Él "star", elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word

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Quettaparma Quenyanna

† = poetic or archaic word (e.g. †él "star", elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word (e.g. russë "corruscation, †swordblade"), * = unattested form, ** = wrong form, # = word that is only attested in a compound or in an inflected form (e.g. #apa, #Apanóna; see AFTER below), TLT = Tolkien's lifetime (by some called "Real Time", as opposed to:) MET = Middle-Earth Time (or rather Arda Time, since Quenya originated in the Blessed Realm), LotR = The Lord of the Rings (HarperCollinsPublishers, one-volume edition of 1991), Silm = The Silmarillion (HarperCollinsPublishers 1994), MC = The Monsters and the Critics and other Essays, MR = Morgoth's Ring, LR = The Lost Road, Etym = The Etymologies (in LR:347-400), FS = Fíriel's Song (in LR:72), RGEO = The Road Goes Ever On (Second Edition), WJ = The War of the Jewels, PM = The Peoples of Middle-earth, Letters = The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, LT1 = The Book of Lost Tales 1, LT2 = The Book of Lost Tales 2, Nam = Namárië (in LotR:398), Arct = "Arctic" sentence (in The Father Christmas Letters), GL = Gnomish Lexicon (in Parma Eldalamberon #11 - references are selective), QL = Qenya Lexicon (in Parma Eldalamberon #12 - references are again selective), VT = Vinyar Tengwar, vb = verb, adj = adjective, interj = interjection, pa.t. = past tense, fut = future tense, perf = perfect tense, freq = frequentative form, inf = infinitive, gen = genitive, pl = plural form, sg = singular form. The spelling used in this wordlist is regularized (c for k except in a few names, x for ks, long vowels marked with accents rather than macrons or circumflexes; the diaeresis is used as in LotR). When s in a word represents earlier Þ (th as in "thing") and it should be spelt with the letter súlë instead of silmë in Tengwar writing (though Tolkien himself sometimes ignored or forgot this), this is indicated by (Þ) immediately following the word in question (e.g. sanda, sanya-; see ABIDE, ABIDING below).

A, AN (indefinite article) - no Quenya equivalent. Elen "star" may thus also be translated "a star" (LotR:94). The absence of the definite article i "the" usually indicates that the noun is indefinite (though there are exceptions - see THE).

ABANDON hehta- (pa.t. hehtanë is given but seems perfectly regular) (put aside, leave out, exclude, forsake) -WJ:365

ABHOR feuya-; THE ABHORRED Sauron (Þ) -PHEW, Silm:418

ABIDE mar- (be settled of fixed) (fut. #maruva is attested: maruvan "I will abide"); ABIDE BY himya- (cleave to, stick to); ABIDING sanda (Þ) (firm, true); LAW-ABIDING sanya (Þ) (regular, normal) -UT:317/LotR:1003, KHIM, STAN

ABUNDANCE úvë; ABUNDANT úvëa (in a very great number), alya (rich, blessed, prosperous) -UB, GALA

ABYSS undumë -MC:222 cf. 215

ACCOUNT (noun) quentalë (history), lúmequenta (chronological account, history); HISTORICAL ACCOUNT quentasta (any particular arrangement, by some author, of a series of reconds or evidences into a given historical account - not History as such, which is quentalë) -KWET, LU, VT39:16

ACROSS arta (athwart) (Note: arta also means "fort, fortress") -LT2:335

ACT OF WILL nirmë -VT39:30

ACTOR tyaro (agent, doer) -KYAR

ACTUAL anwa (real, true) -ANA

ACUTE tereva (fine, piercing); ACUTE, ACUTENESS laicë (keen, sharp, *piercing) (It may be that laicë as an adjective "acute" is a misreading for laica. Cf. laica in LT2:337. If so, laicë = noun "acuteness" only.) -TER, LAIK

ADHERING himba (sticking) -KHIM

ADMIRAL ciryatur (only attested as the personal name Ciryatur of an admiral, but the word means *"ship-ruler") -UT:239

ADULT (adj) vëa (manly, vigorous); ADULT MAN vëaner; ADULT MALE nér (pl neri) (man) -WEG, DER

ADÛNAKHOR Herunúmen -UT:222, Silm:322

AEGNOR Aicanáro (so in Silm:435 and PM:345; MR:323 has Aicanár) (Sharp Flame, Fell Fire)

AFFECTIONATE méla (loving) (VT39:10)

AFTER #apa (only attested in compounds like Apanónar, see below), #ep- (used in compounds when the second part of the compound begins with a vowel, only attested in epessë "after-name" - see NICKNAME.) THE AFTER-BORN Apanónar (sg #Apanóna) (i.e., an Elvish name of Men, according to WJ:387 "a word of lore, not used in daily speech")

-Silm:122/WJ:387, UT:266

AGAIN ata; AGAIN (prefix) en-, (prefix) at-, ata- (back-, re-) (AT[AT])

AGE randa (cycle) -RAD

AGENT tyaro (actor, doer) -KAR

AGILE tyelca (swift) -KYELEK


AGONY qualmë (death), unqualë (death) -KWAL

AH (interj.) ai (alas) Ai! laurië lantar lassi Ah! golden fall the leaves (Nam)

AIR vista (= air as substance); lindë (tune, song, singing); vilya older [MET] wilya (sky); vilma (lower air) (perhaps changed to vista, but vilma was not struck out in Etym); PUFF OF AIR hwesta (breeze, breath); UPPER AIRS AND CLOUDS fanyarë (skies), AIRY vilin (breezy) -WIS, LIN, WIL/LT1:273, SWES/LotR:1157, MC:223, LT1:273

ALAS (interj.) ai (ah) (Etym also gives a word nai, but this clashes with nai "be it that" in Namárië.) -Nam/RGEO:66, NAY

ALIVE cuina; BEING ALIVE (noun not adj) cuilë (life) (LT1:257 gives coina, coirëa.) -KUY

ALL ilya (all of a particular group of things, the whole, each, every) (Note: ilya becomes ilyë before a plural noun: ilyë tier "all paths"); ALLNESS, THE ALL ilúvë (the whole), ALL THAT IS WANTED fárë (plenitude, sufficiency) -VT39:20, IL, Nam cf. RGEO:67, Silm:433/WJ:402, PHAR

ALLOW lav- (yield, grant); NOT ALLOW TO CONTINUE nuhta- (stunt, prevent from coming to completion, stop short) -DAB, WJ:413

ALONE er (one, alone, only, but, still), eressë (singly, only, also as noun: solitude) -ERE, LT1:269

ALPHABET tengwanda -TEK

ALSO yando -QL:104

ALTOGETHER aqua (fully, completely, wholly) -WJ:392

*AMANIAN (only translated "of Aman" by Tolkien) amanya. Cf. also Úmanyar, Úamanyar, Alamanyar "those not of Aman" (the Elves who started on the march from Cuiviénen but did not reach Aman; contrast the Avamanyar, another name of the Avari.) -WJ:411, 373, 370, MR:163

AMLOTH *Ambalotsë (Tolkien asterisked the word because it was not attested, only a possible Quenya form of Amloth. See "UPRISING-FLOWER".) -WJ:318

AMRAS Telufinwë (meaning "Last Finwë", not the equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name. The short form of his name was Telvo *"Last One". His mother-name [q.v.] was Ambarussa, but this name was not used in narrative.) -PM:353

AMROD Pityafinwë (meaning "Little Finwë", not the equivalent in sense to his Sindarin name. The short form of his name was Pityo *"Little One". His mother-name [q.v.] was Ambarto, or Umbarto, but these names were not used in narrative.) -PM:353

AN see A

ANCIENT yára (belonging to or descending from former times) -YA

AND ar (possibly a before f [and v?]: eldain a fírimoin "for elves and men" [FS], cf. a valmarion "and of those of Valmar" [from "Antatye Voronwi" by C. Gilson, Vinyar Tengwar #31 p. 10]) (In Sauron Defeated p. ii, o is translated "and", but LotR, Silm and Etym all agree that the Quenya word for "and" is ar.) AND YET a-nanta/ananta (but yet) -AR/Nam/FS, NDAN

ANGBAND Angamando (Iron-gaol) (so in MR:350 and Silm:428; Etym has Angamanda) -MR:350, Silm:428, MBAD

ANGELIC POWER Vala (pl. Valar or Vali, gen. pl. Valion is attested in Fíriel's Song); ANGELIC SPIRIT Ainu, f. Aini (holy one, god) -LotR:1157/BAL/FS, AYAN, LT1:248

ANGELN (island in the Danish peninsula) Eriollo -LT1:252

ANGROD Angaráto -Silm:428

ANIMAL #kelva (only pl. kelvar is attested, translated "animals, living things that move" in Silm appendix and WJ:341); laman (pl. lamni or lamani) ("usually only applied to four-footed beasts, and never to reptiles and birds"); MALE ANIMAL hanu (male) -Silm:52/53,/405:3AN, WJ:416

ANYBODY - if anybody: aiquen (whoever) -WJ:372

APRIL Víressë -LotR:1144/1146

AR-ADÛNAKHOR Tar-Herunúmen -UT:222, Silm:322

AR-BELZAGAR Tar-Calmacil -UT:222

AR-GIMILZÔR Tar-Telemnar -UT:223

AR-INZILADÛN Tar-Palantir -UT:223, Silm:324

AR-PHARAZÔN Tar-Calion -UT:224, Silm:324

AR-SAKALTHÔR Tar-Falassion -UT:223

AR-ZIMRAPHEL Tar-Míriel -UT:224, Silm:324

AR-ZIMRATHÔN Tar-Hostamir -UT:222

ARCTURUS (a star) Morwinyon (said to mean "the glint at dusk" or "glint in the dark") -LT1:260

ARE see BE

ARGON Aracáno -PM:345

ARM ranco (pl ranqui) (LT2:335 gives [there spelt ], but this word is certainly obsolete: In Etym, is glossed "lion".) -RAK

ARMY hossë (band, troop) -LT2:340

ARNOR Arnanor, Arnanórë ("royal land") -Letters:428

ARROW pilin (pl pilindi) -PÍLIM

ART Carmë (making, production) -UT:396

ARTIFICIAL CAVE hróta (dwelling underground, rockhewn hall) -PM:365

AS (prep) ve (like) -Nam/RGEO:66, 67

ASCENT rosta, ASCENSION orosta -LT1:267, 256

ASGARD Valinor, Valinórë (Tolkien actually uses this gloss of Valinor, as Asgard is the City of the Gods in Norse mythology) -LT1:272

ASIDE - stand aside! heca! - also with pronominal affixes: sg hecat, pl hecal "you stay aside!" (be gone!) LEAVING ASIDE hequa (not counting, excluding, except) -WJ:364, 365

*ASK #maquet- (only pa.t. maquentë is attested. The word is not translated, but undoubtedly means "asked": 'Mana i·coimas in·Eldaron?' maquentë Elendil [PM:403]. The question itself is translated "What is the coimas of the Eldar?", so the rest must be "Elendil asked". Furthermore, maquentë is transparently quentë "said" with the interrogative element ma [PM:357] prefixed.) ASK FOR - see DEMAND.


ASSEMBLE hosta- (gather, collect) -MC:223

ASSOCIATE otorno (sworn brother) osellë (Þ) (sworn sister) -TOR, THEL

ASTRONOMER meneldil -Letters:386

ATHWART arta (across) (Note: arta also means "fort, fortress"); GO ATHWART tara- (cross) -LT2:335, 347

AUGER teret (gimlet) -LT1:255

AUGUST Urimë (so in LotR; UT has Úrimë) -LotR:1144, UT:302/470

AUTHORITY Máhan (pl Máhani is given, but seems perfectly regular). Tolkien once stated that Valar should strictly be translated "the Authorities" (MR:350), but Vala obviously cannot be used to translate "authority" in general; it was used only of the Valar themselves (WJ:404). Cf. also adj. valya "having (divine) authority or power". Máhani was adopted from Valarin and originally probably referred to the Valar themselves. We are not told whether Máhan could or should be applied to a non-divine authority (at least it should not be capitalized if so used). Note: Máhan means *"Supreme One" rather than "authority" as an abstract. -MR:350, BAL, WJ:399/402

AUTUMN yávië (harvest - in the Calendar of Imladris, yávië was a precisely defined period of 54 days, but the word was also used without any exact definition), lasselanta ("leaf-fall", used of the beginning of winter or as a synonym of quellë; see FADING. Also spelt lasse-lanta with a hyphen), narquelion ("fire-fading" - this word from Fíriel's Song and Etym seems to correspond to narquelië in LotR, but the latter is the name of the month corresponding to our October.) LT1:273 has yávan "autumn, harvest", but this word may be obsoleted by yávië. -LotR:1142, 1144, 1145/Silm:439/LT1:254, DAT, FS, NAR/KWAL, Letters:382

AVENUE OF TREES aldëon -LT1:249

AWAKE coiva- (so in LT1:257; read *cuiva- in Tolkien's later Quenya? Cf. the following:) AWAKENING (noun) cuivië (obsoleting coivië in LT1:257), cuivë; AWAKENING (adj) cuivëa -KUY/Silm:429

AWAY oa, oar (viewed from the point of view of the thing, person, or place left). Oar is used of movement only, as in "I went away". See also GO AWAY. -WJ:366 cf. 361, VT39:6.

AWNING teltassë -GL:70

AXE pelecco -LT2:346

BABE lapsë -LAP

BACK - LT2:338 mentions a Gnomish word alm, said to mean "the broad of the back from shoulder to shoulder, back, shoulders". It is stated that the "Qenya" cognate of this Gnomish word occurs in the name Aikaldamor - i.e., #aldamo or #aldamor? But this is hardly a valid word in LotR-style Quenya.

BACK- (prefix) at-, ata- (re-, again-); THOSE WHO GO BACK Nandor (Elves that left the March from Cuiviénen) -AT(AT), WJ:384

BACKWARDS nan- (prefix?) -NDAN

BAD - Gnomish fêg is so glossed in GL:34, and this is equated with Q faica, glossed "contemptible, mean" under SPAY.

BAKE masta- -MBAS

BALE OUT calpa- (draw water, scoop out) -KALPA

BALL coron (stem #corn-, as in dat.sg. cornen) (globe) -KOR

BALROG Valarauko (pl. Valaraukar) (so in the Silmarillion - in Etym the Quenya form of Sindarin balrog is malarauco, while LT1:250 gives Malcaraucë) -Silm:35/425/439, RUK

BAND nossë (army, troop) -LT2:340

BANK (esp. of river) ráva -RAMBÁ

BARK - Tolkien originally thought that parma "book" really meant "skin, bark; parchment", with "book, writings" as the secondary meaning. But in Etym parma is derived from a stem meaning "compose, put together", obsoleting the old etymology. -LT2:346, contrast PAR

BASE sundo (root, root-word) (pl. #sundar, isolated from Tarmasundar in UT:166), talan (talam-) (floor, ground), talma (foundation, root); BASE-STRUCTURE sundocarmë -SUD, WJ:319, TALAM, TAL, LT:343

BATTER palpa- (beat) -PALAP

BAY (small and landlocked) hópa (haven, harbour) -KHOP

BE The only forms of the verb "to be" in the published corpus are "is" , nar "are", and nai "be it that" (mistranslated "maybe" in LotR). The word ëa is variously translated "is", "exists", "it is", "let it be". Fíriel's Song contains a word ye "is", but ye may be obsolete in LotR-style Quenya. For "was", some writers have used , pl. ("were") ner. Cf. also uin and umin "I do not, am not" (1st pers. aorist), pa.t. úmë. -Nam/RGEO:67, An Introduction to Elvish:5, Silm:21/391, FS, UGU/UMU

BE GONE! heca! - also with pronominal affixes: sg hecat, pl hecal "you be gone!" (stand aside!) -WJ:364

BEACH falas (falass-), falassë (shore, line of surf), falas, hresta (ablative hrestallo is attested) -LT1:253, Silm:431, PHAL/LT2:339, MC:221/222/223

BEAR (vb) #col- (verb stem isolated from #colindo "bearer". Cf. mel- "to love", melindo "lover". #Col- can also be translated *"wear" [of clothes], cf. the past participle colla "borne, worn".) BEAR FRUIT yavin (which must mean *"I bear fruit", stem #yav-. Tolkien often employs the 1st person aorist when mentioning a verb in his wordlists.) -LotR:989, cf. Letters:308 and MEL, MR:385, LT1:273

BEAR (noun) morco -MORÓK

BEARD fanga (obsoleting vanga in GL:21; GL:34 has fangë "long beard", while GL:63 gives poa. Use fanga.) -SPÁNAG

BEARER #colindo (only attested in the pl compound cormacolindor "Ring-bearers")

-LotR:989, cf. Letters:308

BEAT palpa- (batter) -PALAP

BEAUTIFUL vanya (Note: a homophone means "disappear"), linda, calwa, vanima (nominal pl vanimar "beautiful ones" and partitive plural genitive vanimálion are attested) (fair, proper, right). According to MR:49, Maiar means "the Beautiful", but in Quenya this is the name of an order of spirits and cannot be used as a general adjective. BEAUTY vanessë, WITHOUT BEAUTY úvanë, adj. úvanëa -BAN, SLIN, LT1:254, LotR:1017 cf. Letters:308, LT1:272, MR:49, VT39:14

BED caima; BEDCHAMBER caimasan (Þ) (pl. caimasambi); BEDRIDDEN caimassë, caimassëa (sick); LYING IN BED (noun) caila (sickness) -KAY, STAB

BEE nier (honey-bee), nion -GL:60

BEECH feren, fernë (pl. ferni in both cases) (LT2:343 gives neldor "beech", but this early word may be obsolete in LotR-style Quenya.) -PHER


BEGET nosta- (also glossed "give birth"), onta- (pa.t. ónë or ontanë); BEGETTER #nostar (see note), ontaro (m.), ontarë (f.) (parent). (In LotR, the form nostari "begetters, parents" occurs; sg #nostar. Nostari was changed from ontari in Tolkien's first draft [see SD:73], so he may have scrapped ontaro, ontarë in favour of #nostar [or m. *nostaro, f. *nostarë???] Did he also reject the verb onta- in favour of nosta-?) -SD:73, ONO, LotR:1017 cf. Letters:308

BEGINNING *yessë (Corrected from the actual reading esse, derived from a stem that was marked with a query by Tolkien because esse also = name. Evidence from LotR indicates that he decided to change the stem in question from ESE to *YESE, thus eliminating this homophony: In LotR:1142 we find yestarë, apparently meaning *"first-day" - it is not translated, but it was the name of the first day of the year and means "day". In Etym [stem ESE] the word for "first" was esta. So for esta "first", esse "beginning" and essea "?primary" [gloss illegible], we should evidently read *yesta, *yessë and yessëa.) -ESE/ESET


BEHOLD cen- (see) (future tense cenuva is attested) -MC:222

BEING ëala (spirit).Pl. ëalar is attested. Eälar are spirits whose natural state it is to exist without a physical body, e.g. Balrogs. -MR:165

BEING ALIVE (noun) cuilë -KUY

BELEGOST Túrosto (Mickleburg) -WJ:389

BELERIAND Hecelmar, Heceldamar (lit. *"home of the Eglath", q.v.) This is said to be the name for Beleriand used "in the language of the loremasters of Aman". The cognate of Sindarin "Beleriand" is #Valariandë; only the form Valarianden is attested (a genitive formation from an earlier "Qenya" variant; in LotR-style Quenya it would be a dative). The latter may be the name used in Exilic Quenya. Beleriand was also called Ingolondë "Land of the Gnomes [Noldor]". -WJ:365, LR:202, ÑGOLOD

BELL nyellë -NYEL

BELLIED #cumba (isolated from sauricumba "foulbellied"). This adjective may point to *cumbo or something similar as the likely word for "belly". -SD:68, 72

BELOVED melda (dear). Cf. nessamelda, *"beloved of Nessa", a flagrant evergreen tree brought to Númenor by the Eldar. -MEL, UT:456

BELZAGAR Calmacil -UT:222

BEND #cúna- (derived from the adj. cúna "bent"; see MC:223. In menel acúna "the heavens bending" the word is used intransitively.) -MC:222/223 cf. 215

BENEATH undu (down, under) -UNU

BENT cúna (curved; cúna is also used as a verbal stem, see BEND), raica (crooked, wrong), cauca (crooked, humped), sara (Þ) (stiff dry grass) -MC:223, RAYAK, LT1:257, STAR

BERRY piucca -GL:64 (glossed "blackberry" in LT2:347)

BESIDE ara, also ar- as prefix. -AR

BETWEEN imbë -Nam/RGEO:67

BEYOND pella (a postposition in Quenya: Andúnë pella "beyond the West", elenillor pella "from beyond the stars") -Nam, MC:222

BIER tulma -LT1:270

BIND (see TIE); in more abstract sense: avalerya- (make fast, restrain, deprive of liberty) -VT41:5, 6


BIPED #attalya (Only pl Attalyar is attested. The word was used of the Petty-dwarves, q.v.) -WJ:389

BIRD aiwë, filit (pl filici) (Note: both aiwë and filit are stated to mean "small bird", not "bird" in general), ambalë, ammalë (= yellow bird), lindo (= "singer", singing bird). LT1:273 also has wilin; this may or may not be a valid word in LotR-style Quenya. -AIWÊ, PHILIK, SMAL, LIN

BIRTH, BIRTHDAY nosta; GIVE BIRTH nosta- (but in later sources, nosta- is glossed "beget", q.v.) -LT1:272

BITE (vb) nac- BITE (noun) nahta -NAK


BLACK morë (in compounds mori-, e.g. Moriquendi), morna, morqua; BLACKNESS mórë (night); BLACKHANDED morimaitë, BLACKBERRY piucca (only "berry" in GL:64); BLACK FOE Moringotto (the oldest [MET] form was Moriñgotho) (Morgoth) -MOR, LT1:260, LotR:1015/SD:68, 72, LT2:347, MR:194

BLADE hyanda (share), (sword blade:)russë (corruscation) -LT2:342, RUS

BLAZE urya- (The stem this word is derived from was struck out in Etym. However, several words that must be derived from the same stem occur in LotR, indicating that Tolkien restored it.) BLAZING HOT úrin (Úrin also being a name of the Sun) -UR, LT1:271

BLEND (noun) ostimë (pl. ostimi is attested). This term refers to a kind of "strengthened" elements within a stem, where a single sound has been expanded into two different elements while maintaining a unitary effect and significance; souch as s- being turned ito st-, or m being strengthened to mb. However, this may be the meaning of the word in linguistic terminology only; it may be permissible to use it for "blend" in more general senses as well. -VT39:9

BLESS laita- (praise) (Imperative a laita and fut #laituva are attested, the latter with pronominal endings: laituvalmet, "we shall praise [or bless] them".) BLESSED alya, almárëa (prosperous, rich, abundant), herenya (wealthy, fortunate, rich), aman ("blessed, free from evil" - Aman was "chiefly used as the name of the land where the Valar dwelt." [WJ:399]). BLESSED BEING Manwë (the King of the Valar); BLESSEDNESS vald- (so in LT1:272; nom. sg. must be either *val or *valdë) (happiness), "BLESSINGS", BLESSEDNESS, BLISS almië, almarë; FINAL BLISS manar, mandë (doom, final end, fate, fortune) -LotR:989 cf Letters:308; GAL, KHER, Letters:283, LT1:272, MAN/MANAD

BLIGHT yaru (gloom) -GL:37

BLINK tihta- (peer) -MC:223

BLOCK tápë (3 pers sg aorist), pa.t. tampë -TAP

BLOOD sercë (so according to Silm appendix; Etym has yár [yar-]) -Silm:437, YAR

BLOSSOM (white) lossë, ("of flowers in bunches or clusters":) *lohtë (corrected from the actual reading loktë because Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya.) -LOT, LT1:258


BLUE luin, #luinë (pl. luini in Nam; Etym and LT1:262 have lúnë), ninwa, ulban (adopted from Valarin; only used in Vanyarin Quenya), PALE BLUE helwa -Nam/LT2:340, LT1:262, LUG, WJ:399, 3EL

BOAT luntë; SMALL BOAT venë (vessel, dish) -LUT, LT1:254

BODY hroa (pl. hroar is attested. In MR:330, Tolkien notes that hroa is "roughly but not exactly equivalent to 'body'" [as opposed to "soul"]. Hroa is also used = "physical matter"), DEAD BODY loico (corpse); BODILY sarcuva (corporeal); BODY-IMPULSE hroafelmë (impulses provided by the body, e.g. physical fear, hunger, thirst, sexual desire) -MR:216, 219; VT39:30, MC:223, LT2:347, VT41:19 cf. 13

BOLD verya, canya BOLDNESS verië -BER, KAN

BOLSTER nirwa (cushion) -NID

BOND nútë (knot), vérë (troth, compact, oath) Pl. probably *vérer, *núter not *véri, *núti; cf. the similar formation tyávë "taste", pl tyáver. -NUT, WED

BONE axo (pl axor is attested) -MC:222, 223

BOOK parma (writings); BOOK LANGUAGE (=Quenya) parmalambë -PAR/UT:219, 460, LT2:346

BORDER réna (edge, margin); ríma (edge, hem) -REG, Rî

BORN #nóna (isolated from Apanónar, the "Afterborn") -Silm:122/381

BORNE colla (pa.p. of col- "bear") (worn). Also used as a noun = "vestment, cloak". -MR:385

BOSOM palúrë (surface, bosom of earth), súma (hollow cavity) -PAL, MC:223

BOSS OF SHIELD tolmen (isolated round hill) -LT1:269

BOTH yúyo -YÛ

BOUND nauta (obliged) -NUT

BOW (vb) cawin ("I bow", 1st pers. aorist); BOW (noun) quinga, (also = crescent Moon), lúva, cúnë (crescent); RAINBOW helyanwë ("sky-bridge"), Ilweran, Ilweranta (LT2:348 has iluquinga "sky-bow", but this word was obsoleted when Tolkien changed the meaning of ilu from "sky" to "universe".) BOWLEGGED quingatelco (So it is translated, but this must really be a noun: "bow-leg" [quinga + telco]. No Quenya adjectives end in -o, unless this is the only one. Read *quingatelca for "bow-legged"? Cf. one of the other words from the same source, sincahonda, changed from sincahondo in an earlier draft - but at that time Tolkien had already omitted quingatelco and hence did not change its ending: See SD:72.) -LT1:257, SD 68, 72, KWIG, KU3, LT1:256, LotR:1154, LT1:271

BOWL fion (goblet), #salpë (isolated from tanyasalpë "Bowl of Fire") -LT1:253, 292


BRAND yulma (Note: a homophone means "cup".) -YUL cf. Nam

BREAD masta; LIFE-BREAD (= lembas) coimas (prob. *coimast-, cf. masta "bread") -MBAS, Silm:406/429

BREAK (vb) rac- (past participle rácina "broken" is attested); BREAK APART terhat- (pa.t. terhantë); BREAK ASUNDER hat- (pa.t. hantë) -MC:223, SKAT

BREATH (noun) hwesta (breeze, puff of air), súlë (Þ) (spirit) (earlier [MET] form thúlë = Þúlë ; BREATHE (vb) súya- (Þ); BREATHER Súlimo (Þ) (a title of Manwë; this is the literal meaning according to Silm:420); BREATH FORTH see EXPIRE. -SWES, THÛ/LotR:1157

BREEZE hwesta (breath, puff of air), GENTLE BREEZE vílë; BREEZY vilin (airy) -SWES, LotR:1157, LT1:273

BRIDE indis (wife) (This word may obsolete akairis in LT1:252) -NDIS/UT:8


BRIDGE yanwë (joining, isthmus), yanta (yoke) -YAT, LotR:1157

BRILLIANCE alcar, alcarë (splendour, radiance), calassë (clarity); BRILLIANT alcarinqua (glorious) -AKLA-R-/RGEO:73/UT:317/WJ:369/Silm:427, GL:39

BROAD - LT2:338 gives a word aica "broad, vast", but this is probably obsoleted by aica "sharp, fell, terrible, dire" in later writings.

BROAD SWORD lango (also = prow of ship), BROAD-BLADED SWORD ecet (short stabbing sword) -LAG, UT:284/432

BROKEN rácina -MC:223

BROOCH tancil (pin) -TAK

BROOD luvu- (lower) -LT1:259

BROOK nellë (GL:46 has wentë) -NEN

BROTHER toron (pl. torni) (= natural brother); otorno sworn brother, associate BROTHERHOOD onóro (of bloodkinship), otornassë (the latter is evidently the "brotherhood" of otornor, sworn brothers) -TOR, NÔ

BROWN varnë (swart, dark brown) (in compounds varni-) -BARÁN

BUD tuima (sprout); BUDDING see SPRING-TIME. -TUY, LT1:269

BUFFET taran, tarambo -LT2:337

BUILD carin ("I make, build", 1st pers. aorist - according to FS and SD:246 the past tense is cárë, but Etym has carnë; writers should probably use the latter (not to be confused with the adjective carnë "red". Past participle #carna *"built, made" is attested in Vincarna *"newly-made" in MR:305.) BUILDING car (card-) (house), ampano (= especially building of wood, wooden hall), ataquë (construction); BUILDER samno (Þ) (carpenter, wright) -KAR, PAN, TAK, STAB

BULL tarucco, tarunco -LT2:347

BUNCHES (of flowers) see BLOSSOM.

BURDEN cólo (VT39:10)

BURDENSOME lumna (lying heavy, oppressive, ominous) -DUB

BURLY polda (strong) -POL

BURN usta- (transitive, e.g. *Fëanáro ustanë i ciryar "Fëanor burnt the ships"), urya- (intransitive, e.g. *i ciryar uryaner "the ships were burning") -LT1:271

BUSH tussa -TUS

BUT nan (so in Namárië and Fíriel's Song; Etym has , nán. clashes with "is"); er (only, one, alone, but, still); BUT YET a-nanta, ananta (and yet) -NDAN, LT1:269, Nam/FS

BUTTERFLY wilwarin (wilwarind-) -WIL/MC:222, 223/LT1:273

BUTTOCKS hacca (hams) -GL:47

-BY-mas (final element in place-names, see -TON) -LT1:250

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