a map of the Mediterranean World at the time of Alexander and shade in the territory his army controlled at its height. Geographic features must include (Persian Empire, Med Sea. Ionian Sea, Italy, Greece, North Africa, India, Europe, Black Sea, Persian Gulf). Pinpoint at least 3 key battles and highlight these with a symbol and a brief description of “who, what, and outcome”. At the bottom of the map write a “legacy” statement. What is the lasting and most important legacy of Alexander the Great?

Poster Directions: Cont

    • Body Bio/Timeline: on the backside create a Body Bio to show key characteristics of Alexander and timeline of at least 10 important events in Alexander’s life (this can include his childhood, leadership, battles and even important events after his death). Each one needs a detailed explanation and symbol/image to represent it.
    • Body Bio: draw a large figure of Alexander (see example) and label it with information about him as directed.

Philip II

  • Ruled Macedonia from 359-336 B.C. and transformed it into a powerful military machine
  • Moved into northern Greece and met little resistance due to residual effects of Peloponnesian War
    • By 338 he had Greece under his control


Alexander the Great

  • Philip intended to use Greece as a launching pad to invade Persia, but he was assassinated before he could begin his plan
  • Instead the invasion of Persia would be left for Philip’s son Alexander who was just 20 when Philip was assassinated
    • “Alexander inherited from his father the most perfectly organized, trained, and equipped army of ancient times.”
      • J.F.C. Fuller, The Generalship of Alexander the Great

Conquests of Alexander

  • Ionia and Anatolia 333
  • Syria, Palestine, Egypt 332
  • Mesopotamia 331
  • Persepolis 331
  • King of Persia 330
  • India 327
  • Returns to Susa 324
  • Dies (age 33) 323

Warfare in the Age of Alexander

  • Phalanx: A formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears, developed by Philip II and used by Alexander the Great

Warfare in the Age of Alexander

  • Hoplite
    • The main melee warrior of the Macedonian army.
    • Worked mainly in the tight phalanx formation, creating impregnable lines that often left the enemy demoralized.

Hoplites in Action

Warfare in the Age of Alexander

  • Companions
    • Alexander’s elite cavalry, the offensive arm of his army, and his elite guard.
    • They would be used in conjunction with the phalanx. The phalanx would fix the enemy in place and then the companion cavalry would attack on the flank.
    • Alexander would lead the charge with his cavalry, normally in a wedge formation.
    • These troops would also protect the flanks of the Macedonian line during battle.

Warfare in the Age of Alexander

  • Sieges involved the surrounding and blockading of a town or fortress by an army trying to capture it.
  • A variety of weapons were built to hurl projectiles over city walls, scale or batter the walls, and transport soldiers over them.

The End of the Empire

  • "The Marriage of Alexander the Great and Roxanna" by Ishmail Parbury
  • Alexander
    • Married Roxanna and has his men also intermarry
    • Adopted Eastern dress and habits
    • Publicly insisted upon his descent from the gods
    • Began giving key positions to Persians
  • The Macedonians were tired of campaigning and resented the changes in Alexander’s behavior and become mutinous
  • Alexander died in June 323 BCE, perhaps as a result of poisoning

After Alexander

  • After Alexander died, his generals jockeyed for power and by 275 BCE they had divided up his kingdom into three large states
    • Antigonus took Greece and Macedon
    • Ptolemy took Egypt
    • Seleuces took the former Persian empire
  • The period of Alexander and his successors is called the Hellenistic period to reflect the broad influence of Greek culture beyond Greece’s borders.
    • Hellenistic Culture is the intermingling of Greek culture with the cultures of the peoples conquered by Alexander, called Cultural Diffusion

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