Industrial Animals History Unit Map Set Up (warm-up)



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Industrial Animals

  • History

Unit Map Set Up (warm-up)

  • Unit Name: Industrial Animals
  • Unit Essential Question: What are industrial animals and how do they help us?

Unit Map Set Up

  • Concepts: As we go
  • Lesson Essential Questions: As we go
  • Vocab: As We go

Lesson Essential Question

  • How was industrial animal agriculture started?

Objectives

  • Understand the history of animal agriculture
  • Understand the important acts that are important to this class

What is Industrial Agriculture?

  • “ a modern form of intensive farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock, cattle, poultry, and fish. Most of the meat, dairy and eggs are produced” this way.

History of Animal Agriculture

  • Early people ate fruits, seeds, and animals found in their environment.
  • People moved with animals
  • People then figured out how to domesticate animals

History of Animal Agriculture

  • People created ways to grow animals more efficiently
    • Passed on
  • Recent study of animals in a systematic way

History of Animal Agriculture

  • 1800s- Universities. People realize institutions of higher learning were needed.
  • “Nation emerging as an industrial- and agricultural- based economy.”

History of Animal Agriculture

  • To make progress- people needed to be taught how to produce food and manufacture goods more efficiently

History of Animal Agriculture

  • Late 1850s- Land Grant Act or Morrill Act. Provided public land and funds for establishing universities to teach practical methods of manufacturing and producing food and fiber. Passed in 1862

History of Animal Agriculture

  • 1862- Lincoln signed bill to establish the USDA
  • Soon all states had land grant universities
    • Realized students did not know anything!

History of Animal Agriculture

  • 1872- Hatch Act- authorized establishment of experiment stations in different parts of the states that had land grant universities.
    • Create new knowledge

History of Animal Agriculture

  • 1914- Smith-Lever Act- set up cooperative extension service. Passes new information to the public

History of Animal Agriculture

  • 1917- Smith-Hughes Act- vocational agriculture as a program in the public high schools as a means of teaching new methods of agriculture
    • THE REASON YOU ARE SITTING HERE!!!!

Smith-Hughes Act

  • Left side of the room is against the Smith-Hughes Act
  • Write 5 sentences why you disagree

Smith-Hughes Act

  • Right side of the room is for the Smith-Hughes Act.
  • Give 5 sentences why you agree

Now Lets Decide!

  • Pick your side
  • Let’s debate

Exit Question

  • Tell me which side of the debate you chose and why. Write at least 5 sentences.

Industrial Animals

  • Advancements

Warm-up

  • What are some of the advancements made in the animal agriculture field?

Lesson Essential Question

  • How are the advancements made in animal agriculture significant to us?

Objectives

  • Know and understand the advancements in animal agriculture
  • Understand where our food comes from

Animal Agriculture

  • Humans are omnivorous animals- we eat both plants and animals
  • Provides people with a reliable, abundant source of high quality food

Animal Agriculture

  • Advancements through scientific research resulted in an abundance of food and lower prices

Advancements since 1925

  • Beef cattle liveweight marketed per breeding female increased from 220 lbs to 482 lbs
  • Consumption doubled from 60 lbs to 120 lbs

Advancements since 1925

  • Sheep liveweight marketed per breeding female from 60 lbs to 130 lbs
  • Sheep not only raised for wool, now produced for meat

Advancements since 1925

  • Milk marketed per dairy cow increased from 4,189 lbs to 10,500 lbs
  • 1950-1975- # of dairy cows reduced but milk production same

Advancements since 1925

  • Swine liveweight marketed per breeding female from 1,600 to 2,850 lbs
  • Since 1950, amount of feed reduced
  • Time to produce from 170 to 157 days

Advancements since 1925

  • Poultry time for broiler chickens to market weight cut in half
  • Amount of feed from 4lbs to 1.75 lbs
  • Weight of broilers at market from 2.8 lbs to 4 lbs

Advancements since 1925

  • Annual production per laying hem tripled from 112 to around 300 eggs
  • Feed required to produce a dozen eggs decreased from 8 to 4 lbs

Advancements since 1925

  • Turkeys weight marketed turkeys from 13-18.4 lbs
  • Less feed (5.5 to 3.1 lbs) and half the time (34-19 weeks)

Video

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WWOSe9ju7kU
  • Where food comes from video

Movie

  • Food, INC
  • Essay: What is your view on animal agriculture? Do you think what we are doing is wrong or needed for our survival? Write at least a page!

Exit Question

  • What are some predictions that you feel may happen with our food supply in the future?

Industrial Animals

  • Beef

Warm-up

  • What is your favorite food?

Lesson Essential Question

  • Why is the beef industry so successful?

Objectives

  • Understand why beef is important
  • Know and understand the different breeds of beef cattle

Beef

The Beef Industry

  • We are a nation of beef eaters!
  • Average person consumes 67.5 pounds of beef and veal each year!
  • Exported beef equals $2.5 billion

The Beef Industry

  • Land pastured for beef cattle is too steep, rocky or wet to be cultivated
  • Convert forages into high quality protein

The Beef Industry

The Beef Industry

  • Lean beef is full of nutrients
  • There are over 1 billion head of beef on over 1 million farms and ranches in the United States.

The Beef Industry

The Beef Industry

  • Ranks of Production
    • Texas
    • Missouri
    • Oklahoma
    • Nebraska
    • South Dakota

Breeds of Beef Cattle

  • Read through the packet and answer the questions on the breeds of beef cattle.

Breeds of Beef Cattle

  • Black Angus

Breeds of Beef Cattle

  • Shorthorn

Breeds of Beef Cattle

  • Hereford

Breeds of Beef Cattle

  • Texas Longhorn

Breeds of Beef Cattle

  • Simmental

Breeds of Beef Cattle

  • Maine-Anjou

Breeds of Beef Cattle

  • Limousin

Vocab

  • Forage- livestock feed that consists mainly of the leaves and stalks of plants

Exit Question

  • How many parts of the beef industry do you think there are?

Beef Industry

  • Segments

Warm-up

  • What type of beef cattle do you typically see around here?

Lesson Essential Question

  • What are the segments of the beef industry?

Objectives

  • Know and understand how the beef industry operates based on segments

4 segments

  • Purebred operations
  • Cow-calf operations
  • Stocker operations
  • Feedlot operations
  • Fill in organizer as we go

Purebred Operations

  • Cattle used as dams and sires of calves grown for market
  • Allows improvement and accentuation on stock
  • Shows to select the best

Cow-Calf Operations

  • Calves grown out and sent to market
  • Crossbred animals
  • Centered in Southern and Western states
    • Weather for winter calving

Cow-Calf Operations

  • Cows fed roughage as grass or hay
  • Cows left on free range to have their calves
  • Calves sold upon weaning
    • Good health, vaccinated, castrated

Cow-Calf Operations

Stocker

  • Step between weaning of calves and finishing (fattening) prior to slaughter
  • Weaned calves weighing 300-500 pounds placed on pasture and fed rations to promote skeletal and muscular growth

Stocker

  • Stocker purchases from cow-calf producer and sells to the feedlot
  • May also be operator of feedlot
    • Fewer transportation costs

Feedlot

Feedlot

  • Range in size
  • When proper degree of finish, they are sent to the slaughterhouse
  • Generally 18-24 months old and can weigh 800-1,500 lbs

Feedlot

Segment Story

  • Get out a sheet of paper. YOU are a calf. Write a story about your journey through the segments of the beef industry. Be sure to include all steps and be as descriptive as possible. At least a page!

Book Work

  • The Science Of Animal Agriculture
  • Pg. 36-37
  • True or False
  • Fill in the Blanks
  • Discussion Questions

Vocab

  • Dam-the mother of an animal
  • Sire- the father of an animal
  • Roughage- a feed low in carbohydrates and high in fiber content

Vocab

  • Weaned- a young animal no longer dependent on its mother’s milk
  • Finishing- fattening
  • Ration- the feed allowed for an animal in a 24 hour period

Exit Question

  • What type of meat is this?

The Beef Industry

  • Nutrition

Warm-up

  • Name the breed of beef cattle that originated in the highlands of northern Scotland, the first imported to the US in 1873 and can be used for milk and meat.

Lesson Essential Question

  • What type of feed is required for beef cattle?

Objectives

  • Provide students with knowledge of feeding industrial beef cattle
  • Know needed nutrients for cattle

Nutrition

  • Beef cows need most nutritious diet during late gestation and lactating
  • Dry, gestating mature cows require little energy and protein

Nutrition

  • 2 types of forages
    • Pasture or range grasses
      • Fed during the growing season
    • Stored forages
      • Hay or silage
      • Fed to dry, pregnant cows in winter

Nutrition

  • Depending on body size, dry, pregnant cows consume 25 to 30 lbs of hay per day
  • Beef cattle are raised in areas that require 110+ acres per cow-calf pair

Nutrition

  • Intensive Rotational grazing
    • Cattle allowed to access grass for a day or two.
    • 1-1.5 acres can support cow-calf pair for a year

Nutrition

  • Bulls can be fed stored forages when not breeding
  • Require grain before, during and after the breeding season

Nutrition

  • Heifer calves fed a grain ration during their first winter
    • Make sure they are heavy enough for breeding at 13-14 months

Nutrition

  • Bulls, cows, and heifers should have access to salt and minerals

Nutrition

  • Finishing cattle are fed a high-grain, high-energy diet containing little forage.
    • Rapid gains and higher carcass quality

Feedlot Diet

  • Fed low grain amount at first
  • Gradually increased until 80-90% of diet is grain
  • Require supplemental protein

Feedlot Diet

  • Monensin and Lasalocid given to increase weight gain and feed efficiency
  • Frame size affects how finishing cattle should be fed

Feedlot Diet

Vocab

  • Silage- a crop, such as corn, that has been preserved in its succulent condition by partal fermentation

Vocab

  • Intensive rotational grazing- Cattle allowed to access grass for a day or two.
  • Bull- a male bovine that has not been castrated
  • Heifer- a female bovine that has not produced a calf

Activity

  • Read the Articles to complete a compare and contrast essay on grain fed vs. grass fed beef cattle.
  • Minimum 1 page typed essay.

The Beef Industry

  • Parasites and Diseases

Warm-up

  • Do you think cattle should be allowed free range of feed or continue the way it has been going?

Lesson Essential Question

  • What are some parasites and diseases common in beef cattle?

Objectives

  • Learn about common diseases and parasites
  • How to treat these diseases and parasites

Activity

  • Each group will be given a name and information on a certain disease or parasite. This group will read the information and will teach the class what they have learned. Include causes, symptoms and treatment.

Mange

  • Mange mites infest hide of cattle
  • Treat with dip in treatment solution

Worms

  • Stomach worms
    • Oral wormers are effective
  • Worm eggs at bottom of grass plants
    • Overgrazing increases chance
    • Pasture rotation helps treat

Tuberculosis

  • Wasting disease
  • Symptoms similar to Johne’s
  • No signs
  • Infected through contaminated water

Tuberculosis

  • Herds periodically tested
  • Positive animals removed

The Beef Industry

  • Housing and marketing

Warm-up

  • Create what you think beef cattle require for housing.

Lesson Essential Question

  • How is beef marketed?

Housing

  • Simple
  • Shelter or windbreak in the most bitter weather
  • Thick trees or brush
  • Well drained
  • Shelter for newborn calves if born during winter

Marketing

  • Read through the packet and answer questions at the end. We will go over this when everyone is finished. Hand this in for a grade!

Marketing

  • Using the information you have learned, create a brochure on beef. Include: popular breeds, average price, nutrition benefits, and marketing methods used. Color and include pictures!

The Beef Industry

  • Cuts of meat

Warm-up

  • Where does steak come from?

Lesson Essential Question

  • What are the different cuts of meat and what part of the cattle are they from?

Cuts of Meat

  • Using organizer of cattle, fill in blanks as we go along.

Cuts of Meat

  • Chuck
    • Pot roast, short ribs, top blade steak, mock tender, ground
  • Chuck roast
  • Short ribs

Cuts of Meat

  • Rib
    • Rib eye roast and steak, back ribs
  • Rib eye steak
  • Rib eye roast
  • Back ribs

Cuts of Meat

  • Short Loin
    • T-bone, porterhouse, tenderloin steaks
  • T-bone
  • Porterhouse

Cuts of Meat

  • Sirloin steak
  • Tri tip roast
  • Tri tip steak

Cuts of Meat

  • Round
    • Tip steak, rump roast, round steak, roast
  • Round tip steak
  • Eye round steak
  • Bottom round rump roast

Cuts of Meat

  • Flank
    • Flank steak, skirt steak, steak rolls (
  • Flank steak
  • Skirt steak
  • Steak rolls

Cuts of Meat

  • Plate
    • Ground

Cuts of Meat

  • Breast and foreshank
    • Corned beef, crosscut shank, brisket, ground
  • Corned beef
  • Beef brisket
  • Shank cross cut

Cuts of Meat

  • Look through the menus and try to figure out why the different types of beef are different prices.

Cuts of Meat

  • Now that you have chosen why, read through the packet on Beef Cuts Explained. Each group will be assigned a cut of beef. Research this more and present the information to the class. Include the quality and location. Use books and computers.

Review

  • Review for Quiz


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