Midterm Exam Practice and Review
Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. A 15N force and a 45N force act on an object in opposite directions. What is the net force on the object?
a.

15 N

b.

30 N

c.

45 N

d.

60 N

e.

none of the above

____ 2. A clothesline is stretched between two trees. A tire hangs in the middle of the line and the lne is nearly, but not quite horizontal. The tension in the line on either side of the tire is
a.

half the tire’s weight.

b.

is less than half the tire’s weight.

c.

is more than half the tire’s weight.

____ 3. A scalar quantity has
a.

only direction.

b.

only magnitude.

c.

both magnitude and direction.

d.

neither magnitude nor direction.

____ 4. Equilibrium occurs when
a.

all the forces acting on an object are balanced.

b.

the sum of the +x forces on an object equals the sum of the –x forces.

c.

the net force on the object is zero.

d.

the sum of the upward forces equals the sum of the downward forces.

e.

all of the above

____ 5. Friction is a force that always acts
a.

perpendicular to an object's motion.

b.

opposite to an object's motion.

c.

in the same direction as an object's motion.

____ 6. The law of inertia applies to
a.

objects at rest.

b.

moving objects.

c.

both moving and nonmoving objects.

____ 7. An object following a straightline path at constant speed
a.

has no forces acting on it.

b.

has a net force acting on it in the direction of motion.

c.

has zero acceleration.

d.

must be moving in a vacuum.

e.

none of the above

____ 8. How much does a 3.0kg bag of bolts weigh on Earth?
a.

3.0 kg

b.

3.0 N

c.

10 N

d.

30 N

e.

not enough information

____ 9. An object weighs 30 N on Earth. A second object weighs 30 N on the moon. Which has the greater mass?
a.

The one on Earth

b.

The one on the moon

c.

They have the same mass.

d.

Not enough information to say

____ 10. As an object falls freely in a vacuum, its
a.

velocity increases.

b.

acceleration increases.

c.

both A and B.

d.

none of the above.

____ 11. A ball tossed vertically upward rises, reaches its highest point, and then falls back to its starting point. During this time the acceleration of the ball is always
a.

in the direction of motion.

b.

opposite its velocity.

c.

directed downward.

d.

directed upward.

____ 12. If a freely falling object were somehow equipped with a speedometer, its speed reading would increase each second by
a.

about 5 m/s.

b.

about 10 m/s.

c.

about 15 m/s.

d.

a variable amount.

e.

a rate that depends on its initial speed.

____ 13. In the absence of air resistance, objects fall at constant
a.

speed.

b.

velocity.

c.

acceleration.

d.

distances each successive second.

e.

all of the above

____ 14. When a basketball player jumps to make a shot, once the feet are off the floor, the jumper's acceleration
a.

varies with body orientation.

b.

depends on launch speed.

c.

is usually greater for taller players (but not always).

d.

depends on all the above.

e.

is g; no more, no less.

____ 15. A ball is thrown straight up at a velocity of 20 m/s. At the top of its path its instantaneous speed is
a.

0 m/s.

b.

about 5 m/s.

c.

about 10 m/s.

d.

about 20 m/s.

e.

about 40 m/s.

____ 16. When representing velocity as a vector,
a.

the direction of the arrow shows the direction of motion.

b.

the length of the arrow represents the speed.

c.

the length of the arrow is drawn to a suitable scale.

d.

all of the above

e.

none of the above

____ 17. At the instant a ball is thrown horizontally with a large force, an identical ball is dropped from the same height. In the absence of air resistance which ball hits the ground first?
a.

Neither. They both hit the ground at the same time.

b.

The dropped ball

c.

The horizontally thrown ball

____ 18. A ball is thrown into the air at some angle. At the very top of the ball's path, its velocity is
a.

entirely vertical.

b.

There's not enough information given to determine.

c.

both vertical and horizontal.

d.

entirely horizontal.

____ 19. At what part of a path does a projectile have minimum speed?
a.

When it returns to the ground

b.

Halfway to the top

c.

At the top of its path

d.

When it is thrown

e.

There's not enough information to say.

____ 20. An object is dropped and falls freely to the ground with an acceleration of g. If it is thrown upward at an angle instead, its acceleration while in flight would be
a.

0.

b.

larger than g.

c.

g upward.

d.

g downward.

e.

none of the above

____ 21. A cannonball is fired at some angle into the air. In the first second it moves 5 meters horizontally. Assuming it doesn't hit the ground and air resistance is negligible, how far does it move horizontally in the next second?
a.

More than 5 m

b.

Less than 5 m

c.

5 m

d.

Not enough information.

____ 22. In the absence of air resistance, at what other angle will a thrown ball go the same distance as one thrown at an angle of 75 degrees?
a.

15 degrees.

b.

65 degrees.

c.

70 degrees.

d.

80 degrees.

e.

90 degrees.

____ 23. A 10kg brick and a 1kg book are dropped in a vacuum. The force of gravity on the 10kg brick is
a.

10 times as much as the force on the 1kg book.

b.

zero.

c.

the same as the force on the 1kg book.

d.

one tenth as much as the force on the 1kg book

____ 24. Pressure is defined as
a.

time per area.

b.

velocity per time.

c.

force per time.

d.

force per area.

e.

distance per time.

____ 25. The reason a tennis ball and a solid steel ball of the same volume will accelerate at the same rate, in the absence of air resistance, is that
a.

they have the same mass.

b.

the ball with the larger force has the smaller mass.

c.

the ball with the larger force also has the larger mass.

d.

the force acting on them is the same.

____ 26. If you pull horizontally on a desk with a force of 150 N and the desk doesn't move, the friction force must be 150 N. Now if you pull with 250 N so the desk slides at constant velocity, the friction force is
a.

more than 150 N but less than 250 N.

b.

250 N.

c.

more than 250.

____ 27. Accelerations are produced by
a.

forces.

b.

velocities.

c.

accelerations.

d.

masses.

e.

none of the above

____ 28. An apple weighs 1 N. The net force on the apple when it is in free fall is
a.

0 N.

b.

0.1 N.

c.

1 N.

d.

9.8 N.

e.

none of the above

____ 29. Aunt Minnie throws a rock downward, and air resistance is negligible. Compared to a rock that is dropped, the acceleration of the rock after it is thrown is
a.

less.

b.

the same.

c.

more.

____ 30. As a care package falls from a highflying stationary helicopter, its velocity increases and its acceleration
a.

remains the same.

b.

decreases.

c.

increases.

____ 31. A high school student hits a nail with a hammer. During the collision, there is a force
a.

on the nail but not on the hammer.

b.

on the nail and also on the hammer.

c.

on the hammer but not on the nail.

____ 32. As a ball falls, the action force is the pull of Earth's mass on the ball. What is the reaction to this force?
a.

The pull of the ball's mass on Earth

b.

The acceleration of the ball

c.

Nonexistent in this case

d.

Air resistance acting against the ball

e.

none of the above

____ 33. A large truck and a small car traveling at the same speed have a headon collision. The vehicle to undergo the greater change in velocity will be
a.

the small car.

b.

the large truck.

c.

neither—both are the same

____ 34. As a 600N woman sits on the floor, the floor exerts a force on her of
a.

6 N.

b.

60 N.

c.

1200 N.

d.

600 N.

e.

6000 N.

____ 35. You drive past a farm, and you see a cow pulling a plow to till a field. You have just learned about Newton’s third law, and you wonder how the cow is able to move forward if the plow is exerting an equal and opposite force on the cow. Which of the following explains the movement of the cow and plow?
a.

The force exerted by the cow on the plow is equal to the force that the cow exerts on the ground to move forward.

b.

The force exerted by the cow on the plow is larger than the force that the cow exerts on the ground to move forward.

c.

The force exerted by the cow on the plow is smaller than the force that the cow exerts on the ground to move forward.

d.

More information is needed to answer this question.

____ 36. A table tennis ball launcher is fired. Compared to the impulse on the ball, the impulse on the launcher is
a.

smaller.

b.

larger.

c.

the same.

____ 37. Superman is at rest in space when he throws an asteroid that has more mass than he does. Which moves faster, Superman or the asteroid?
a.

Superman

b.

The asteroid

c.

They both move at the same speed.

____ 38. If the momentum of an object changes and its mass remains constant,
a.

it is accelerating (or decelerating).

b.

there is a force acting on it.

c.

its velocity is changing.

d.

all of the above

e.

none of the above

____ 39. The reason padded dashboards are used in cars is that they
a.

look nice and feel good.

b.

decrease the impulse in a collision.

c.

increase the force of impact in a collision.

d.

decrease the momentum of a collision.

e.

increase the time of impact in a collision.

____ 40. A moving freight car runs into an identical car at rest on the track. The cars couple together. Compared to the velocity of the first car before the collision, the velocity of the combined cars after the collision is
a.

zero.

b.

one half as large.

c.

the same.

d.

twice as large.

e.

More information is needed to say.

____ 41. If you lift two loads up one story, how much work do you do compared to lifting just one load up one story?
a.

One quarter as much

b.

One half as much

c.

The same amount

d.

Twice as much

e.

Four times as much

____ 42. The amount of potential energy possessed by an elevated object is equal to
a.

the power used to lift it.

b.

the distance it is lifted.

c.

the force needed to lift it.

d.

the work done in lifting it.

e.

the value of the acceleration due to gravity.

____ 43. An arrow in a bow has 70 J of potential energy. Assuming no loss of energy to heat, how much kinetic energy will it have after it has been shot?
a.

0 J

b.

35 J

c.

50 J

d.

70 J

e.

140 J

____ 44. A ball is thrown into the air with 100 J of kinetic energy, which is transformed to gravitational potential energy at the top of its trajectory. When it returns to its original level after encountering air resistance, its kinetic energy is
a.

100 J.

b.

more than 100 J.

c.

less than 100 J.

d.

Not enough information given.

____ 45. An object that has kinetic energy must have
a.

acceleration.

b.

a force applied to maintain it.

c.

momentum.

d.

none of the above

____ 46. Which has greater kinetic energy, a car traveling at 30 km/h or a halfasmassive car traveling at 60 km/h?
a.

The 60 km/h car

b.

Both have the same kinetic energy.

c.

The 30 km/h car

____ 47. A person on a roof throws one ball downward and an identical ball upward at the same speed. The ball thrown downward hits the ground with 140 J of kinetic energy. Ignoring air friction, with how much kinetic energy does the second ball hit the ground?
a.

less than 140 J

b.

140 J

c.

280 J

d.

more than 280 J

e.

none of the above

____ 48. Consider molecules of hydrogen gas and molecules of heavier oxygen gas that have the same kinetic energy. The molecules with the greater speed are
a.

hydrogen.

b.

Both have the same speed.

c.

oxygen.

____ 49. What is the direction of the force that acts on clothes in the spin cycle of a washing machine?
a.

Inward

b.

Down

c.

Outward

d.

Up

____ 50. If you whirl a tin can on the end of a string and the string suddenly breaks, the can will
a.

fly directly away from you.

b.

fly off, tangent to its circular path.

c.

fly directly toward you.

d.

spiral in toward your hand.

e.

spiral away from your hand.

____ 51. A ladybug rests on the bottom of a tin can that is being whirled horizontally on the end of a string. Since the ladybug, like the can, moves in a circle, there must be a force on it. What exerts this force?
a.

Gravity

b.

The string

c.

There is no force acting on it.

d.

The can

e.

Your hand

____ 52. A car travels in a circle with constant speed. The net force on the car
a.

is zero because the car is not accelerating.

b.

is directed forward, in the direction of travel.

c.

is directed toward the center of the curve.

d.

none of the above

____ 53. Nellie Newton swings a rock into a circular path while holding an attached string overhead. The string makes a 45degree angle to the vertical (comprising a "conical pendulum"). The centripetal force that holds the rock in its circular path is the
a.

vertical component of the string tension.

b.

horizontal component of the string tension.

c.

tension in the string.

d.

none of the above

____ 54. Which has greater angular speed, a horse near the outside rail of a merrygoround or a horse near the inside rail?
a.

Neither—they both have the same angular speed.

b.

The inside horse

c.

The outside horse

Essay
55. Discuss the difference between linear speed and rotational speed. Where does a ladybug sitting on a rotating record have the greatest linear speed? The greatest rotational speed? What kind of speed would she have at the center?
56. You do work on something when you lift it against gravity. How does this work relate to gravitational potential energy? If the lifted object is released, what becomes of this energy? Be sure to define all terms that you use.
57. Write a short paragraph explaining the difference between speed and velocity, and give examples of both.
58. Briefly distinguish between vectors and scalars, giving examples of each.
59. An unfortunate bug splatters on the windshield of a moving car. Describe the forces, impulses, momentum changes, and accelerations of both the bug and the car.
60. Write a short paragraph on the difference between mass and weight. Give examples.
61. Explain why the acceleration of two freelyfalling objects having different masses is the same. Is the force on each mass the same?
62. Explain how Newton's third law applies to a cannon launching a cannonball. Which has the larger acceleration, the cannonball or the cannon? What if the cannonball were just as massive as the cannon—how fast would the cannon move compared to the cannonball?
Problem
63. What is the magnitude of the resultant of a 6.0N force acting vertically upward and a 4.0N force acting horizontally?
64. Two people push a refrigerator across a floor. If person A pushes with 80 N of force and person B pushes with 110 N of force in the same direction, how much frictional force must be acting on the refrigerator to maintain equilibium?
65. How much does a 10.0kg bag of grass seed weigh?
66. What is the average speed of a cheetah that runs 88 m in 5 seconds?
67. A crate falls from a helicopter hovering at an altitude of 1250 m. Neglecting air drag, how long will the crate take to strike the ground?
68. A package falls out of a helicopter that is traveling horizontally at 70 m/s. It falls into the water below 8.0 seconds later. Assuming no air resistance, what is the horizontal distance it travels while falling?
69. Kyle throws a ball horizontally from the top of a building that is 5.0 m high. He hopes the ball will reach a swimming pool that is at the bottom of the building, 12.0 m horizontally from the edge the building. If the ball is to reach the pool, with what initial speed must Kyle throw it with?
70. Suppose that you exert 300 N horizontally on a 50kg crate on a factory floor, where friction between the crate and the floor is 100 N. What is the acceleration of the crate?
71. You push with 10.0 N on a 5.0kg block and there are no opposing forces. At what rate will the block accelerate?
72. A 7.0kg blob of clay moving horizontally at 4.0 m/s hits a 5.0kg blob of clay at rest. What is the speed of the two blobs stuck together immediately after the collision?
73. A 40.0kg football player leaps through the air to collide with and tackle a 50.0kg player heading toward him, also in the air. If the 40.0kg player is heading to the right at 9.0 m/s and the 50.0kg player is heading toward the left at 2.0 m/s, what is the speed and direction of the tangled players?
74. A 3.00 kg toy falls from a height of 1.00 m. What will the kinetic energy of the toy be just before the toy hits the ground?
75. Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone National Park shoots water every hour to a height of 40.0 m. With what velocity does the water leave the ground? Use energy relationships to solve, not kinematic equations.
76. What is the average power supplied by a 60.0 kg person running up a flight of stairs a vertical distance of 4.0 m in 4.2 s?
77. A 0.500 kg mass is swung on a conical pendulum in a circle with a radius of 0.500 m. Find the tangential speed of the mass if the centripetal force acting on the mass is 2.13 N.
78. Find the tangential speed of a of a toy train that circles a 1.5 m radius track every 10.0s.
Midterm Exam Practice and Review
Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 2.1 Force
KEY: force  opposite BLM: application
2. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 2.3 Support Force
KEY: tension  clothesline BLM: application
3. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: 2.5 Vectors
KEY: scalar  magnitude BLM: knowledge
4. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 2.2 Mechanical Equilibrium
KEY: equilibrium  force BLM: comprehension
5. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: 3.3 Galileo on Motion
STA: C.1112.D KEY: friction  force BLM: knowledge
6. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 3.4 Newton's Law of Inertia
STA: C.910.D KEY: inertia  moving BLM: comprehension
7. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 3.4 Newton's Law of Inertia
STA: C.910.D KEY: speed  acceleration BLM: comprehension
8. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 3.5 MassA Measure of Inertia
KEY: weight  newtons BLM: application
9. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 3.5 MassA Measure of Inertia
KEY: weight  mass BLM: application
10. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2
OBJ: 4.8 Air Resistance and Falling Objects KEY: vacuum  fall
BLM: comprehension
11. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 4.5 Free Fall: How Fast?
KEY: acceleration  direction BLM: application
12. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: 4.5 Free Fall: How Fast?
KEY: speed  falling BLM: knowledge
13. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 4.5 Free Fall: How Fast?
KEY: air  resistance  acceleration BLM: comprehension
14. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 4.5 Free Fall: How Fast?
KEY: acceleration  hang time BLM: comprehension
15. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 4.5 Free Fall: How Fast?
KEY: instantaneous  speed BLM: comprehension
16. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 5.2 Velocity Vectors
KEY: velocity  vector BLM: comprehension
17. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2
OBJ: 5.5 Projectiles Launched Horizontally KEY: projectile  gravity
BLM: comprehension
18. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 5.4 Projectile Motion
KEY: projectile  velocity BLM: application
19. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 5.4 Projectile Motion
KEY: projectile  speed BLM: comprehension
20. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 5.4 Projectile Motion
KEY: acceleration  gravity BLM: analysis
21. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 5.4 Projectile Motion
KEY: projectile  vector BLM: application
22. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2
OBJ: 5.6 Projectiles Launched at an Angle KEY: projectile  angle
BLM: comprehension
23. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 6.6 Free Fall Explained
KEY: gravity  vacuum BLM: application
24. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: 6.5 Applying ForcePressure
KEY: pressure  force BLM: knowledge
25. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 6.6 Free Fall Explained
KEY: acceleration  mass BLM: application
26. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 6.4 Friction
STA: C.910.D KEY: force  friction  velocity BLM: application
27. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: 6.1 Force Causes Acceleration
KEY: acceleration  force BLM: knowledge
28. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 6.6 Free Fall Explained
KEY: free fall  force BLM: application
29. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 6.6 Free Fall Explained
KEY: acceleration  gravity BLM: comprehension
30. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
STA: C.910.D KEY: velocity  acceleration BLM: application
31. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 7.3 Identifying Action and Reaction
KEY: force  collision BLM: comprehension
32. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 7.3 Identifying Action and Reaction
KEY: action  acceleration  reaction BLM: comprehension
33. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 7.3 Identifying Action and Reaction
KEY: collision  velocity  mass BLM: comprehension
34. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 7.2 Newton's Third Law
KEY: weight  force BLM: application
35. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L3 OBJ: 7.6 The HorseCart Problem
STA: C.910.D KEY: Newton's third law BLM: application
36. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 8.4 Conservation of Momentum
STA: C.910.D KEY: impulse BLM: comprehension
37. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 8.4 Conservation of Momentum
STA: C.910.D KEY: speed  force BLM: comprehension
38. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 8.1 Momentum
STA: C.910.D KEY: momentum  velocity  mass BLM: comprehension
39. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum
KEY: impact  time BLM: application
40. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 8.5 Collisions
KEY: velocity  collision BLM: comprehension
41. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 9.1 Work
KEY: load  work BLM: comprehension
42. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: 9.4 Potential Energy
STA: C.910.E KEY: potential  energy BLM: knowledge
43. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 9.6 WorkEnergy Theorem
STA: C.910.F KEY: potential  energy  kinetic BLM: comprehension
44. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 9.6 WorkEnergy Theorem
STA: C.910.F KEY: kinetic  energy  potential BLM: application
45. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 9.5 Kinetic Energy
STA: C.910.E KEY: kinetic  energy BLM: comprehension
46. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 9.5 Kinetic Energy
STA: C.910.E KEY: mass  kinetic BLM: application
47. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 9.6 WorkEnergy Theorem
STA: C.910.F KEY: kinetic  energy BLM: application
48. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 9.5 Kinetic Energy
STA: C.910.E KEY: speed  kinetic BLM: comprehension
49. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 10.3 Centripetal Force
KEY: force  direction BLM: comprehension
50. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2
OBJ: 10.4 Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces KEY: tangent  path
BLM: comprehension
51. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: L2
OBJ: 10.4 Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces KEY: force  circular
BLM: comprehension
52. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 10.3 Centripetal Force
KEY: weight  Earth BLM: comprehension
53. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 10.3 Centripetal Force
KEY: circular  angle BLM: comprehension
54. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 10.2 Rotational Speed
KEY: angular  speed BLM: comprehension
ESSAY
55. ANS:
Linear speed is distance an object moves per unit time, whereas rotational speed is angle an object rotates per unit time. The ladybug will have the greatest linear speed at the edge of the record, but its rotational speed will be the same anywhere on the record. At the center of the record the ladybug has no linear speed, only rotational speed, as she rotates about her own and the record's axis.
PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 10.2 Rotational Speed
KEY: speed  linear  rotational BLM: comprehension
56. ANS:
The work you do when lifting something may be stored as gravitational potential energy. Then the force times the distance is equal to the weight times the height. If the lifted object is released, this energy transforms to motion energy (or kinetic energy). The kinetic energy as it returns to its starting point equals the gravitational potential energy at its highest point, which in turn equals the work done on it in the first place.
PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 9.6 WorkEnergy Theorem
STA: C.910.F KEY: work  gravity BLM: analysis
57. ANS:
Speed is the rate at which an object covers distance. Velocity is speed in a direction. When you get in a car and travel on a highway at 90 km/hr that is your speed. If you are traveling south, then your velocity is 90 km/h S.
PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 4.3 Velocity KEY: speed  velocity
BLM: comprehension
58. ANS:
A vector is a quantity that has direction and magnitude; a scalar has only magnitude. Force, velocity, acceleration, and weight are all vectors. Mass, time, temperature, and speed are scalars.
PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 2.5 Vectors KEY: vector  scalar
BLM: comprehension
59. ANS:
According to Newton's third law, the force of collision will be the same on both the bug and the car, but will act in opposite directions. The time during which the force acts is the same for both, so the impulses on the bug and the car will be equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. This means that they will undergo equal and opposite changes in momentum. (It is important to stress that their momenta are not the same, but that they change by the same amount! The car loses as much momentum as the bug gains in the collision.) Because of the small mass of the bug, its acceleration will be very large. Because of the large mass of the car, its acceleration will be unnoticeable.
PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 8.2 Impulse Changes Momentum
KEY: force  impulse  momentum BLM: comprehension
60. ANS:
Mass generally refers to the quantity of matter in an object, whereas weight is the force due to gravity on an object. The mass of an object is the more basic quantity, for it is the same regardless of gravity. For example, a 1kg brick has a mass of 1 kg on Earth, 1 kg on the moon, and 1 kg in deep space. Its weight, however, is 10 N on Earth, 1.6 N on the moon, and 0 N in deep space.
PTS: 1 DIF: L1 OBJ: 3.5 MassA Measure of Inertia
KEY: mass  weight BLM: comprehension
61. ANS:
Newton's second law, a = F / m reminds us that the acceleration of an object depends on two things: the force that acts on it and the object's mass. The force that acts on a freely falling object is the force of gravity—its weight. It would seem that the greater the weight, the greater should be the acceleration of the fall. However, the mass of the object resists acceleration. This is inertia. The force of gravity is greater on the more massive object, but its inertia is correspondingly greater. This results in the same ratio of force to mass for the two falling objects. Hence their accelerations are the same.
PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 6.6 Free Fall Explained
KEY: acceleration  mass BLM: analysis
62. ANS:
When a cannon launches a cannonball, the force on the cannonball is the same as the force on the cannon. However, the mass of the cannonball is very much smaller than the mass of the cannon, and therefore the cannonball will accelerate faster and acquire more speed than the cannon. If the cannonball were just as massive as the cannon, both would accelerate the same amount and acquire the same speed, but would move in opposite directions.
PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 7.3 Identifying Action and Reaction
KEY: acceleration  Newton's third law BLM: application
PROBLEM
63. ANS:
7.2 N
PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 2.1 Force KEY: magnitude  force
BLM: application
64. ANS:
190 N
PTS: 1
65. ANS:
100 N
PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 3.5 MassA Measure of Inertia
KEY: weight  newtons BLM: application
66. ANS:
17.6 m/s
PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 4.2 Speed KEY: average  speed
BLM: application
67. ANS:
15.8 s
PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 4.7 Graphs of Motion
KEY: gravity  acceleration BLM: application
68. ANS:
560 m
PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 5.4 Projectile Motion
KEY: vector  resistance BLM: application
69. ANS:
12.0 m/s
PTS: 1 DIF: L3 OBJ: 5.6 Projectiles Launched at an Angle
KEY: projectile  speed BLM: application
70. ANS:
4 m/s^{2}
PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 6.7 Falling and Air Resistance
STA: C.910.D KEY: force  friction  acceleration BLM: application
71. ANS:
2.0 m/s^{2}
PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 6.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion
KEY: force  acceleration BLM: application
72. ANS:
2.3 m/s
PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 8.5 Collisions
KEY: speed  collision BLM: application
73. ANS:
2.9 m/s toward the right
PTS: 1 DIF: L2 OBJ: 8.5 Collisions
KEY: speed  direction BLM: application
74. ANS:
30.0 J
PTS: 1
75. ANS:
28.3 m/s
PTS: 1
76. ANS:
570 W
PTS: 1
77. ANS:
1.46 m/s
PTS: 1
78. ANS:
0.942 m/s
PTS: 1
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