Example: topic: female leaders: the importance of female role models

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  • APA
  • (American Psychological Association)


  • Things to talk about:
  • -Women see more for themselves than what their present situation allows.
  • -How to promote/foster leadership in women.
  • -Schools often discourage individuality.
  • -Female leaders of our past.
  • -Qualities and contributions of these past leaders-two books.
  • -The need for strong, independent, successful females that girls can look to for guidance and leadership.
  • -Individuality is important to foster in young girls.
  • -Leadership camps can be used to foster leadership skills in girls.
  • -A teacher’s role is important in fostering leadership.
  • -Can explore the feminist message in here.

Smith, P. L. & Smits, S. J. (1994) The Feminization of Leadership? Training and Development. 48(2). pp. 43-46.

  • p. 43-More women are breaking into top corporate slots, and more are successfully launching their own companies. Meanwhile, popular notions of successful leadership now encompass characteristics traditionally associated with women.
  • p. 43-Do women exercise leadership differently than men do? And if so, will “feminine” leadership succeed where “masculine” leadership does not?
  • p. 44-Before the 1970’s, few researchers considered the role gender plays in the exercise of leadership. Nor did leadership-development programs consider the particular challenges female executives face.
  • p. 44-Not surprisingly, studies indicate that many women who achieve top-level positions in large corporations tend to perceive, think, value, and behave in ways similar to men.
  • p. 45-It takes time for people to build confidence in themselves and for role models to exert a lasting influence. This study’s findings suggest that the presence of more women in leadership roles could itself create a momentum that inspires and helps other women assert themselves as leaders.


  • BIBLIOGRAPHY- A list of sources you have referred to when completing your piece of work.
  • REFERENCES: (AKA Works Cited, etc…)-A list of sources you have used when completing your piece of work.
  • For all work in my course I would like a list of REFERENCES, not a bibliography.
  • NOTE: A reference list appears at the END of your work or essay.


  • Always alphabetical by authors last name (if no author by organization)
  • 1st line is never indented, rest of lines are indented
  • references are single spaced, DO NOT DOUBLE SPACE
  • Leave one line between each reference
  • DO NOT number your references (1, 2, 3, etc…)
  • Use standard font and letter size (Eg: 12 font, Times New Roman)


  • Canadian Psychological Association. (2014) Advancing Psychology for all. Retrieved from http://www.cpa.ca/sections/aboriginalpsychology
  • Davis, C. et al. (n.d.). Effects of aerobic exercise on overweight children’s cognitive functioning: a randomized controlled trial. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 78 (5), 510-519.
  • Salinger, J. D. (1951). The catcher in the rye. Boston: Warner Books.
  • NOTE: Introduction and conclusion are normally always in your own words (no sources used with a few exceptions). Most references will be seen in body paragraphs.

In-Text Citations

  • Referencing a Direct Quote that is 3 lines or less:
  • With the society turning for the bad as days pass, the teens are getting into all sorts of trouble with drugs and alcohol. “Thirty years ago, drugs were something that older people never talked about and nor did they ever see” (Wang, 2013, 43). Alcohol was small thing that the good people such as churchgoers never touched, but they preached about it. Every town has a town drunk. In today's society teens see alcohol and drugs at least once a day or more. “Thirty years ago drugs were a little harder to find, teenagers did not have access at the time” (CBC, 2013, 1). So, today they face more peer pressure to where now it is illegal and thirty years ago it was legal and not a problem.

In-Text Citations CONT…

  • Referencing a Direct Quote that is over 3 lines:
  • Also, teenagers are under much pressure for their studies, because if they
  • don't pass, they don't get jobs, and things take turn for the worse.
  • With the world economy in crisis, you have to do really, really well in your educational degrees, to even have a look in for a job. It's really taking a toll on teenagers these days, and bad thing is, they can't do anything about it, and neither is there and option. (Zergani, 2013, 14)
  • Adults say that when we become their age, it's the hardest part of life. But I
  • think they're wrong, the teenager year of one's life is the hardest. The
  • transition from a kid to an adult is way harder, than being already and adult,
  • but getting different responsibilities.

In-Text Citations CONT…

  • Referencing when you have reworded a source into your own words:
  • It's all not so bad about being a teenager though. Now you don't have to have your parents take you to somewhere you want to go, and somewhere you couldn't go before. You can go with friends and have fun, which you couldn't because all of you were too little to know what fun is! You can now go to amusement parks, parties etc. with friends, or even alone. It's a very enjoyable time of life, if you do the right stuff, and put thought into what you are doing. But with all good things, must come the bad. During this age, you are old and hopefully smart enough to understand what is good for you, and make decisions without consulting others. But with that comes risk, and nowadays, fun stuff are usually bad stuff. (Khoury, 2013) **Every paragraph is a new start. If you have 3 paragraphs that are from same source you must put an in text citation at the end of every paragraph***

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