Learn more about the selection process of the Janissaries!
The Ottoman Empire Expands
April 6, 1253, the Ottoman Turks laid siege to the city of Constantinople.
May 29, 1253, Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks and Mehmet II.
The Turks spent 3 days sacking the city. Many people lost their lives inside the city.
The city was later renamed Istanbul.
The Ottoman Empire Expands
Selim I took control of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Arabia – included Jerusalem, Mecca, and Madinah.
He took the title of caliph, defender of the faith.
The Ottoman Empire went from the Black Sea to the Red Sea to the Strait of Gibraltar.
There was little impact on North Africa.
Pashas, appointed government officials, collected taxes and maintained law and order reported to the sultan in Constantinople.
The Ottoman Empire Expands
Ottomans started out as semi-nomadic Turks
1453 captured Constantinople, ended the Byzantine Empire (woohoo, lower taxes!)
Added Syria, Egypt, North Africa to their empire
Ottomans were a threat to the Hapsburg dynasty (Austria) until 1683
Constantinople renamed Istanbul
Constantinople renamed Istanbul
Sophisticated city- aqueducts, marketplace, religious schools, hospitals
Merchants and artisans
Government carefully monitored trade
Haghia Sophia turned into a Suleymaniye mosque
Suleiman I, or Suleiman the Magnificent, came to rule in 1520. He expanded Ottoman rule into Europe and the western Med. Sea.
He ruled for 46 years. He was a great military commander, but he known for his legislation as well.
He codified Ottoman law keeping Islamic faith, took into account Christian inhabitants of the Empire, addressed taxes, and built more schools.
The chief advisor to the sultan was the “grand vizier.”
He led meetings of the imperial council that met 4 days a week.
The sultan sat behind a screen and made his wishes known to the grand vizier.
The empire was divided into districts and ruled by officials who were helped by bureaucrats trained at palace schools.
Senior officials were given land but the sultan and were responsible for collecting taxes and supplying armies for the empire
The Ottomans were Sunni Muslims. Sultans had claimed the title of caliph since the 16th century. They were responsible for guiding the flock and keeping Islamic law.
In practice, they gave their religious duties to the “ulema”- a group of religious advisors.
The ulema were responsible for the legal system and schools for educating Muslims.
The Ottoman were tolerant of non-Muslims. Non-Muslims paid a tax, but they were allowed to practice their religion or to convert to Islam.
Most people in the European areas of the empire remained Christian. In some areas, the large numbers converted to the Islamic faith.
Religious, but Tolerant
The Ottoman Sultan was a political and religious ruler (incorporated the idea of “caliph”)
Europeans were afraid of the Ottomans, but admired them as well
“He tramples the soil of Hungary with 200,000 horses, he is at the very gates of Austria, threatens the rest of Germany…”
-1555 Excerpts from Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq: Ambassador of the Hapsburg Empire
Q: Who do you think Busbecq is describing here?
Jean Bodin (16th cen. French Philosopher)
“The King of the Turks who rules over a great part of Europe safeguards the rites of religion as well as any prince in this world. Yet he constrains no one, but on the contrary permits everyone to live as his conscience dictates.”
Q: Which aspect of Ottoman rule does Bodin admire?
Suleiman I may have been able to run an empire, but his personal life was different.
He married a harem girl from Poland named Roxelana and had 5 children with her.
He executed his eldest son, Mustafa, because Roxelana said he was planning to kill Suleiman and take power – her son Selim took power when Suleiman died in 1566.
The Ottoman Empire was like most Muslim empires of the time; it was a" gunpowder empire” – the empires success largely based on the mastery of the technology of firearms.”
Sultans were the head of the empire. Sultans were the supreme authorities in both political and military senses.
The position of sultan was hereditary – a son always succeeded the father.
Many deaths among family members took place because of this.
Ottoman Empire at the end of the 17th Century
What were the causes of Ottoman decline in the 17th century?
The problems of the Ottoman Empire began with Selim II.
Around 1699, the problems became more visible. The training of officials declined, and senior positions were given to the sons and daughters of the elite. Members of the elite were busy trying to amass their own fortunes, so local government grew more corrupt and taxes rose. Wars depleted the imperial treasury.
Other problems arose.
The biggest problem was the influence of Western Europe.
Western clothes, Western furniture, tobacco and coffee were introduced to the Ottomans.
Some sultans tried to fight the trends of Western Europe. One outlawed tobacco and coffee. If he caught anyone taking part in immoral or illegal behavior, he had them immediately executed.
Key Terms: Muhgal Dynasty
Established by Turkic invaders in 1526; endured until the middle of the 19th century.
Turkic leader who founded Mughal dynasty; died in 1530.
Son and successor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540, but returned to restore the dynasty n 1556.
Son and successor of Humayan; built up the military and administrative structure of the dynasty, followed policies of cooperation and toleration with the Hindu majority.
Religion initiated by Akbar that blended elements of Islam and Hinduism; did not survive his death.
Key Terms: Mughal Dynasty
Ritual burning of high-caste Hindu women on their husband’s funeral pyres.
Mausoleum for Mumtaz Mahal, built by her husband Shah Jahan; most famous architectural achievement of Muhgal India.
Wife of ruler Jahangir who amassed power at the Mughal court and created a faction ruling the empire during the later years of his reign
Son and successor of Shah Jahan; pushed extent of Mughal control in India; reversed previous policies to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare depleted the empire’s resources; died in 1707.
Aurangzeb took over from his father, Shah Jahan. He had his brother put to death.
He was a devout Muslim and a man of high principle.
He tried to eliminate many of the things he thought were social evils in India: suttee (a Hindu practice of cremating a widow on her husband’s funeral pyre), levying illegal taxes, gambling, and drinking.
He did not embrace religious tolerance – tried to get Hindu to convert to Islam – and this led to social unrest that made India open to attack from abroad.
The Mughal Empire spread from the Hindu Kush mountains east to the Bay of Bengal; from modern-day Afghanistan south to near the southern tip of India.
The Mughals under Babur and Akbar were characterized by religious tolerance, toleration of political administration, and military superiority (use of artillery).
The British helped the decline of the Mughal Empire in India.
Sir Robert Clive became the chief representative of the British East India Company.
He was instrumental in getting the British East India control of Indian trade by taking Bengal. The B.E.I.C. could now tax the lands surrounding the city of Calcutta.
The Indians practiced guerilla warfare against the British.
The British moved inland. Trade brought money to the British. The British were in India to stay.
Women in the Mughal Empire
Women in the Mughal Empire had a complex life.
Women had played a role in Mughal tribal society – warriors and advisors in political matters. They could own land and do business.
They also had restrictions of Islamic law: isolation of women was practiced in upper class Hindu families.
A lot of Hindu practices went unchanged by Mughal rule
Achievements of Mughal Empire
The Mughals brought together Persian and Indian influences in art and architecture.
The Taj Mahal is the greatest example of Mogul architecture.
Akbar got Indian artist to use Persian and Indian motifs.
The “Akbar style” included humans in action.
He encouraged his artist to imitate European art forms, including perspective and lifelike portraits.
He commissioned artist from Persia and Europe to come teach Indian artists.
Key Terms: Safavid Dynasty
Founded by a Turkic nomad family with Shi’a Islamic beliefs; established a kingdom in Iran and ruled until 1722.
Sufi mystic first ruler of the Safavid dynasty.
Safavid leader; conquered the city of Tabriz in 1501 and was proclaimed shah.
Important battle between the Safavids and Ottomans in 1514; Ottoman victory demonstrated the importance of firearms and checked the Western advance of their Shi’a state.
Abbas I (the Great):
Safavid’s shah (1587-1629); extended the empire to its greatest extent; used Western military technology.
Shi’a religious leaders who traced their descent to Ali’s successors.
Religious leaders under the Safavids; worked to convert all subjects to Shi’ism.
Safavids capital under Abbas the Great; planned city exemplifying Safavid architecture.
The Safavid Dynasty started with Shah Ismail.
He was a descendant of Safi al-Din who had been the leader of a Turkish ethnic groups in Azerbaijan near the Caspian Sea.
Under Ismail, the Safavid took control of much of Iran and Iraq
Safavid: Religious Differences
Ismail called himself “shah,” or king, of the new Persian state.
Ismail was a Shiite Muslim. He sent preachers to different areas to convert members of the Ottoman Empire.
This led to the massacre of Sunni Muslims when he took Baghdad.
Ismail lost a major battle at Tabriz to Suleiman over religious differences.
Shah Abbas, who ruled from 1588 to 1629, brought the Safavids to their highest point of glory.
He usurped the throne from his father and imprisoned him. He later killed the man who helped him get the throne.
He attacked the Ottoman Turks, with European help – they saw the Safavids as allies – to regain lost lands from the Ottomans.
The Safavids could not keep territorial gains, but a treaty was signed in 1612 returning Azerbaijan to the Safavids.
The Safavid Empire went from Azerbaijan on the Caspian Sea east to India; along the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea north to the southern border of Russia.
When Shah Abbas died, religious orthodoxy, a pressure to conform to traditional religious beliefs, increased. Women were to give up freedom for a life of seclusion and the wearing of the veil.
Persia sank into a period of anarchy – lawlessness and disorder.
The role of the shah was that of a king.
The social structure was Shah, bureaucracy and landed classes, then the common people.
The official religion was Shia Islam because the Shiites supported the shahs at first.
Safavid: Cultural Achievements
Isfahan was the jewel of the Safavid Empire, and it is still that for modern-day Iran.
Silk weaving flourished, but carpet weaving flourished more – Persian rugs are still prized today.
Riza-i-Abbasi is the most famous artist of this time. He made beautiful works about simple subjects such as oxen plowing, hunters, and lovers. They used soft colors and flowing movement in painting.
The Islamic Gunpowder Empires
Comparison of Sunni and Shia Islam
tribe of the Prophet (Quraysh); later, any qualified ruler
Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem
family of the Prophet
Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Najaf, Karbala
Ruler of Islam
Percentage of total Muslims
What were the similarities and differences among the three Muslim Empires?
Compare and contrast the Islamic groups (Sunni, Shiite, Shia) of the Muslim Empires.
Compare and contrast the social and economic organization of the Ottomans and Safavids.
What weakness was common to all of the Muslim empires?
Chapter 20: Africa and the Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade
Royal African Company
Uthman Don Fodio
Swazi and Lesotho
The Songhay Empire
In 1450 Africa was a diverse continent with a blend of large civilizations, city-states, rural villages, and hunter and gatherer societies. Many people in the north, Sub-Saharan and eastern coastline areas were Muslim, but many native religions remained quite strong.
The largest and most organized empire of Africa from the middle of the 15th century until the late 16th century was Songhay (Songhai) in northwest Africa in areas that had been controlled by the earlier Kingdom of Mali.
Trans-Saharan trade brought salt, textiles, and metal in
exchange for gold and slaves.
Songhay was prosperous, its cities boasted beautiful
public buildings, and Islam was strongly supported by the elite.
Largest empire in African history
But the Songhay did not have guns, and that was their downfall. In 1591 a Moroccan army opened their muskets on the Songhay forces, and they were defeated.
Jenne: Center of Trade
“The town of Jenne (Djenne) was founded near Jenne-jeno between 800 and 1250 A.D. and grew to become an even more significant trans-Saharan trading center than its neighbor. By the fourteenth century, gold, kola, and slaves from the southern savanna, salt and manuscripts from the Sahara, and the staple foods of the Inland Niger Delta were bartered here in an extensive web of trade reaching as far as northern Africa and Europe. By the sixteenth century, Jenne had become one of the foremost market centers on the African continent.” Source: Inland Niger Delta | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Architecture in Timbuktu
Q: Where do you see evidence of cultural diffusion?
The Kongo Kingdom (1300s-1600s)
The 16th century also saw the destruction of most of the Swahili city-states.
Vasco da Gama had noticed them when he passed through on his way to India, and within a few years the Portuguese had aimed their cannons at all the cities, and either captured them or burned them to the ground.
The fate of the Kingdom of Kongo was an early sign of what contact with Europe was to bring to Africa.
Kongo was on the Atlantic Ocean in central Africa, that developed into a centralized state during the 14th century.
The Portuguese set up a trading relationship with them in the late 15th century and converted the Kongo kings to Christianity.
From the beginning, the Portuguese traded textiles, weapons, advisors, and craftsmen for gold, silver, ivory and especially slaves.
Kongo: King Alfonso I
King Alfonso I converted to Catholicism and tried to convert all of his subjects
Portuguese brought textiles and weapons
Africans supplied Portuguese with gold, silver, ivory, and slaves (dealt with local leaders)
King felt undermined, and was defeated in a war by the Portuguese in 1665
Learn more about the Christian Influences in the Kongo!
Discuss how the political, social, and economic organization of the Americas differed from those in Africa.
Discuss how the West affected the political development of Africa and how slavery was a component in the nature of state formation in sub-Saharan Africa.
What was the demographic effects of the African slave trade on the sub-Saharan region?
Discuss the arguments concerning the profitability of the slave trade.
How did the slave trade affect African state formation?
What was the Mfecane and how did it affect southern Africa?
What was the social structure of American slave-based societies?
A Chinese man with a traditional Chinese queue hair design getting a pedicure
The Tokugawa Shogunate (A.K.A. the Edo Period)
Excerpts from the Closed Country Edict of 1635
Japanese ships are strictly forbidden to leave for foreign countries.
No Japanese is permitted to go abroad. If there is anyone who attempts to do so secretly, he must be executed. The ship so involved must be impounded and its owner arrested, and the matter must be reported to the higher authority.
If any Japanese returns from overseas after residing there, he must be put to death.
If there is any place where the teachings of the [Catholic] priests is practiced, the two of you must order a thorough investigation.
All incoming ships must be carefully searched for the followers of the priests.
1640- Every member of a Portuguese delegation was executed upon arrival to Japan
Why did the Japanese resort to isolation as a response to European expansion?
Cultural Achievements during the Tokugawa Era
Haiku poetry (17 syllable poem)
Kabuki theater (musical drama)
Bunraku (plays using puppets- 3 puppeteer operation)
Q: Where do you see evidence of cultural diffusion in this social pyramid?
Code of Bushido!
The Code of Bushido
The Tale of the 47 Ronin demonstrates the Code of Bushido.
The story is about a group of samurai who were left masterless in 1701 by the execution of their master, for assaulting a court official whom he felt had insulted him. After over a year of patient waiting and plotting, they succeeded in avenging him by killing the court official. Although they had committed murder, they had done so for that most noble of reasons (to the Japanese) - in obedience to their duty. As a result, they were allowed an honorable death (seppuku).
The story was turned into a series of Kabuki plays
Q: What central lesson do you think the Tale of 47 Ronin is trying to convey?