Key study Guide for Grade 6 Ancient Civilizations Middle of Course Assessment Directions: Make any corrections or additions to your guide as we review each answer. Part I – Social Scientists, Geography of River Valley Settlements

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Study Guide for Grade 6 Ancient Civilizations Middle of Course Assessment

Directions: Make any corrections or additions to your guide as we review each answer.
Part I – Social Scientists, Geography of River Valley Settlements, & Civilization Social Structure

1. Explain, in detail, the jobs of the following social scientists. Provide a specific example of how each of these social scientists completes their job and a tool they use.

(Geographer) Geographers are experts who study the natural features of the Earth, such as water, landforms, plants, and animals. They also look at human-made features, such as towns, road, bridges, etc. These social scientists help answer questions as: Where did people live? How did they use their environment to survive? Geographers make maps. A GPS and other maps are their tools.
(Archeologist) Archeologists are experts who study the past by examining objects that people left behind, such as clothing, tools, weapons, and coins. They ask questions such as: Who lived in this place? When did they live here? What were they like? Archeologists use tools like shovels and brushes to carefully uncover artifacts from the ground.

2. Define and explain the term Pre-History. Give two examples of hominids about which you learned, and then state 2 capabilities of each hominid.

Pre-History is: what takes place before written history.
Hominid 1: Australopithecus Afarensis, Lucy

Capability 1: bipeds (walked on two feet)

Capability 2: They could gather and carry food more easily, and could use their hands for defense.
Hominid 2: Homo Habilis, Handy Man

Capability 1: Because they lived in groups, they were better able to hunt and protect themselves.

Capability 2: Because they used simple tools, they were able to dig or make traps to catch small animals, tear the meat from dead animals, and crush bones for the marrow inside.
Other possible answers…

Homo Erectus, Upright Man

Capability 1: They used fire to cook animal meat, survive the cold, and protect themselves from predators.

Capability 2: They created shelters with tools like the hand ax. Shelters allowed Upright Man to live in colder climates and in areas without caves or other natural shelters.
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis, Neanderthal Man

Capability 1: Because Neanderthals lived in groups, they were better able to travel and hunt together (spears and traps).

Capability 2: Neanderthals showed a sense of community because they cared for their sick and injured. This capability brought them the benefit of learning from the experience of older members of the group.
Homo Sapiens Sapiens, Doubly Wise Man, Early Modern Humans

Capability 1: Because early modern humans created complex tools like needles, they could sew animal skins together to make clothing that protected them from the cold. They made weapons such as spears and bows and arrows, which allowed early humans to hunt from a safer distance.

Capability 2: Their artwork such as cave paintings and sculptures shows that early humans had feelings about the world and could communicate their thoughts to others.
3. Define and provide an example for each of the five themes of geography listed below.

1. Movement: the spread of people, goods, or ideas around the world. Example: a map that shows the migration patterns of birds.

2. Place: explains what an area is like by comparing its natural features and human-made features to those in other areas. Example: a map that shows hills and mountains of Western Maryland.

3. Location: identifies a relative (general) and an absolute (exact) position. Example: a map that shows the exact position of Roland Park Elementary Middle School; or a map that shows the general area of RPEMS, not identifying the exact address.

4. People: Human-Environment Interaction is concerned with how people affect their environment and how the environment affects people. People influence their environment, and are influenced by their environment. The environment is the surroundings in which people, plants, and animals live. Example: a map the shows the extent of pollution on US Agriculture.

5. Region: an area with common features. These features distinguish one region from another. Example: a map that identifies the states within the eastern seaboard of the US.

4. Name the rivers for each civilization.

1. Mesopotamia: Tigris and Euphrates

2. Egypt : Nile

3. India: Ganges and Indus

5. Describe the religion of each civilization.

1. Mesopotamia: Polytheistic including Anu and Dagan

2. Egypt : Polytheistic including Ra and Anubis

3. India: Hinduism, Brahmanism, Vedas

6. Name the civilization that matches each description about social structure and leadership.

1. City-states led by a king: Mesopotamia

2. Caste system with Brahmins at the top: India

3. Social pyramid led by Pharaohs: Egypt
7. Name the civilization that matches each description about geography.

1. Civilizations in Egypt manipulated the flooding of the Nile and made three seasons for their crops such as wheat, barley, and papyrus.

2. Civilizations in Mesopotamia were the 1st one to irrigate their land. They first developed levees, canals, and dams.

3. Civilizations in India settled near the Indus River, irrigated their land, and settled in closed off villages near rivers. They had homes in rows and were one of the first to develop community baths and a sewer system.

Part II - Civilization Legacies

8. Directions: From the list below, pick 1 of the 2 civilizations you have learned about and write 3-4 sentences describing what their legacy is upon the world today. Civilization Choices: Mesopotamia or Egypt. Identify your Civilization choice. Provide a description of their legacy.

Mesopotamian civilizations were highly advanced and left a legacy of agriculture and the establishment of city-states with individual governments. The earliest settlers in this region developed technologies to control the natural environment to enable agriculture to develop. With little or no natural barriers, settlers created city-states with man-made barriers to protect communities that developed their own form of government. Today, we still use agricultural innovations developed by ancient Mesopotamians. We also have concepts of law that have originated from ancient Mesopotamia.
Ancient Egypt was highly advanced and offers us with another example of a civilization that has mastered agriculture. Ancient Egypt, however, left a legacy of social structure that influenced outside civilizations that were developing well beyond its borders. Different social classes that are connected to an individual’s job and influence in society, was a concept nurtured in ancient Egypt. Neighboring civilizations in the Middle East and Mediterranean were influenced by Egyptian culture and social structure. Today, the unique characteristics of Egyptian society still fascinate the world. It is also true that our current understanding of mathematics and science would not be so advanced, if they did not flourish in ancient Egypt.
(Honors Classes) Part III - DBQ

9. Directions: Review each of the documents in this section in order to write a well written essay answering the following prompt… NOTE: You will receive the documents on the day of the test to read and cite evidence to write your essay. Prepare by reviewing your notes on writing successful DBQ Essays.

Part IV – NHD Reflection

(General Ed Classes) 9. Write a two paragraph essay that addresses each of these questions about your NHD project.

1. What did you learn from your first NHD experience?

Additionally - Define Primary Sources and Secondary Sources.

2. What will you do differently next year?

Complete a graphic organizer as a prewriting step to help you prepare.
(Honors Classes) 10. Write a four paragraph essay that addresses each of these questions about your NHD project.

1. What is your topic and why did you choose this topic?

2. What resources did you use to complete your research?

Additionally - Define Primary Sources and Secondary Sources.

3. Why did you choose your project category?

4. How does your topic relate to the theme?

Complete a graphic organizer as a prewriting step to help you prepare.
Primary Source: Something that was written or produced in the time period you are investigating (letters, speeches, diaries, newspaper articles from the time, oral history interviews of people from the time, documents, photographs, artifacts, and anything else that provides firsthand accounts about a person or event). This definition also applies to primary sources found on the Internet. A letter written by President Lincoln in 1862 is a primary source for a student researching the Civil War era. An article about the Vietnam War published in 2001 and not written by an eyewitness or participant about his or her experience is not a primary source. An interview with an expert (such as a professor of Vietnamese history) is not a primary source UNLESS that expert actually lived through and has firsthand knowledge of the events being described.
Secondary Source: A source by an author who was not an eyewitness or a participant in the historical event or period. Secondary sources are interpretations of primary sources, research, and study. Secondary sources provide context for a historical event. For example, high school history textbooks and history books about a particular topic are secondary sources; so are biographies and reference sources such as encyclopedias. This definition also applies to descriptive articles or information found on the Internet.

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