Él "star", elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word



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Quettaparma Quenyallo

† = poetic or archaic word (e.g. †él "star", elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word (e.g. russë "corruscation, †swordblade"), * = unattested form, ** = wrong form, # = word that is only attested in a compound or as an inflected form (e.g. #ahya-), LotR = The Lord of the Rings, Silm = The Silmarillion , MC = The Monsters and the Critics and other Essays, MR = Morgoth's Ring, LR = The Lost Road, Etym = The Etymologies (in LR:347-400), FS = Fíriel's Song (in LR:72), RGEO = The Road Goes Ever On (Second Edition), WJ = The War of the Jewels, PM = The Peoples of Middle-earth, Letters = The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, LT1 = The Book of Lost Tales 1, LT2 = The Book of Lost Tales 2, Nam = Namárië (in LotR:398), CO = Cirion's Oath and its commentary in UT:305, 317, Arct = "Arctic" sentence (in The Father Christmas Letters), Markirya = the Markirya Poem and its commentary in MC:221-223; GL = Gnomish Lexicon (in Parma Eldalamberon #11), QL = Qenya Lexicon (in Parma Eldalamberon #12), vb = verb, adj = adjective, interj = interjection, pa.t. = past tense, fut = future tense, perf = perfect tense, freq = frequentative form, inf = infinitive, gen = genitive, pl = plural form, sg = singular form. The spelling used in this wordlist is regularized (c for k except in a few names, x for ks, long vowels marked with accents rather than macrons or circumflexes; the diaeresis is used as in most of LotR). The spelling used in the source is usually indicated; for instance, ("k") following a word indicates that the word is spelt with a k instead of a c in Tolkien's text. When s in a word represents earlier Þ (th as in "thing") and it should be spelt with the letter súlë instead of silmë in Tengwar writing (though Tolkien himself sometimes ignored or forgot this), this is indicated by (Þ) immediately following the word in question (see for instance asëa aranion). When n in a word represents earlier ñ (ng as in "thing") and should be spelt with the letter noldo rather than númen in Tengwar writing, this is indicated by (ñ) immediately following the word in question (see for instance Noldomar). When the word is actually spelt with ñ instead of n in the source, this is indicated by ("ñ") immediately following the word in question (see for instance nandë #2).




a (1) vocative particle "O" in a vanimar "O beautiful ones" (LotR3:VI ch. 6, translated in Letters:308)

a (2) "and", a variant of ar occurring in Fíriel's Song (that also has ar; a seems to be used before words in f-, but it is not known whether this idea is valid in LotR-style Quenya)

a (3), also á, imperative particle: a laita, laita te! "[o] bless them, bless them!", á vala Manwë! "may Manwë order it!", literally *"o rule Manwë!" (see laita, vala for reference)

a- (1) prefix occurring in the word Atalante, said to denote "complete". Probably just a prefixed stemvowel; cf. ANÁR, said to be derived from NAR. (TALÁT)

a- (2) a prefix occurring in the Markirya poem (Tolkien first used na-, then changed it). It may be prefixed to verbal stems following a noun that is the object of sense-verbs like "see" and "hear" when the verb it is prefixed to describes what happens to this noun, as in man cenuva lumbor ahosta[?] (changed from na-hosta), "who shall see the clouds gather?" (hosta = "gather").

acca ("k") "too" (= excessively, as in "too big") -PE13:108

Acairis ("k") fem. name, "bride" (LT1:252; in Tolkien's later Quenya, "bride" is indis)

acúna ("k") see cúna

Ae (Quenya?) "day" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK - ae was written over ar [# 2] in the names of the Valinorean week, but ar was not struck out.)

aha "rage", also name of tengwa 11, earlier called harma (Appendix E)

ahosta see hosta

#ahya- "change", only attested in the past tense: ahyanë (PM:395)



ai! interjection "Ah!", "Alas!" (Nam, RGEO:66; also twice in Narqelion, untranslated.)

aica (1) ("k") "sharp" (AYAK) or "fell,
terrible, dire" (PM:347; according to PM:363 seldom applied to evil things). In Aicanáro, q.v.

aica (2) ("k") "broad, vast" (LT2:338 - this early "Qenya" form is probably obsoleted by # 1 above)

aicalë ("k") "a peak" (AYAK)

Aicanáro ("k") "Sharp Flame, Fell Fire", masc. name; Sindarized as Aegnor. (So in SA:nár and PM:345; MR:323 has Aicanár. VT41:14, 19 instead gives Ecyanáro as the Q form of Aegnor.)

aicassë ("k") (1) "mountain peak" (AYAK)

aicassë ("k") (2) "pinetree" (GL:17; this "Qenya" word is evidently obsoleted by # 1 above.)

ailin ("g.sg. ailinen", in Tolkien's later Quenya dat.sg.) "pool, lake" (AY, LIN1, LT2:339)

#ailinë (nominative uncertain) a "Qenya" word for "shore, beach" (in Tolkien's later Quenya rather hresta). Only attested in inflected forms: sg. ablative ailinello "shore-from" (MC:213), sg. locative ailinisse "on shore" (MC:221), pl. locative ailissen "on beaches" (for *ailinissen?) (MC:221)



ailo "lake, pool" (LT2:339; Tolkien's later Quenya has ailin)

aimenal, aimenel - see lirulin

aina "holy" (AYAN), derived from Ainu. Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399, FS, SA)

Aini feminine form of Ainu (AYAN, LT1:248); see Ainu.

Ainu "holy one, angelic spirit"; fem. Aini (AYAN, LT1:248); "one of the 'order' of the Valar and Maiar, made before Eä"; pl. Ainur attested. Adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:399). In the early "Qenya lexicon", ainu was glossed "a pagan god", and aini was similarly "a pagan goddess", but as Christopher Tolkien notes, "Of course no one within the context of the mythology can call the Ainur 'pagan' " (LT1:248). Ainulindalë "Music of the Ainur" (SA:lin #2), the First History (WJ:406), the Song of Creation (AYAN)

aipio "plum tree, cherry tree" (GL:18)

aiqua ("q") "steep" (AYAK)

aiqualin ("q") "tall", plural form (???) (MC:216; this is "Qenya" - but cf. aiqua above.)

aiquen "if anybody, whoever" (WJ:372)

aira (1) "red, copper-coloured, ruddy" (GAY)

aira (2) "old" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

[aira (3) "eternal" (EY)]



airë (1) "holy", airetári or Airë Tári "holy queen" (a title of Varda, PM:363), genitive aire-tário "holy-queen's" (Nam, RGEO:67 - but according to PM:363, airë is the noun "sanctity", while aira is the adjective "holy")

airë (2) "sea" (dat.sg. airen given) (AYAR/AIR)

[airë (3) "eternity" (EY)]



aista- "to dread" (GÁYAS)

aiwë "(small) bird" (AIWÊ, SA:lin #1); Aiwendil "Lover of Birds" (UT:401)

Aiwenor, Aiwenorë (read *Aiwenórë?) "Birdland" = lower air (AIWÊ)

aiya "hail", as greeting (LotR2:IV ch. 9, see Letters:385 for translation)

'al- "thrive" (GALA; the ' simply indicates that the original initial G has disappeared and needs not normally be included.)

ala "after, beyond" (MC:221, 214; however, LotR-style Quenya has pella "beyond" and evidently #apa "after")

ala- negative prefix "not", "un-", reduced to al- before a vowel (VT42:33, GALA). In alahasta, Alamanyar, alasaila.

alahasta "unmarred" (MR:254)

alasaila "unwise" (VT41:13, 18; VT42:33)

alalmë "elm, elm-tree" (ÁLAM, LÁLAM, LT1:249)

alalmino "Elm"-something? (Narqelion)

#Alamanya pl. Alamanyar, name of the Elves who started on the march from Cuiviénen but did not reach Aman; = Úmanyar (MR:163)



alarca ("k") swift, rapid" (LAK2)

alassë "joy, merriment" (GALÁS)

alas (alast-) "marble" (QL:30, GL:39).

alat- *"large, great in size" (root meaning) (ÁLAT). In Alatairë.

Alatairë "Great Sea", name of Western Ocean between Beleriand and Valinor, called Belegaer in Sindarin (ÁLAT, AYAR/AIR)

alca ("k") "ray of light" (AKLA-R)

alcantaméren ("k") "made it shine" (with a fem.pl. subject; the ending -ren probably means "they" of women, but the ending does not have to be translated here) (MC:216; this is "Qenya")

alcar (so spelt in CO, otherwise "alkar") "glory, radiance, brilliance, splendour" (WJ:369, CO, AKLA-R; the latter source also lists an alternative longer form alcarë)

Alcarin "the Glorious", title taken by Atanatar II of Gondor, also name of one of the Kings of Númenor (Appendix A). Is this to be taken as a shorter form of alcarinqua, q.v.?

alcarinqua "radiant, glorious" (AKLA-R [there spelt "alkarinqa"], WJ:412); noun Alcarinquë, "The Glorious", name of a star/planet (SA:aglar - there spelt "Alkarinquë", but the Silmarillion Index has "Alcarinquë". The celestial body in question seems to be Jupiter, MR:435). Cf. also Alcarin, q.v.

alcarain ("k") "shining" (pl - sg *alcara?) (MC:221; this is "Qenya")

alcarissen ("k") "in light-rays" (a "Qenya" form from MC:221; alcar means "glory" in Tolkien's later Quenya)

alda "tree" (GALAD, GÁLAD, SA, Nam, RGEO:66, LR:41, SD:302, LT1:249, LT2:340, VT39:7), also name of tengwa 28 (Appendix E). Pl. aldar in Narqelion; gen. pl. aldaron "of trees" in Namárië. Etymology of alda, see Letters:426 and UT:266-7. The latter source states that primitive *galadâ, whence Quenya alda, originally applied to stouter and more spreading trees such as oaks or beeches, while straighter and more slender trees such as birches were called *ornê, Quenya ornë - but this distinction was not always observed in Quenya, and it seems that alda became the general word. Place-name Aldalómë *"Tree-night" or *"Tree-twilight" (LotR2:III ch. 4); Aldarion masc. name, *"Son of (the) Trees" (Appendix A). Aldaron a name of Oromë (Silm). Aldúya fourth day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Trees (Appendix D). The word seems to include *Aldu, a dual form referring to the Two Trees. The Númenóreans altered the name to Aldëa (presumably < *aldajâ), referring to one tree (the White) only. The dual Aldu seems to occur also in Aldudénië "Lament for the Two Trees" (a strange word, since Quenya does not permit intervocalic d as in this word - perhaps the Vanyarin dialect of Quenya did) (Silm)

Aldalemnar "week of the Trees, Midyear week" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK (GÁLAD, YEN) )

Aldaron a name of Oromë (GÁLAD)

aldarwa "having trees, tree-grown" (3AR). See -arwa.

Aldëa, what the Númenóreans called the fourth day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to Telperion, the White Tree (Appendix D). The day was originally called Aldúya, referring to both of the Two Trees, but Númenóreans altered the name to Aldëa (presumably < *aldajâ), referring to one tree (the White) only. (Appendix D) –Early "Qenya" also has an adjective aldëa "tree-shadowed" (LT1:249).

aldëon "avenue of trees" (LT1:249)

alma "good fortune, weal, wealth" (GALA [ALAM])

almarë "blessedness, 'blessings', good fortune, bliss" (GALA)

almárëa "blessed" (GALA)

Almaren the first abode of the Valar in Arda, apparently related to almarë "blessedness" (Silm, LR:357)

Almáriel (fem. name) (GALA)

almië "blessedness, 'blessings', good fortune, bliss" (GALA)

alqua "swan" (ÁLAK [there spelt alqa, as in LT1:249/LT2:335], SA:alqua, UT:265). The alternative form alquë ("q") mentioned in early material (LT1:249) may or may not be valid in LotR-style Quenya.

Alqualondë "Swan-road, Swan-haven", capital of the Teleri (ÁLAK, LOD, KHOP [there spelt Alqalonde], Silm).

Alquarámë ("q") "Swan-wing" (LT2:335)

alta *"large, great in size" (root meaning) (ÁLAT). Alat- in Alatairë, q.v.

Altáriel "Galadriel", "maiden crowned with a radiant garland" (SA:kal; Alatáriel is Telerin)

alya "prosperous, rich, abundant, blessed" (GALA), "rich" [ÁLAM]

am- (prefix) "up" (AM2)

ama not glossed, evidently meaning "up" like the prefix am- (UNU)

amaldar ??? (Narqelion; may include aldar "trees")

aman "blessed, free from evil". Adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399) Place-name Aman the Blessed Realm, from the stem mân- "good, blessed, unmarred" (SA:mân). Adj. amanya "of Aman, *Amanian" (WJ:411), nominal pl. Amanyar "those of Aman", Elves dwelling there (with negations Úamanyar, Alamanyar "those not of Aman"). Also fuller Amaneldi *"Aman-elves" (WJ:373). Masc. name Amandil *"Aman-friend" (Appendix A, SA:mân)

amandi pl. of óman, q.v. (amandi is evidently a misreading for *omandi) (OM)

Amarië (fem. name; perhaps derived from mára "good") (Silm)

amarto "Fate" (also ambar) (LT2:348; in LotR-style Quenya rather umbar, umbart-)

amatixë ("ks") (dot or point placed above the line of writing) (TIK)

amaurëa "dawn, early day" (Markirya)



amba "up, upwards" (adv.) (AM2 (UNU) )

ambal "shaped stone, flag" (MBAL)

Ambalar "East" (MC:221; this is "Qenya")

ambalë "yellow bird, 'yellow hammer' " (SMAL)

*ambalotsë "uprising-flower", referring to "the flower or floreate device used as a crest fixed to point of a tall [illegible word: ?archaic] helmet". Strangely, the word is asterisked as unattested (WJ:319)



amban "upward slope, hill-side" AM2)

ambapenda "uphill" (adj.) (AM2)

ambar (1) ("a-mbar") (also longer form ambaron, unless this is the dative singular), "oikumenê [Greek: the earth as the human habitation], Earth, world" (MBAR). Ambar-metta "the end of the world" (EO)

ambar (2) "doom" (variant of umbar?) in Turambar (SA:amarth); instrumental ambartanen "by doom" (Silm ch. 21, UT:138). The early "Qenya" lexicon has ambar "Fate", also amarto (LT2:348)

ambar (3) "in bosom" (locative -r), nominative "bosom" presumably *amba (MC:213; this is "Qenya")

Ambarenya, Ambarendya "Middle-earth" (but the more usual word is Endor, Endórë) (MBAR)

ambaron (ambarón- as in "g.sg. ambarónen", in LotR-style Quenya this is a dative singular) "uprising, sunrise, Orient" (AM2). The longer form Ambarónë should be preferred, since ambaron is also the dat.sg. of ambar # 1.

Ambaróna place-name; presumably a variant of Ambarónë "uprising, sunrise, Orient" (LotR2:III ch. 4; compare the Etymologies, entry AM2)

Ambarónë "uprising, sunrise, Orient" (AM2)

Ambarto *"upwards-exalted", mother-name (never used in narrative) of Pityafinwë = Amrod (PM:353, 354)

Ambarussa "top-russet", alternation of Umbarto, mother-name (never used in narrative) of Telufinwë = Amras (PM:353-354)

ambo "hill", allative pl. ambonnar "upon hills" in Markirya (ruxal' ambonnar "upon crumbling hills")

amil "mother" (AM1); amilessë "mothername" (amil "mother" + essë "name"), name given to a child by its mother, sometimes with prophetic implications (amilessi tercenyë "mother-names of insight" (MR:217)

Amillion "February" (LT1:249; LotR-style Quenya has Nénimë)

ammalë "yellow bird, 'yellow hammer' " (SMAL)

ammë "mother" (AM1)

#amorta- "heave" (literally "up-rise, rise up", cf. orta-; the prefix am- means "up"). Only attested as a participle amortala "heaving" in Markirya.



ampa "hook", also name of tengwa 14 (GAP, Appendix E)

ampano "building" (especially of wood), "wooden hall" (PAN)

ampenda "uphill" (adj.) (AM2)

ampendë "upward slope" (PEN/PÉNED)

amu "up, upwards" (LT2:335; in Tolkien's later Quenya amba)

amu- "raise" (LT2:335; LotR-style Quenya has orta-)

amun (amund-) "hill" (LT2:335; in Tolkien's later Quenya ambo)

amuntë "sunrise" (LT2:335; Tolkien's later Quenya has anarórë)

an "for" (Nam, RGEO:66) - but the an of the phrase es sorni heruion an! "the Eagles of the Lords are at hand" (SD:290) seems to denote motion towards (the speaker): the Eagles are coming. Etym has an, ana "to, towards" (NÂ1). In the "Arctic" sentence, an is translated "until".

an- intensive or superlative prefix, seen in ancalima "most bright" (cf. calima "bright") (Letters:279)

an- prefix "re" in antúlien, q.v. (LotR-style Quenya shows en- instead.)

ana- (prefix) "to, towards" (NÂ1)

Anamo "of doom" in Rithil-Anamo, q.v. Nominative "doom" = *anama? or *anan (anam-)?

ananta, a-nanta "and yet, but yet" (FS, NDAN)

Anar "sun" (ANÁR, NAR1, SA:nár; UT:22 cf. 51); anar "a sun" (Markirya); Anarinya "my Sun" (FS). See also Úr-anar. In Anárion *"Sun-son" and Anardil *"Sun-friend", masc. names (Appendix A). Anarya second day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Sun (Appendix D). Anarríma name of a constellation: *"Sun-border"??? (Silm; cf. ríma)

anarórë "sunrise" (ORO)

anca "jaws, row of teeth" (ÁNAK [there spelt anca], NAK [there spelt anka], Appendix E, SA - despite what Christopher Tolkien says in the entry anca in SA, the Quenya word anca as such does NOT appear in the Sindarin dragon-name Ancalagon, but its Sindarin cognate anc does. See ÁNAK in the Etymologies.) Also name of tengwa 15 (Appendix E). Despite its English gloss, anca is a singular word (in Etym the gloss is indeed "jaw", not "jaws").

Ancalë ("k") "radiant one" = Sun (KAL)

ancalima "most bright, brightest", sc. calima "bright" with a superlative or intensive prefix (LotR2:IV ch. 9; see Letters:385 for translation). Fem. name Ancalimë fem. name, *"Most Bright One", also masc. Ancalimon (Appendix A).

anda "long" (adj.) (ÁNAD/ANDA). In Andafangar "Longbeards", one of the tribes of the Dwarves (= Khuzdul Sigin-tarâg and Sindarin Anfangrim) (PM:320); andavë "long", as adverb. (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308)

andamunda "elephant" ("long-mouth", anda + munda) (MBUD)

andatehta "long-mark" (TEK)

ando "gate", also name of tengwa 5 (AD, Appendix E)

Andolat (hill-name, = S Dolad) (NDOL)

andon "great gate" (andond-, as in pl. andondi) (AD)

Andórë full form of Andor, "land of gift", name of Númenor (SD:247)

andúnë "sunset, west, evening" (NDÛ, Markirya, SA), also in Namárië: Andúnë "West" (but the standard Quenya translation of "west" is Númen) (Nam, RGEO:66) Cf. andu- in Andúnië, Andúril.

Andúnië (apparently a variant form of andúnë) (place-name, a city and port on the western coast of Númenor, said to mean "sunset"). (Appendix A, Silm, UT:166, NDÛ)

Andúril "Flame of the West", sword-name (LotR1:II ch. 3)

Andustar the "Westlands" of Númenor (UT:165)

anessë "given (or added) name" (encompassing both epessi and amilessi) (MR:217)

anga "iron", also name of tengwa 7 (ANGÂ, Appendix E, SA, PM:347, LT1:249, 268), masc. name Angamaitë "Iron-handed" (Letters:347), Angaráto "Iron-champion", Sindarin Angrod (SA:ar(a) ). See also Angamando. Cf. also Angainor the chain with which Melkor was bound (Silm)


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