Exam #2 Essay Examples The Self and Identity



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Exam #2 Essay Examples



The Self and Identity
1. Describe how the adolescent’s self-understanding differs from the child’s. Give examples to illustrate your ideas.
2. Explain Marcia’s theory of identity statuses and describe what each identity status is. In addition, what

are some criticisms of the identity status approach?


3. Cooper believes that family atmosphere relates to the adolescent’s identity formation. She discusses two factors that are especially important, as well as the two dimensions that make up each factor. Name and thoroughly explain these two factors. Then, tell how they relate to identity formation.
4. Use at least eight different terms or concepts you have learned about in Chapter 9 to analyze the following scenario. Define all terms and tell where exactly in the story they are exhibited.
Pamela is trying to figure out what to do after high school graduation. She doesn’t really mind the idea of moving away from her boyfriend, because he just wasn’t making her happy and had become less interesting to her. Yes, they’d had a great sexual relationship during the past year, but she was ready to move on. Her parents wanted her to go to college and then medical school, but she has been exploring art and writing and thinks she’d like to pursue those.
Marty feels alienated at school and is bored by everything. His mom wants him to either get a job or go to college, but he doesn’t feel like thinking about those topics because they both bore him.
Gender
1. What are the two cognitive theories of gender development? Compare and contrast them.
2. Compare and contrast the following three theories of gender development: (a) anatomy-is-destiny, (b) evolutionary psychology, and (c) social cognitive theory.
3. Identify and define Bem’s four gender-role orientations and explain how they are assessed. Then, give

your opinions about this way of assessing gender-role orientation. Any strengths? Any problems with it?


4. Explain what is meant by gender-role transcendence. How does it differ from androgyny?
5. Explain Gilligan’s view that adolescence is a critical juncture in girls’ development. What are the criticisms of her theory?
6. Although many traits associated with masculinity are considered positive and desirable, Pleck discusses masculinity and what he calls “role-strain.” What has research found concerning problems associated with traditional masculinity? On what three particular areas causing role-strain in males does Pleck focus? Give examples within each of these three areas.
Sexuality
1. Explain some of the predictors of adolescents’ nonuse of contraceptives.
2. Concepts and findings from many previous chapters relate to adolescent sexuality. Discuss some of the issues from previous chapters that are relevant to the discussion of adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Define all terms that you use.
3. Use at least five different terms or concepts you have learned about in Chapter 10 to analyze the

following scenario. Define all terms and tell where exactly in the story they are exhibited.


Nathan’s mother always compliments him on how active and rugged he is and tries to discourage him from wearing jewelry, because “that’s a girl thing.” Nathan won’t wear any jewelry, and he’s getting more involved in sports. He believes that boys are just naturally more athletic and independent, whereas girls naturally like to shop and gossip. He believes that women should not be allowed in certain occupations and insists that he’ll never go to a female doctor, because they “aren’t as good as male doctors.”
Nathan’s 12-year-old sister used to be a “tomboy,” but now she is interested in clothes, make-up, and shopping. Nathan is relieved that she’s now more like a “real girl” so he compliments her on her appearance to try to encourage her to stay that way.
Moral Development
1. Explain the role peers play in moral development according to both Piaget’s view and Hoffman’s cognitive disequilibrium theory.
2. Briefly explain Kohlberg’s levels of moral reasoning and then discuss the four main criticisms of his theory.
3. Define the three different discipline techniques discussed in the text and tell how Hoffman believes they relate to moral development.
4.Compare and contrast values clarification and character education. Then, give your opinion about how

effective you think the two approaches would be in helping to advance the moral development of

adolescents.

5. Discuss cults and the main ways they differ from religions. Then tell who is most likely to get involved in cults and how cult membership is dangerous.


6. Use at least eight different terms or concepts you have learned about in Chapter 12 to analyze the following scenario. Define all terms and tell where exactly in the story they are exhibited.
Silvia’s father always explained why her bad behavior was wrong and how it could harm others. As she became older, Silvia often made moral decisions based on how much other people’s feelings would get hurt. She knew from her father’s teachings that it was right to look after the welfare of others before her own welfare. In school, she and the others students had to take a class where the teacher told them that fairness and justice were extremely important and should govern their behavior. They also did role-playing where they were supposed to stand up for individual rights and freedom. Silvia told the teacher that she didn’t believe that the rights of the individual should outweigh the rights of the group. The teacher told her she would fail the class if she argued.









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