Hindi Journalism started because of 5 main reasons



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Hindi Journalism started because of 5 main reasons

  • Hindi Journalism started because of 5 main reasons
  • Love for Hindi language
  • Love for Hindi literature
  • Love for Journalism & journalistic activities
  • To rid the society of social evils
  • To propagate religious values

Concerned solely with social & religious matters

  • Concerned solely with social & religious matters
  • Not much involvement in political affairs
  • Singular attention to ridding society of social evils like Untouchability, lack of education especially girl education, sati, dowry, child marriage, widow remarriage etc

Hindi press transformed to political & nationalistic Press with a demand for self governance when

  • Hindi press transformed to political & nationalistic Press with a demand for self governance when
  • Racial discrimination became rampant
  • Grievances of people against the rulers multiplied

1826, 1st Hindi NP- weekly started in Calcutta, Oodunt Martand

  • 1826, 1st Hindi NP- weekly started in Calcutta, Oodunt Martand
  • Editor- Jooghul Kishore (Jugal Kishor)
  • Pioneer of Hindi journalism in India
  • Faced many difficulties in running it
  • Needed postal facilities to dispatch it outside Bengal- but denied by the Govt.
  • Also refused postal concessions

Unable to face high postal rates

  • Unable to face high postal rates
  • Closed down the paper within an year after 79 issues
  • Made an attempt to start another newspaper in 1850 called Samyadani Martand- but this too failed
  • 1829, Bangadoot, owned by Rajarammohun Roy,
  • sister publication of Bengal Herald (Eng weekly),
  • Ed- Nilratan Haldar
  • Vehicle for propagation of Roy’s views- attacked Hindu orthodoxy & social vices
  • Also published in English, Persian & Bengali
  • Prajamitra- 3rd Hindi journal to appear in Calcutta
  • 1854, 1st Hindi daily- Samachar Subha Varshan,
  • Ed- Shyam Sunder Sen

Many newspapers started- Benaras Akhbar, Tathwa Bodhini, etc

  • Many newspapers started- Benaras Akhbar, Tathwa Bodhini, etc
  • Sudhakar- sustained campaign against missionary activities,
  • Ed- Tara Mohan Mitra, Bilingual newspaper
  • Language used- Khari Boli
  • Saraswathy- literary Hindi magazine, set high standards for future Hindi journals, Ed- Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi
  • Standardized the style & pattern for Hindi journalism- included literary criticism, book reviews, poetry etc,

Birth of many Hindi dailies in Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta, Patna etc

  • Birth of many Hindi dailies in Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta, Patna etc
  • Most prominent ones: Sri Venkateshwar Samachar, Bharat Mitra, calutta Samachar etc
  • Bharat Mitra- became leading Hindi NP of its time in Calcutta, Eds- B Gupta, A P Bajpai
  • Main rival- Viswamitra in 1918

Hindi Journalism- made rapid progress

  • Hindi Journalism- made rapid progress
  • Most reporters & journalists were writers who had interest in Hindi literature & consequently in Hindi journalism
  • Produced outstanding J’s- M.P Dwivedi, C Ram Shukla, Shiv Ram Pandey, Laxminarayan Garde, Narmada Prasad Misra etc
  • Other distinguished writers include:
  • Munshi Premchand, Mahadevi Varma, Ela Chandra Joshi, Chandradhar Sharma Guleri etc

Masses influenced by regional language NPs, especially Hindi, as Hindi widely spoken

  • Masses influenced by regional language NPs, especially Hindi, as Hindi widely spoken
  • English not half as effective
  • Leaders wanted dissemination of news & views on freedom struggle through widely read Hindi papers
  • Reporters & writers had one foot in prison & the other in Ed office

1920, started in Banaras

  • 1920, started in Banaras
  • Notable part in Indian Independence struggle
  • 1st Ed- Sri Prakasa- freedom fighter
  • Espoused the national cause & waged a never ending battle against the British
  • Assisted by Baburao Vishnu Pararkar- contribution to development of Hindi journalism immense
  • Sold at half anna
  • Often compared to The Times, London
  • Main aim of the NP was to spread the message of freedom to Hindi speaking masses of UP, Bihar & MP
  • Was a strong supporter of the INC
  • Famous for- impartial & objective reporting & fearless editorials
  • Covered both national as well as international news

1920, Patna weekly, influential paper, mouthpiece of the Indian National Congress

  • 1920, Patna weekly, influential paper, mouthpiece of the Indian National Congress
  • Proved valuable for nationalist propaganda
  • Founded by Babu Rajendra Prasad
  • Not a profitable venture, incurred huge losses
  • Made the mistake of gradually reducing ad rates
  • Hence, circulation increased and losses kept pace
  • End of non cooperation movement spelt doom

1924, 102 papers in India

  • 1924, 102 papers in India
  • 4 dailies: Aaj- Banaras, Swatantra- Calcutta, Arjun- Delhi & Calcutta Samachar- Calcutta
  • But , Hindi dailies were not as successful as Hindi weeklies
  • Their get up & printing was poor, content clumsily written, had countless errors & editorials were very lengthy
  • Weeklies better edited as they had more time at disposal

In 1920’s, the previous ones and the following

  • In 1920’s, the previous ones and the following
  • Bhavishya- Kanpur, Sainik- Agra
  • In 1930’s,
  • Savadho Bharat- Bombay, Lokmat- Jabalpur, Vartaman- kanpur, Milap- Lahore, Lokmanya- Calcutta
  • Most played a notable role in our struggle for freedom

Started in 1936

  • Started in 1936
  • Sister publication of Hindustan Times
  • Wide news coverage & variety of special features
  • Had high circulation, a very popular paper
  • Aryavart- started in 1940, sister publication of Indian Nation – exercised considerable influence

Navbharat Times of the Times group- started in 1950 in Delhi

  • Navbharat Times of the Times group- started in 1950 in Delhi
  • One of the largest circulated daily today
  • Many editions- from Maharashtra, MP, Chattisgarh
  • Popular for its coverage of national & international news and views on domestic affairs
  • Amrita Patrika- Allahabad, notable Hindi daily notable for its trenchant editorial

Amar Ujala- UP

  • Amar Ujala- UP
  • Sanmarg- Calcutta
  • Kuber Times- Delhi
  • Nai Duniya- Indore
  • Hindi Milap- Hyderabad
  • Rajasthan Patrika- Rajasthan
  • Hindi Tribune- Chandigarh
  • Dopahar Ka Saamna- Mumbai
  • Swatantra Chetna- Gorakhpur
  • Hamara Mahanagar- Mumbai
  • Jansatta- Delhi & Kolkatta

Largest no. of Hindi papers- UP (In 1982- 2052)

  • Largest no. of Hindi papers- UP (In 1982- 2052)
  • Oldest surviving Hindi newspaper (as on 1984)- Jain Gazette- weekly from Lucknow, started in 1895
  • Hindi Press as a whole commands maximum readership
  • More newsprint exists in Hindi than in any other language

Best in Hindi journalism- was seen in periodicals- stronghold of Hindi journalism

  • Best in Hindi journalism- was seen in periodicals- stronghold of Hindi journalism
  • Better style, better made & more appealing
  • E.g., Ravivar (Hindi weekly of Sunday Group) & Hindi Blitz from Bombay
  • Main centers of Hindi publications- UP, MP, Bihar, Rajasthan, Delhi

1918, Mahatma Gandhi advocated the need for recognizing Hindi as the national language

  • 1918, Mahatma Gandhi advocated the need for recognizing Hindi as the national language
  • Several politicians & educationists supported him
  • Stressed the need for introducing Hindi as the medium of instruction in schools
  • Campaign for popularization of Hindi got an impetus- Millionaire philanthropist of Benares, Shiv Prasad Gupta launched Hindi NP Aaj in 1920

Paper was sold for half an anna

  • Paper was sold for half an anna
  • Wanted the paper to become as influential as The Times of London
  • When suggestions were raised to have a common script for all Indian languages, Gandhi asserted use of Devanagari (Roman script was used till then)
  • Indian Army used Roman script to write Hindi, it continued till 1951
  • Bitterness caused by Partition checkmated the effort to have a common script for Hindi & Urdu
  • Though they have lot in common in the spoken form, their scripts have different origins
  • Hindi developed from Sanskrit, Urdu from Persian & Arabic
  • Out of 27 Indian States - 8 States use Hindi as the State language (Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chattisgarh,)

Writers before Independence were people who had love for Hindi language & Hindi literature

  • Writers before Independence were people who had love for Hindi language & Hindi literature
  • Till Independence, Hindi NPs had a mission- Freedom
  • Post Independence, this mission became a profession
  • Industrialists & businessmen took over, gained ownership
  • Ed lost importance, journalists who disagreed terms & conditions – unceremoniously sacked
  • Influx of Hindi supplements, weekend magazines, for both literary reasons + entertainment

Hindi was spoken by 49% of the population

  • Hindi was spoken by 49% of the population
  • English- 3%
  • 1978, NRS- Circulation of Hindi NPs exceeded that of English NPs
  • 1997- 16.1 million Hindi dailies were sold as against 5 million English ones
  • The gap has widened since then & only increasing

Aaj & Dainik Jaagran- highly competitive since 1974

  • Aaj & Dainik Jaagran- highly competitive since 1974
  • Aaj- audited circulation of about 1,20,000
  • By ‘93, published from 12 centers
  • 1998, Aaj’s circulation- 5,70,000, Dainik Jaagran- 7 lac from 11 centers
  • Dainik Bhaskar- 4.78 lakh copies
  • Navbharat Times- 2 editions- 4.19 lakh circulation
  • Navbharat- 7 editions- 4.65 copies

Big NPs like DB, DJ hired Journalists who had 4-5 yrs experience in smaller NPs, no training as such

  • Big NPs like DB, DJ hired Journalists who had 4-5 yrs experience in smaller NPs, no training as such
  • Most J’s came from right wing tinged communities with communal bias against the minority communities
  • Often brought their prejudices to work
  • Serious allegations that smaller Hindi NPs distorted news & exaggerated certain communally sensitive matter during the Babri Masjid demolition

More rooted in soil than English papers

  • More rooted in soil than English papers
  • Covered the mental gap between the readers in rural areas & the English language NPs
  • Bridged the distance between a foreign language NP readers & one who can read his own language
  • Escalation of literacy
  • Increasing purchasing power
  • Hunger for news as well as entertainment

Attempts since 1950’s to exploit the potential of Hindi NPs for developmental purposes

  • Attempts since 1950’s to exploit the potential of Hindi NPs for developmental purposes
  • Govt. realized how it could carry the message of planned development
  • Radio was earlier used to convey such vital info to farmers, agricultural communities
  • With the progress of the literacy programme, the focus shifted to print media since it had greater credibility
  • Hindi NPs played a constructive role in promotion of
  • Family planning programme of the Govt.
  • Rural health programmes
  • Literacy campaigns

Hindi press also helped the rural masses understand the political process

  • Hindi press also helped the rural masses understand the political process
  • Result- more & more people from rural areas driven to politics + more awareness about our working system
  • NPs also played imp. role during elections in 2 ways:
  • Helped candidates get better exposure in small areas
  • Candidates made Press a part of their campaign to seek rural vote bank

More like challenges to regional Press, not Hindi press alone

  • More like challenges to regional Press, not Hindi press alone
  • Maintaining neutrality & objectivity in reporting
  • Being exploited by powerful politicians & industrialists
  • Erosion of the authority of the editor
  • Growing English Press

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