Essential Question

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Essential Question:

  • Essential Question:
    • How did the American desire for Manifest Destiny lead to the acquisition of Texas, Oregon, & California?
  • CPUSH Agenda for Unit 5.2:
    • Clicker Questions
    • Manifest Destiny notes
    • Today’s HW: 9.3
    • Unit 5 Test: Thursday, October 20
    • In-Class Essay: Friday, October 21
  • Westward expansion brought conflict with Indians, such as the Black Hawk War, as trails disrupted hunting grounds and violated previous treaties
  • The Treaty of Fort Laramie created a vast Indian Territory but was repeatedly ignored by whites expanding West
  • In the 1840s, America realized its “manifest destiny” by acquiring all lands to the Pacific Ocean
  • In 1845, the USA annexed the independent nation of Texas
  • In 1848, the USA gained new lands in the SW by winning the Mexican- American War
  • In 1821, Mexico won independence from Spain and the new Mexican gov’t welcomed Americans into Texas by offering cheap land
  • Stephen F Austin became one of the wealthiest “Anglos” in Texas
  • Americans refused to accept Mexican laws
  • They wanted a voice in Mexican government
  • They would not accept a ban on slavery
  • They would not convert to Catholicism
  • In 1835, Texans were in open rebellion against the Mexican government
  • By 1834, Mexican president Santa Anna began to view Anglos as a threat and had Austin arrested
  • Texans lost at the Alamo, but the battle created inspiration: “Remember the Alamo!”
  • Davy Crockett
  • Jim Bowie
  • The Battle of San Jacinto was the decisive victory that resulted in the capture of Santa Anna and independence in 1836
  • From 1836 to 1845, Texas was an independent nation; Sam Houston was the first president of the Republic of Texas
  • In 1838, Houston invited the USA to annex Texas, but the debate over slavery kept America from adding Texas as a state
  • Democrat James K. Polk won the election of 1844 and became the “Manifest Destiny” president
  • He wanted to end British claims to Oregon
  • He urged Congress to make Texas the 28th U.S. state in 1845
  • When Texas was admitted into the Union in 1845, it came in as a slave state
  • To make Northerners happy, President Polk wanted to add Oregon as a free state, but…

…Oregon was jointly occupied by the USA & Britain

  • Oregon residents & President Polk demanded the entire Oregon territory: “54°40’ or fight!”
  • But, the U.S. and Britain compromised, divided Oregon along 49° parallel, and Oregon became a free territory in 1846
  • When Texas won its independence from Mexico in 1836, the 2 sides disagreed over the territorial borders of the Republic of Texas
  • When the U.S. annexed Texas 9 years later, this land claim was not settled

The Mexican-American War (1846—1848)

  • This dispute led to the Mexican-American War from 1846 to 1848
  • In 1846, President Polk sent General Zachary Taylor across the Rio Grande River which provoked Mexico into war

The Mexican-American War

  • Zachary Taylor won in northern Mexico
  • John C Fremont won in California
  • Stephen Kearney captured New Mexico
  • Winfield Scott captured Mexico City
  • The Mexican-American War ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848
  • The USA gained
  • all of Texas to the Rio Grande River
  • Mexico gave up (ceded) territory in the Southwest, called the Mexican Cession
  • 5 years later, the U.S. bought the Gadsden Purchase for $10 million to build a southern railroad
  • America: The Story of Us Western expansion (start at 6.40)
  • “Life on the Oregon Trail” Excerpt #1
  • “Pioneers along the Oregon Trail averaged 15 miles per day, almost exclusively on foot, for nearly 6 months”
  • Excerpt #2 “Covered wagons dominated traffic on the Oregon Trail. The typical wagon was about 11 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 2 feet deep, with bows of hardwood supporting a bonnet that rose about 5 feet above the wagon bed. With only one set of springs under the driver's seat and none on the axles, nearly everyone walked along with their herds of cattle and sheep.”
  • Excerpt #3 “A typical day started before dawn with breakfast of coffee, bacon, and dry bread. The wagon was repacked in time to get underway by 7 o'clock. At noon, they stopped for a cold meal of coffee, beans, and bacon. Then back on the road again. Around 5 in the afternoon, they circled the wagons for the evening. The men secured the animals and made repairs while women cooked a hot meal of tea, boiled rice, and bacon”
  • Excerpt #4 “When the Trail got crowded (in 1849 and later) camping became more difficult. The biggest problem was finding fuel for the campfires. Soon trees were scarce and there was only one alternative: buffalo dung. No one liked collecting it, but it did burn and gave off a consistent odorless flame”
  • Excerpt #5 “Weather-related dangers included thunderstorms, hailstones, lightning, tornadoes, and high winds. The intense heat of the deserts caused wood to shrink & rims to fall of axles. The pioneers’ lips blistered and split in the dry air, and their only remedy was to rub axle grease on their lips. River crossings were often dangerous: even in slow currents & shallow water, wagon wheels could be damaged by rocks or become mired in the muddy bottom”
  • Excerpt #6 “Nearly 1 in 10 who set off on the Oregon Trail did not survive. The two biggest causes of death were disease and accidents. The worst disease was cholera, caused by unsanitary conditions. People in good spirits in the morning could be dead by evening. Symptoms started with an intense stomach ache, then came diarrhea and vomiting causing dehydration. If death did not occur within the first 12 to 24 hours, the victim usually recovered”
  • Excerpt #7 “Indians were usually the least of the pioneers’ problems. Tales of hostile encounters far overshadowed actual incidents. Indian conflicts occasionally resulted from trigger-happy emigrants who shot at Indians for target practice. A few massacres were highly publicized. The Ward Train was attacked by Shoshones who tortured & murdered 19 emigrants”

Essential Question:

  • Essential Question:
    • How did the American desire for Manifest Destiny lead to the acquisition of Texas, Oregon, & California?
  • CPUSH Agenda for Unit 5.2:
    • Clicker Questions
    • Manifest Destiny notes
    • Today’s HW: 9.4
    • Unit 5 Test: Thursday, October 20
    • In-Class Essay: Friday, October 21
  • Manifest Destiny in the 1840s
  • In the 1830s, Mexico offered cheap land to American ranchers & farmers to move to California
  • When the Mexican War broke out in 1846, Californians revolted from Mexican rule and created an independent nation
  • The California Republic was annexed by the USA as part of the Mexican Cession in 1848
  • The discovery of gold in San Francisco led to a flood of Americans to California in 1849
  • America: Story of US (Gold Rush)
  • The California gold rush led to a population boom in the West
  • Gold Fever & Immigration to CA was national

Where the 49ers Came From

  • Gold Fever & Immigration to CA was Global

San Francisco before the gold rush

  • San Francisco after the gold rush
  • By the end of the 1840s, the USA had achieved its Manifest Destiny
  • America had a “continental” empire from the Atlantic to Pacific
  • But as America spread West, sectional issues over slavery grew
  • Label and date each territory and create a symbol that explains how the USA gained the territory
  • Identify 10 major events or changes that took place in American history from 1800 to 1850 that impacted Westward Expansion


  • In groups of two, teams must provide an accurate sentence regarding an event/theme in American history during the antebellum era (1800-1860) for each letter of the alphabet:

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