Food & Nutrition Unit 8—Food Preparation 1—67 Terms—



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Food & Nutrition

  • Unit 8—Food Preparation

8.1—67 Terms—P.1

  • Bake
  • Cream
  • Braise
  • Deep Fry
  • Dredge
  • Barbecue
  • Core
  • Flake
  • Candy
  • Bread
  • Dice
  • Coat
  • Broil
  • Beat
  • Equivalent
  • Brown
  • Caramelization
  • Blend
  • Batter
  • Baste
  • Dress
  • Cut In

Terms P.2

  • Mold
  • Quarter
  • Pan Broil
  • Poach
  • Parboil
  • Knead
  • Grilling
  • Garnish
  • Fry
  • Marinate
  • Grate
  • Fold
  • Flour
  • Preheat
  • Puree
  • Mince
  • Glaze
  • Julienne
  • Grease
  • Pit
  • Pare

Terms—P. 3

  • Skim
  • Score
  • Recipe
  • Steam
  • Truss
  • Simmer
  • Roll
  • Sliver
  • Toast
  • Steep
  • Season
  • Reconstitute
  • Strain
  • Reduce
  • Stir Fry
  • Roast
  • Saute
  • Sterilize
  • Stew
  • Sift
  • Scallop
  • Scald

Terms—P. 4

  • Yield
  • Whip
  • (ppt for these is on n + w jump drive)

1.

  • Cook in the oven in dry heat without a cover--

1.

  • Bake

2.

  • To cook by broiling, grilling, roasting, or baking; traditionally to cook meat on a rack or spit over hot coals--

2.

  • Barbecue

3.

  • To spoon pan liquids over the surface of food during cooking to keep the food moist & add flavor--

3.

  • Baste

4.

  • A flour & liquid mixture with a consistency ranging from a thin liquid to a stiff liquid depending on the proportion of dry to liquid ingredients--

4.

  • Batter

5.

  • Mix or stir quickly, bringing the contents of bowl to the top & down again--

5.

  • Beat

6.

  • To mix ingredients until thoroughly combined--

6.

  • Blend

7.

  • A long, slow combination cooking technique in which food is seared & then simmered in enough liquid to cover no more than 2/3 of the food--

7.

  • Braise

8.

  • To coat a food item with crumbs & egg--

8.

  • Bread

9.

  • A dry cooking method in which food is cooked directly under a primary heat source--

9.

  • Broil

10.

  • To turn the surface of a food brown by quickly cooking it in hot fat or placing it under a broiler--

10.

  • Brown

11.

  • To cook in sugar syrup until coated or crystallized--

11.

  • Candy

12.

  • The chemical browning reaction that can occur when a sugar is heated; characteristic color & flavor develops--

12.

  • Caramelization

13.

  • To thoroughly cover a food with a liquid or a dry mixture--

13.

  • Coat

14.

  • To remove the center part or stem of a fruit or vegetable leaving a hole--

14.

  • Core

15.

  • To blend until smooth & fluffy--

15.

  • Cream

16.

16.

  • Cut In

17.

  • To cook in a large amount of hot fat--

17.

  • Deep Fry

18.

  • To cut into very small cubes even size--

18.

  • Dice

19.

  • To coat a food by sprinkling it with or dipping it in a dry ingredient such as flour or breadcrumbs--

19.

  • Dredge

20.

  • To trim & clean, commonly associated with poultry & fish--

20.

  • Dress

21.

  • The same amount expressed in different ways by using different units of measure--

21.

  • Equivalent

22.

  • To break fish into small pieces with a fork--

22.

  • Flake

23.

  • To sprinkle or coat with flour--

23.

  • Flour

24.

  • To add ingredients carefully as not to lose air bubbles; the utensil is passed down through the mixture, across the bottom, & up the opposite side of the bowl, gently turning the mixture over--

24.

  • Fold

25.

  • To cook in hot fat--

25.

  • Fry

26.

  • Decorative, edible items added to enhance the appearance of the main food item--

26.

  • Garnish

27.

  • To coat a food item with a liquid, usually a syrup, to produce a shiny covering--

27.

  • Glaze

28.

  • To shred food into coarse pieces by rubbing it on the teeth of a utensil or rough surface--

28.

  • Grate

29.

  • To coat food or utensils with a layer of oil or shortening--

29.

  • Grease

30.

  • A method of short order cooking on a griddle--

30.

  • Grilling

31.

  • To cut into long narrow strips--

31.

  • Julienne

32.

  • A mixing process in which dough is folded, pressed & squeezed to strengthen the gluten strands & allow yeast dough to develop the proper texture--

32.

  • Knead

33.

  • To soak foods in a liquid to improve texture or flavor. The liquid generally contains herbs, spices & other flavoring ingredients, as well as oil & an acid such as vinegar or lemon juice to break down the connective tissue of meat--

33.

  • Marinate

34.

  • To cut into very fine pieces--

34.

  • Mince

35.

  • To shape by hand or by pouring into a form to achieve a desired structure--

35.

  • Mold

36.

  • To cook without fat in an uncovered skillet without grease & pouring off excess fat as it accumulates--

36.

  • Pan Broil

37.

  • To boil briefly as a preliminary or incomplete cooking procedure--

37.

  • Parboil

38.

  • To remove the stem & outer covering of a vegetable or fruit with a paring knife or peeler--

38.

  • Pare

39.

  • To remove the seed of a fruit or vegetable-

39.

  • Pit

40.

  • To cook in a small amount of simmering liquid--

40.

  • Poach

41.

  • To heat the oven to the correct temperature before adding the food--

41.

  • Preheat

42.

  • To put food through a fine sieve or a food mill to form a thick & smooth liquid--

42.

  • Puree

43.

  • To cut into four equal parts--

43.

  • Quarter

44.

  • Detailed instructions for preparing particular foods--

44.

  • Recipe

45.

  • To return to a previous state by adding water--

45.

  • Reconstitute

46.

  • To decrease the quantity of a liquid & intensify the flavor by boiling--

46.

  • Reduce

47.

  • To cook uncovered in the oven with dry heat--

47.

  • Roast

48.

  • To shape into a round mass, to flatten dough to an even thickness with a rolling pin--

48.

  • Roll

49.

  • To cook food in a small amount of fat, stirring or flipping it frequently--

49.

  • Saute

50.

50.

  • Scald

51.

  • To cover with a sauce & bake--

51.

  • Scallop

52.

  • To make small, shallow cuts on the surface of a food--

52.

  • Score

53.

  • To add herbs, spices or other ingredients to a food to increase flavor--

53.

  • Season

54.

  • To put a dry ingredient through a sieve or sifter to remove lumps--

54.

  • Sift

55.

  • A moist cooking technique in which food is cooked slowly & steadily in a liquid just below the boiling point (185 degrees-200 degrees F)--

55.

  • Simmer

56.

  • To remove a substance from the surface of a liquid--

56.

  • Skim

57.

  • To cut into long slender pieces--

57.

  • Sliver

58.

  • To cook with vapor produced by a boiling liquid without allowing it to come into contact with the water--

58.

  • Steam

59.

  • To cover with boiling water & let stand without additional heating until flavor & color is extracted as for tea--

59.

  • Steep

60.

  • To make free from living microorganisms, as bacteria, or their viable spores--

60.

  • Sterilize

61.

  • To cook one food or several foods together in a seasoned liquid for a long period of time--

61.

  • Stew

62.

  • A dry cooking technique, foods cook quickly in a small amount of fat over high heat while stirring constantly; generally uses a wok, a large pan with sloping sides--

62.

  • Stir Fry

63.

  • To separate solids from a liquid--

63.

  • Strain

64.

  • To make the surface of a food brown by applying direct heat--

64.

  • Toast

65.

  • To prepare fowl for cooking by binding the wings & legs with string or skewers--

65.

  • Truss

66.

  • To beat rapidly usually with a whisk to increase volume & incorporate air--

66.

  • Whip

67.

67.

  • Yield

8.2

  • Identify food preparation tools & equipment—(Using the correct tool saves time & increases efficiency)
  • A. Measuring Tools—Essential for baking
  • Liquid measuring cup—glass or plastic
  • Have handles & tips for pouring—clear marked measurements—set cup on flat surface & check at eye level
  • Sizes: 1 Cup, 2 Cup, 4 Cup
  • (Milk, water, oil, juices, food colorings, extracts)

Dry Measuring Cups-

  • For dry ingredients—Do not shake or tap cup & level off
  • Metal or plastic
  • Sold in sets that nest inside each other
  • Sizes: ¼ Cup, 1/3 Cup, ½ Cup & 1 Cup
  • (sugar, flour, baking powder & baking soda ((leavenings)), salt, spices)
  • Measuring Spoons-
  • Metal or plastic—sold in sets that nest
  • Sizes: ¼ Teaspoon, ½ Teaspoon, 1 Teaspoon & 1 Tablespoon (3 Teaspoons = 1 Tablespoon)

B. Mixing Tools-

  • Spoons—wooden, plastic—used for stirring & mixing—will not scratch pan surfaces—handles remain cool
  • Slotted Spoons—drain liquids from foods
  • Rotary Beaters—beat, blend, incorporate air—used for eggs, sauces, prevent lumps

Mixing Tools

  • Rotary Beater
  • Slotted Spoon

C. Baking Tools-

  • Sifter—remove lumps from dry ingredients
  • (makes dry ingredients lighter by adding air)
  • Pastry Blender—curved pieces of metal attached to a handle—blends shortening with flour for pie crust (pastry)
  • Pastry Brushes—brush butter or sauces on food—remove crumbs from cake before frosting & baste foods in oven
  • Rolling Pins—flatten dough to fit pie pan
  • Pastry Cloth & Stockinet—keeps dough from sticking to rolling pin & table
  • Spatulas—plastic or metal—various sizes—scrapes bowls, spread frosting—level measurements

Baking Tools

  • Sifter
  • Pastry Blender

Baking Tools

  • Pastry Brush
  • Spatula

Baking Tools

  • Rolling Pin
  • Stockinet

D. Thermometers-

  • Accurately gives temperature reading of cooked foods
  • Reduce risk of foodborne illness (many foods contain harmful bacteria that can be killed by thorough cooking)
  • Use when cooking protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, eggs, casseroles)
  • Must meet recommended internal temperatures

Thermometers-

  • Oven-Safe Thermometers—placed in food while cooking
  • Instant-Read Thermometers—inserted in food at end of cooking time
  • Candy Thermometers—clip onto side of pan while cooking
  • Deep Fat Frying Thermometers—for doughnuts & fried foods
  • Refrigerator-Freezer Thermometers—store cold foods
  • Oven Thermometers—should heat foods for which you set it (too hot—will burn food—if under heated—will lengthen cooking times)
  • *Calibrate--adjust

Check the Temperature!

  • Probe Thermometer
  • Candy Thermometer

Thermometers

  • Instant Read Thermometers

E. Cutting Tools-

  • Kitchen Shears—snips herbs & trim vegetables—cut meat, dough, cookies, pizza—do not use for any other tasks—should be clean
  • Peeler—remove outer surface of fruits & vegetables—make decorative veggies, chocolate, cheese curls for “garnishes”
  • Shredder-Grater—grate foods like cheese & cabbage—openings of different sizes produce different shapes
  • Cutting Boards—prepare food over these to protect counters

Cutting Tools

  • Kitchen Shears
  • Peeler

Cutting Tools

  • Shredder-Grater
  • Cutting Board

Cutting Tools-

  • Knives—made of carbon steel or stainless steel—knives can rust if not washed & dried after use—store away from children
  • French-Chef Knife—dice fruits, veggies
  • Slicing—slice meats, breads (serrated), tomatoes
  • Utility—all around knife—trim fat, cheese
  • Paring—smallest knife—safest—peel (pare) fruits & veggies

Knives

  • French chef knife
  • Paring Knife

F. Useful Utensils-

  • Tongs—metal--turning meats, fried foods—handling hot, large pieces of food
  • Kitchen Fork—metal—holding, turning heavy foods
  • Ladles—round cups attached to long handles—used for dipping & pouring (punches, soups, sauces, gravies, salad dressings)
  • Basters—long tube attached to a flexible bulb—suction to collect juices from meats for basting (covering foods with liquid) or to skim fat from soups & gravies
  • Colanders—perforated bowls used to drain liquid from foods
  • Can Openers—manual or electric

Utensils

  • Kitchen Fork
  • Tongs

Utensils

  • Ladle
  • Baster

Utensils

  • Colander
  • Strainer

Can Openers

  • Manual
  • Electric

G. Cookware-

  • Pots—have two handles
  • Pans—have one handle
  • Skillets—nonstick finishes—prevents sticking & aids in easy cleanup
  • Double Boilers—small pan fits into larger pan—used for melting delicate foods
  • Griddles—flat surface with no edges
  • Omelet Pans—one side flips food onto opposite side
  • Crepe Pans—batter is cooked in a thin layer

Cookware

  • Pot—2 handles
  • Pan—1 handle

Cookware

  • Skillet
  • Double Boiler

Cookware

  • Griddle
  • Wok

Cookware

  • Omelet Pan
  • Crepe Pan

H. Bakeware-

  • Cookie Sheets—used for baking cookies
  • Cake Pans—bake cakes of all sizes & shapes
  • Bread Pans—bake bread
  • Muffin Pans—separate cups of equal size
  • Pie Plates—used for baking pie pastry with filling & toppings
  • Casserole Dishes—all food groups baked together

Bakeware

  • Casserole Dish
  • Pie Plate

Bakeware

  • Muffin Pan
  • Cake Pan

Cake Pans

  • Angel Food Cake
  • Spring form Pan for Cheese Cake

Bakeware

  • Loaf Pan
  • Cookie Sheet

Bake

  • Roaster
  • Pizza Pan

Bakeware-

  • Roasters—used for baking large birds, meat cuts
  • Pizza Pans—used for baking pizzas
  • Loaf Pans—rectangle size pan—used for pound cakes & breads
  • Springform Pan—cake pan with removable bottom--cheesecakes

8.2.1

  • Chart functions of preparation tools & equipment--

8.3

  • Explain measuring techniques & equipment—
  • Dry Measuring Cups
  • Liquid Measuring Cups
  • Measuring Spoons

Dry Measuring Cups

  • Always level off when cup is filled with ingredients-

Liquid Measuring Cups

  • Can see through it at eye level

Measuring Spoons

  • Always level off

8.3.1

  • Demonstrate measuring techniques—
  • Water Displacement Method:
  • Using a 2 cup liquid measuring cup—fill 1 cup with water—spoon in fat until water level reaches desired amount (1/2 cup shortening = 1 ½ cup marked)—your measuring cup will be easier to clean
  • Dry Measures—fill cup with dry ingredients & level off—do not tap cup for lighter, baked products

Measuring Brown Sugar-

  • Firmly pack brown sugar in a dry measuring cup & level off
  • Sugar will hold the shape of the cup when turned out

8.4

  • List abbreviations & equivalent measures commonly used in recipes—
  • Tsp= teaspoon
  • T=tablespoon
  • C=cup
  • Pt=pint
  • Qt=quart
  • Oz-ounce
  • Lb= pound
  • Kg= kilogram
  • G= gram
  • L=liter
  • Ml=milliliter
  • 1 stick of butter = ½ cup
  • 3 tsp= 1 T
  • 2 c= 1 pt
  • 1c=8oz
  • 4c=1 qt
  • 4 qt=1gallon
  • 1 lb=16 oz

Equivalents

  • 4 Qts = 1 Gal
  • 2 C = 1 PT

Equivalents

  • 2 C = 1 Pt
  • 2 Pts = 1 Qt (4 C)
  • Gal Gal 4 Qts = 1 Gal

8.4.1

  • Match abbreviations & equivalent measures commonly used in recipes--

8.4.2

  • Specify substitutions commonly used in recipes—
  • 1 whole egg =2 egg yolks
  • 1 c milk= ½ c evaporated milk +1/2 c water
  • 1 c buttermilk=1 T vinegar or lemon juice + 1 c milk
  • 1 oz chocolate=3 T cocoa + 1 T butter
  • 1 c corn syrup=1 ¼ c sugar + ¼ c liquid
  • 1 T cornstarch=2 T flour
  • 1 c cake flour=7/8 c all purpose flour

8.5

  • List steps in using a recipe—
  • Recipe—instructions for preparing a specific food
  • Should list ingredients in the order in which you will be combining them
  • Settings for appliances
  • Equipment needed (cookware, bakeware, utensils)
  • Times for cooking, chilling
  • Step by step instructions for assembling & cooking food
  • Yield: Number of servings the recipe makes
  • Nutritional information--optional

A recipe

  • Hot Buttered Cider

8.5.1

  • Demonstrate math skills necessary to change the yield of a recipe—
  • Double measurement to double recipe
  • Divide measurements to half a recipe

8.6

  • Describe preparation of the following foods: Appetizers
  • Beverages
  • Casseroles
  • Dairy Products
  • Desserts
  • Egg
  • Fish
  • Fruits
  • Garnishes
  • Grain Products
  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Quick Breads
  • Salads
  • Sandwiches
  • Sauces
  • Soups
  • Vegetables
  • Yeast

8.6.1

  • Prepare selected foods using a variety of methods-
  • A. Moist Heat Method—tenderize tough cuts of meats—uses steam & liquid to cook food—boil, simmer
  • B. Dry Heat Method—allow fat to drain away—uses oven for cooking food—roast, bake
  • C. Cooking with Fat—fat should be hot so foods will not absorb excess fat—adds fat to the diet—eat in moderation—stir-fry, pan fry, deep-fat fry

Moist Heat Method

  • Using liquid to cook food

Dry Heat Method

  • Fat drains away from food

Cooking With Fat

  • Adds fat to the diet

Cooking Methods-

  • 1. Boiling—Water boils 212 degrees F--
  • Destroys nutrients if food is overcooked
  • Rapid boil that can not be stirred down
  • 2. Simmering—Bubbles do not break the surface of the liquid—better for nutrients
  • 3. Poaching—Simmer food in a small amount of liquid so that food retains its shape—used for tender foods (eggs)

Boiling Food

  • Bubbles can not be stirred down

Simmering Food

  • Bubbles do not come to surface of food

Poaching Food

  • Cooking in a small amount of water

Cooking Methods-

  • 4. Stewing—Covers a food with water & simmer it—used for less tender cuts of meat—cut large pieces to speed cooking
  • 5. Braising—Food is left in large pieces—brown food first for flavor & color—add liquid to cover bottom of pan—cover with lid—can be done on range top or oven
  • 6. Steaming--Food cooks in steam, not water—food is held in metal basket inside saucepan & water—water does not touch basket—best way to cook vegetables to retain nutrients & color

Stewing Food

  • Food cooked in liquid

Braising Food

  • Brown first & then add liquid

Steaming Food

  • Metal basket fits inside covered saucepan

Cooking Methods-

  • 7. Stir-Fry—Cook food quickly in a small amount of oil until “just” tender—food is cooked quickly so each piece should be sliced the same size for even cooking
  • 8. Deep-Fat Fry—Fill kettle ½ full of oil—if temperature is too low, food will soak up the fat—if temperature is too high, food will burn—cook small quantities at a time

Stir Fry

  • Food should be cut in even pieces for even cooking—in a Wok

Deep Fat Fry

  • Adds fat to the diet

Cooking Methods-

  • 9. Broiling—Cooking under direct heat source—located in the top of the oven cavity—watch closely—use two pans—one to drain fat into a second pan while cooking
  • 10. Saute—Cooking food in small amount of fat in heavy frying pan—add a small amount of fat & fry uncovered—turning food to prevent burning
  • 11. Baking—Cook in the oven—convection, conventional, microwave (also called roasting)

Broiling Food

  • Under direct heat source

Saute

Baking Food

  • Also called Roasting when baking protein foods


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