Engineering Ethics



Download 1.85 Mb.
Date09.08.2018
Size1.85 Mb.
#58733

Engineering Ethics

  • Prof.Dr. Canan Özgen
  • Introduction to Chemical Engineering, ChE 102
  • Chemical Engineering Department,
  • METU

In the 21st century the rate of the applications of the new inventions in different areas are very fast. It is not always possible to reach the pace of technological developments by the pace of social and moral considerations relating to them.

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • In the 21st century the rate of the applications of the new inventions in different areas are very fast. It is not always possible to reach the pace of technological developments by the pace of social and moral considerations relating to them.
  • This is especially very important in engineering and bio-sciences, medicine.
          • We are in need of ethical awareness!!!
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

We are in need of ethical awareness because;

  • “From a good decision can benefit millions, while an unethical one can cripple our future.”
  • (http://www.globalethics.org)
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

“... Human can easily be guided and used by the globalized, made globalized technology. Technology is swallowing the people who have planned and made it. Technology is leading and we are following it...”

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • “... Human can easily be guided and used by the globalized, made globalized technology. Technology is swallowing the people who have planned and made it. Technology is leading and we are following it...”
  • Ahmet İnam (2007)
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

Aykut Köker, (2008)

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • “... An engineer must know and must be aware of that, the final goal in producing or generating the engineering innovations are for the
      • Happiness of people,
      • Increase the societal welfare and the quality of indivudual life,
  • ...Awareness of the social responsibility is the only bridge which will carry the engineer from being only a professional to being human.“
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

Content

  • Introduction
  • Definitions
  • Cases (1&2)
  • 3rd Case: Challenger
  • Engineering Ethics
  • Codes of Ethics
  • Codes of Ethics for Engineers
  • History
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

Content (cont’d)

  • Engineering Ethics and Engineering Design
  • Ethical Theories
  • 4th Case: Bhopal Disaster
  • 5th Case: Mercedes
  • METU Honor Code
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Aritotoles defines ethics, as ”science dealing with character”.
  • It is the science studying ideal human character and activities.
  • Definitions
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • “Ethics is the attempt to understand our personnel and social experiences in a systematic way.”*
  • *Akın Ergüden, Notlar, 2000.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • “Ethics” is about how we meet the challenge of doing the right thing when that will cost more than we want to pay”.*
  • *The Josephson Institute of Ethics
  • Definitions
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

As engineers these definitions apply to all of their choices, including those made while practicing.

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • As engineers these definitions apply to all of their choices, including those made while practicing.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

ENGINEERING and MORALITY

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

“As an engineer we mean, to be aware of engineering ethics. Engineer recalls me also ethics; they don’t have different meanings. “....If something that you do, is not ethical, this is anyway, something that does not fit engineering... To override ethical codes must be understood something like, you violate the second law of thermodynamics.”

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • “As an engineer we mean, to be aware of engineering ethics. Engineer recalls me also ethics; they don’t have different meanings. “....If something that you do, is not ethical, this is anyway, something that does not fit engineering... To override ethical codes must be understood something like, you violate the second law of thermodynamics.”
  • Ahmet İnam (2007)
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

Engineers must be aware of

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Environmental Problems
    • 3R’s: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
    • Energy (Bio-mass)
    • Global warming
  • Food
  • SET for Sustainable Development
  • e-learning
  • Computers increase 2 times in 2 years.
  • Ethics in using them !!!
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

Engineers must Shape their Mind for Peace

  • Morality,
  • Tolerans, Mutual Respect
  • Human Rights/ Justice
  • Dialogue/Debate

Equity, Effordibility, Accessibility, Quality, Sufficiency (Knowledge and Morality)

  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Engineers must consider:
  • “What ever you search for, you can find it in yourself.”
  • ”Her ne arasan kendinde bulacaksın.” Hacı Bektaş Veli
  • Ethics is always a personnal issue.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • No borders!!
  • Art …. Philosophy
  • 20th century philosophers
  • Heidegger
  • George Gadamer
  • Richard Rorty
  • The importance and effect of any mass depends not only to itself but also to the interaction of it with its surroundings.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

Chagal, 1908 “I and My Village.”

  • 09.08.18
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

1st Case : Ford Pinto*

  • On August 10, 1978, a Ford Pinto was hit from behind on a highway in Indiana. The impact of the collision caused the Pinto’s fuel tank to rupture and burst into flames, leading to the deaths of three teenage girls riding the car.
  • Ford was charged in a criminal court for the deaths of the passengers and found negligent.
  • The gas tank design was flawed and was not in line with accepted engineering standards, even though it did meet applicable federal safety standards at the time.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

1st Case : Ford Pinto (cont’d)

  • Ford engineers were aware of the dangers of this design.
  • Management, concerned with getting the Pinto to market rapidly at a price competitive with others, had constrained the engineers to use the design.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

1st Case : Ford Pinto (cont’d)

  • The dilemma faced by the design engineers who worked on the Pinto was to balance
    • the safety of the people who would be riding the car against
    • the need to produce the Pinto at a price that would be competitive in the market.
  • They had to attempt to balance
    • their duty to the public against
    • their duty to their employer.
  • *C.B. Fleddermann, Engineering Ethics, Prentice Hall,1999.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

1st Case : Ford Pinto (cont’d)

  • Result:
    • Death of three teenage girls !!!
    • the expenditure of millions of dollars in defending lawsuits,
    • payments to victims and
    • uncountable costs in lost sales due to bad publicity.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

2nd Case : A Case from Turkey

  • 1999 Turkey experienced one of the greatest disasters of the 20th century.
  • Buildings badly and wrongly constructed caused the deaths of thousands.
  • A similar earthquake occured in Japan recently (7.3) resulted in 0 number of deaths with 28 injured people.
  • WHY?
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

3rd Case: Challenger (1986)

  • Space shuttle Challenger was designed to be reusable launch vehicle.
  • A key aspect of the booster design are the joints where the individual cylinders come together.
  • The joints are sealed by two O-rings. The O-rings which are made from synthetic rubber are designed to prevent hot gases from the combustion of the solid propellant from escaping.
  • Previously the O-rings were found to be inadequate and redesigned causing delays in the program.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

3rd Case: Challenger (cont’d)

  • The political climate:
  • NASA budget was determined by Congress who was unhappy with the delays of the shuttle.
  • European Space Agency was developing what seemed to be a cheaper alternative to the shuttle.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

3rd Case: Challenger (cont’d)

  • NASA felt pressure to get the Challenger launched on time so that the next shuttle launch was to carry a probe to examine Halley’s comet before Russians launch.
  • President Reagan was planning to mention the shuttle and a special astronaut-the first teacher in the space- Christa McAuliffe before the upcoming state-of-the-union address.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

3rd Case: Challenger (cont’d)

  • The days before the launch
  • The first launch date was postponed due to cold front expected to move through the area.
  • Again another cold front was expected with temperatures predicted to be in the low 20’s(oF) by the new launch time.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

3rd Case: Challenger (cont’d)

  • Night before the launch
  • 14 engineers at Morton Thiokol had unanimously and vigorously voiced opposition to the launch.
  • They warned that temperatures at the launch site were below the tested safety range. Low temperatures could make O-rings, which form part of the seals between segments of the booster rockets, less pliable and cause them to fail.
  • Moreover engineers were aware of a history of concern over these seals, which had shown alarming erosion in previous launches and were already being redesigned.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

3rd Case: Challenger (cont’d)

  • During the teleconference, Roger Boisjoly and Arnie Thompson, two Thiokol engineers who had worked on the solid-propellant booster design, gave an hour-long presentation on how the cold whether would increase the problems of joint rotation and sealing of the joint by the O-rings.
  • However, they did not have enough verified experimental data.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

3rd Case: Challenger (cont’d)

  • Project managers were disagreed with engineers due to inconclusive data. With the available data there seemed to be no correlation between temperature and the degree to which blow-by gasses had eroded O-rings in previous launches.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

3rd Case: Challenger (cont’d)

  • The Launch:
  • Contrary to weather prediction
  • the overnight temperature
  • was 8oF. Due to the
  • extremely low temperature
  • the O-ring didn’t seat
  • properly.
  • The shuttle exploded soon
  • (73 sec.) after lift off in Jan. 1986.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

3rd Case: Challenger (cont’d)

  • The Aftermath:
  • Roger Boisjoly handed over the reports detailing the design process to the investigation commission. His actions hurt the efforts of Thiokol. He was isolated in the company . Eventually, he took extended sick leave.
  • Roger Boisjoly took direct action to force the attention of management to the issue and this specifically resulted in AAAS award for his efforts to avert the Challenger explosion.He is now lecturing on ethics in Universities. Many of the managers of NASA and of Thiokol have been changed or retired by time. The launch schedule originally intended by NASA has never been met.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

3rd Case: Challenger (cont’d)

  • The horror of the Challenger accident brought the organizational deficiencies out into the open. It serve as a reminder that
  • communication and ethics are
  • crucial components to such an organization.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

  • The point here is due to the position of Boisjoly, his ability to influence the management was poor. Poor response of Thiokol and of NASA resulted in disaster.
  • This example demonstrates how courage, honesty, and concern for safety is implemented in engineering practice.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

Engineering Ethics

  • Engineering Ethics
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

Engineering Ethics

  • Engineering ethics is the study of
    • moral issues and
    • moral decisions
  • confronting individuals and organizations engaged in engineering.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

Engineering Ethics (cont’d)

  • “Whenever engineers do anything that imparts the lives of anyone- their choices of action are based on ethics.
  • In these choices engineers apply their
    • own moral standards,
    • mindful of the legal requirements,
    • using their personal code of ethics
  • to make the decision.”*
  • *R. Turton, R.C. Bailie, W.B. Whiting and J. A. Shaeiwitz, Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Prentice Hall, 1998.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

Engineers are problem solvers.

  • .
  • Quantitatively, engineering is the profession, that affects all of our lives in the greatest extent.
  • The skill of a surgeon’s hands affects one patient at a time, the judgement of a design engineer can influence hundreds of lives at once.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • The concept of “Engineering ethics” is an interdisciplinary discipline involving philosophy, engineering, social sciences, law and management sciences.
  • Engineering Ethics (cont’d) (Last word)
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Engineering Ethics versus Engineering Design
  • The types of problem solving techniques, and the nature of the answers bear resemblances with design.
  • In both cases there are many correct solutions. Some are better than others.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Engineering Ethics versus Engineering Design (cont’d)
  • Both apply a large body of knowledge to the solution of a problem.
  • Both involve the use of analytical skills.
  • Approaches to the problems and the ultimate solution will be very similar.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Use of Ethical Theories
  • In order to develop workable ethical problem-solving techniques, we must look at several theories of ethics in order to have a framework for decision making.
  • The relatively large number of theories reflects the complexity of ethical problems and the diversity of approaches that have been developed over the centuries.
  • GG3 Great Greeks: Aristoteles, Socrates, Plato
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Ethical Theories (cont’d)
  • 1. Utilitarianism-
  • John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
  • defined as balance between good and bad. Account the consequences for everyone
  • affected. Those actions are good that serve
  • to maximize human well-being
  • like cost-benefit analysis.
  • most benefit to the most people.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Ethical Theories (cont’d)
  • 2. Duty ethics [Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)]
  • 3. Right ethics [John Locke(1632-1704)].
  • They are similar.
  • Moral duties such as be honest, don’t cause suffering to other people, be fair to others etc are our duties these are universal principles. Once our duties are recognized the ethical actions are obvious.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Ethical Theories (cont’d)
  • 4. Virtue ethics:
  • Virtue ethics focuses on
    • responsibility, honesty,
    • competence and loyalty.
  • Actions are considered right if they support good character virtues.
  • Virtue ethics is closely tied to personnel character, but cannot be separated from business morality.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Which theory to use?
  • In solving ethical problems, we can use all of them
    • to analyse a problem from different angles
    • to see what result each of the theories gives us.
  • Frequently, the result will be the same even though theories are very different.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • “There are really only two important points when it comes to ethics.
    • The first is a standard (code) to follow.
    • The second is the will to follow it.”*
    • *J.C. Maxwell, Bussiness Ethics, 2003
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

Code of Ethics

  • Aim is to prevent the mistakes to be done, and to serve as a guide for the profession in order to serve to humanity in a better way.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

Code of Ethics

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Express the rights, duties and obligations of the members,
  • Provide a framework for ethical judgement for a professional,
  • Express commitment to ethical conduct shared by members,
  • Define roles and responsibilities of professionals.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 18th April 2009
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • History*
  • BC 1800: Hammurabi rules (medicine)
  • BC 460-370 Hippocrates pledge
  • 1793: Thomas Percival, Manchester. The first
  • modern medical ethic code.
  • 1846: Acceptance of medical ethic codes in
  • USA.
  • 1910: The acceptance of first business ethic
  • codes in England by Civil Eng. Institute.
  • 1912: The first written manuscript by The
  • American Institute of Electrical
  • Engineers
  • 1947: Basic codes of Ethics, NSPE.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 30th April 2009
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • History (cont’d)
  • 1951: FEANI, by German and French engineers.
  • Today in 27 countries European Engineering
  • degree (EUR-ING), can only be hold by the
  • owner of the degree if the ethic codes of
  • FEANI is followed.
  • 1955: Acceptance of basic ethic codes in USA by
  • 82 engineering organisation.
  • 1985: WFEO Environmental engineering ethic
  • codes.
  • P.L.Alger, N.A. Christensen, S.P. Olmsted, Ethical Problems in Eng., John Wiley and Sons, NY, 1965
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 30th April 2009
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • History (cont’d)
  • 1992: The Inst.of Eng. of Australia accepted
  • ethic codes.
  • 1995: Ethics Center by NSF.
  • 1956: In the scope of Chamber studies TMMOB,
  • a notice is prepared dated 1947 from
  • which “Engineers Code of Conduct”
  • (Mühendislerin Ahlak Kaideleri) have been
  • published.
  • 2004. There is now a “code of ethics for
  • engineers” which has been prepared and
  • approved by TMMOB.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 30th April 2009
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

Code of Ethics of Engineers

  • The Fundamental Principles
  • Goals:
  • Uphold and advance the integrity, honour and dignity of the engineering profession by:
    • Being honest and impartial and serving with fidelity their employers, their clients and the public.
    • Striving to increase the competence and prestige of the engineering profession.
    • Using their knowledge and skill for the enhancement of human welfare.
    • Supporting the professional and technical societies of their disciplines.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

The Fundamental Canons

  • 1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public in performance of their professional duties.
  • 2. Engineers shall perform services only in the areas of their competence.
  • 3. Engineers shall issue statements or present information only in an objective and truthful manner.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen

The Fundamental Canons (cont’d)

  • 4. Act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and avoid conflicts of interest.
  • 5. Engineers shall build their professional reputations on the merits of their services.
  • 6. Engineers shall act in such a manner as to uphold and enhance the honor, integrity and dignity of the profession.
  • 7. Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their carriers, and provide opportunities for the professional development of those under their supervision.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • “When in Rome, do as Romans do.”
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 4th Case: The Disaster at Bhopal
  • December 2, 1984 a leak developed in a storage tank at a Union Carbide chemical plant in Bhopal, India.
  • Tank contained 10 000 gallons of MIC (methyl isocyanide).
  • The leak sent a toxic cloud of gas over the surrounding slums of Bhopal, resulting in the death of over 2000 people and injuries over 200 000 more.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 4th Case: The Disaster at Bhopal (cont’d)
  • The leak was attributed to the accidental pouring of water. Water reacts very vigorously with MIC, causing heating of the liquid.
  • Mixing of water with MIC increased the temperature of the liquid in the tank to 4000F causing MIC to vaporize, leading to a build-up of high pressure within the tank.
  • When internal pressure became high enough, a pressure-relief valve opened, leaking MIC vapors into the air.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 4th Case: The Disaster at Bhopal (cont’d)
  • As many of the disasters and accidents there was not just one event that led to the disaster, but rather there were several factors.
  • A major factor in this accident was the curtailment of plant maintenance as part of a cost-cutting effort.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 4th Case: The Disaster at Bhopal (cont’d)
  • 1. The MIC storage tank had a refrigeration unit on it, which should have helped to keep the tank temperatures closer to normal. However, this had stopped working five months before the accident and hadn’t yet been repaired.
  • 2.The tank was equipped with a alarm that should have alerted plant workers to the dangerous temperatures: this alarm was improperly set, so no warning was given.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 4th Case: The Disaster at Bhopal (cont’d)
  • 3. The plant was equipped with a flare tower, which was designed to burn vapours before they enter atmosphere, and would have been able to reduce, if not eliminate, the amount of damage. The flare was not functioning.
  • 4. Finally, a scrubber that was used to neutralize toxic vapours was not activated until the vapour release was already in progress.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

4th Case: The Disaster at Bhopal (cont’d)

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • The plant designers clearly did their job. BUT;
    • The management of the plant seems obviously negligent.
    • Union Carbide also seems negligent in not preparing a plan for notifying and evacuating the surrounding population in the event of an accident.
  • Such plans are standard in USA.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

4th Case: The Disaster at Bhopal (cont’d)

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Indian government is also blamed not to put some safety standards.
  • Local government had no policy or zoning forbidding squatters and others from living so close to a chemical plant.
  • The bulk of the blame goes to UC for failure to adequately train and supervise its Indian employers in the maintenance and safety procedures that are taken for granted in similar plants in USA.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 4th Case: The Disaster at Bhopal (cont’d)
  • As a result:
  • UC paid over $250 billion for the lawsuits on behalf of the victims of the accident.
  • UC also helped set up job training and relocation programs for the victims of the accident.
  • Ultimately, it has been estimated that approximately 10 000 of those injured in the accident will suffer some form of permanent damage.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • This case in engineering ethics shows us the importance of the safety of the workers and the environment no matter where the place is.
  • In order for a project to be completed successfully, cooperation among team members is essential.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

5th Case: Mercedes

  • Combination of Ford Pinto and Bhopal Cases
  • 24th October 1997, Turkey
  • An accident took place between a bus (Mercedes) and a tanker.
  • 49 people died.
  • Reason: Design of the shelter and the number of hammers were not same as others designed for European countries.
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • ...Hem bilim, hem bilimin uygulanması olan teknoloji, hem toplum, hem ekonomi, ve üstelik buna estetik ve kültürel boyutu da kattığınız zaman, mühendislik mesleğinin gerçekten 21. Yüzyılda, belki önümüzdeki yüzyılda da dünyayı dönüştürmeye en yakın aday olabilecek bir meslek olduğunu düşünüyorum…”
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Ahmet İnam, Cumhuriyet Newspaper,Sci.& Tech. Suppl. 29 Feb. 2008

“There is no such thing as

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • “There is no such thing as
  • Business Ethics”
  • There is only ONE RULE for making Decisions.”
  • J.C. Maxwell
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

GOLDEN RULE

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • “In such a case what do I want them to do on me?”
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

PLAGIARISM:

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • PLAGIARISM is using, presenting or submission of someone else’s ideas or phrasing without clearly acknowledging the source of that information (that is without any citation or credits) and representing those ideas or phrasing as our own, either on purpose or through carelessness.”
  • http://webster.commnet.edu/mla/plagiarism.htm
  • http://education.indiana.edu/~frick/plagiarism
  • http://www.georgetown.edu/honor/plagiarism.htm
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

PLAGIARISM:

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • One form is a word-to-word copying of someone else’s work, in whole or in part, without acknowledgment, whether that work be a magazine article, a portion of a book, a newspaper piece, another student’s essay, or any other composition not your own.
  • A second form of plagiarism is the acknowledged paraphrasing of the structure and language of another’s person’s work, changing a few words of another’s composition, omitting a few sentences or changing the order. If such borrowing or paraphrase is ever necessary, the source must be indicated by footnotes.
  • Another form of plagiarism consists of writing a paper based solely on the ideas of another. Even though the language is not the same, if thinking is clearly not your own, then you have committed plagiarism
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

Examples of Plagiarism:

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Original in the source:
  • “Two fundamentally different types of models of anomalous mental phenomena have been developed: those that attempt to order and structure the raw observations in experiments (i.e., phenomenological model) and those that attempt to explain these phenomena in terms of modifications to existing physical theories (i.e., fundamental models).” *
  • *May, Utts & Spottiswoode, 1995: 197
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

Examples of Plagiarism:

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • How it looks in student paper:
  • There are two fundamentally different models of anomalous mental phenomena developed: those that attempt to order and structure the raw observations in experiments (i.e., phenomenological model) and those that attempt to explain these phenomena in terms of modifications to existing physical theories (i.e., fundamental models). These two models play a role in differentiating the people’s behaviour patterns.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

Examples of Plagiarism:

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Sample Correct version:
  • “Two fundamentally different types of models of anomalous mental phenomena have been developed: those that attempt to order and structure the raw observations in experiments (i.e., phenomenological model) and those that attempt to explain these phenomena in terms of modifications to existing physical theories (i.e., fundamental models)”(May, Utts & Spottiswoode, 1995: 197). These two models play a role in differentiating the people’s behaviour patterns.
  • Note that those taken word-to-word are given in ” ... ”.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

Examples of Plagiarism:

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Lifting small parts and scattering them:
  • How it looks in the student paper:
  • Two different types of models of anomalous mental phenomena have been developed: phenomenological model and fundamental models. These two models play a role in differentiating the people’s behaviour patterns.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

Examples of Plagiarism:

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Sample correct version:
  • May, et al. (1995) state that two models have been formed for anomalous mental phenomena, which are “phenomenological model” and “fundamental model”. These two models play a role in differentiating the people’s behaviour patterns.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

SUGGESTIONS FOR AVOIDING PLAGIARISM :

  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Consult your instructor/supervisor
  • Learn about the accepted referencing style in your department/faculty
  • Start early
  • When reading, make notes and references all the time
  • Keep a notebook for your own ideas
  • Always make a reference when you take information from a source.
  • Always make a reference when you paraphrase or summarise
  • Cite any type of source you use .
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Every member of METU community adopts the following honour code as one of the core principles of academic life and strives to develop an academic environment where continuous adherence to this code is promoted.
  • METU HONOR CODE
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • "The members of the METU community are reliable, responsible honourable people who embrace only the success and recognition they deserve, and act with integrity in their use and presentation of facts, data and documents."
  • 9.Ağustos.2018
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • Engineering Pledge
  • (1954 by NSPE to be used in Graduation Ceremonies)
  • As a Professional Engineer, I dedicate my professional knowledge and skill to the advancement and betterment of human welfare
  • I pledge:
  • To give the utmost of performance;
  • To participate in none but honest enterprise;
  • To live and work according to the laws of man and the highest standards of professional conduct;
  • To place service before profit, the honour and standing of the profession before personal advantage, and the public welfare above all other considerations.
  • In humility and with need for Divine Guidance, I make this pledge.
  • Engineering Ethics, C. Özgen
  • 9.Ağustos.2018

Thank you.



Download 1.85 Mb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2022
send message

    Main page