Use Cambria, Times New Roman or equivalent font in 12-point black (notinyfontsizesor fancy/illegible/colouredfonts,suchasImpact,please), with 1.5 or double spacing.
On the front page of your essay, please include the following:
Your name and SID.
The Unit of Study code and title (eg ‘HSTY1025 The Middle Ages’)
The assessment task (eg ‘Short Paper 1’; ‘Major Essay’)
The date the essay was submitted.
The question you are answering, and/or a short title for your essay.
The word count of your essay, not including footnotes or bibliography. (To obtain an accurate word count for your essay, select the text of the essay, excluding the Bibliography, then go to ‘Word Count’ in the ‘Tools’ menu, making sure that the option to ‘Include footnotes and endnotes’ is NOT checked.)
Save your essay as a word file (NOT a pdf), and label it using the following formula: FamilyName_FirstName_UoSCode_Assessment Task. For example, your first essay in the first-year unit ‘The Middle Ages’ might be labelled like this: ‘Smith_Jane_HSTY1025_Essay1.doc’.
Submit your essay online by uploading it to the LMS (currently Blackboard) before the deadline (be aware of the time as well as the date by which the work is due). Detailed instructions about how to submit your work will be available in each unit of study. Make sure you receive AND KEEP the emailed receipt for your submission. If for any reason your essay goes astray, you will have to produce this receipt as evidence that you submitted it on time, or at all.
File a copy of your essay in a safe place on your computer, and be sure to keep a backup (e.g. on the Cloud or a flash drive, or on another computer). If there are any problems with the submission process, you may need to produce this copy at short notice.
Style and Presentation: Some Pointers Runa spell-check,but also take the time toproofreadyouressay carefully yourself. (Wehaveread many essays inwhichtheFrenchRevolutionbeganin 1879 or 1989.)Aspell-checkwilldetectneither erroneousdatesnorcorrectlyspelledwordsusedwrongly. Watch for common errors, such as mixing up form and from, or than and then. Reading your essay aloud is a good way to detect errors that would otherwise pass unnoticed.
If you are using acronyms for the name of a country,state,institutionororganisation, give the full titlein thefirst instance,withtheacronyminparentheses,e.g.Australian Historical Association (AHA); thereafter,simplyusetheacronym.
Avoidcontractionssuch asdon’t or wasn’t – they are not appropriate in scholarly prose. [This is also a handy way to resolve the perennial problem of its and it’s. Just remember that its should NEVER need an apostrophe in a scholarly essay. If you can sensibly turn your it’s into it is, then you should do so. If you can’t, then it is the possessive form – e.g.‘Itseffects were uneven’ – and needs no apostrophe.]
Use apostrophes with care. Thepeasant’srevolt(singularpossessive,i.e.onepeasantrevolting) is unlikely to have been successful BUTthepeasants’revolt(pluralpossessive,i.e.manypeasantsrevolting) may have stood a better chance.Avoid the temptation to add an apostrophe, just in case, to every word ending in s: The peasantsof Russia, for example,are plural, not possessive, and need noapostrophe. For the same reason, noapostropheshould be usedin1870s,1650setc, which describe a group of several years. Use hyphens and dashes with care. The hyphen (-) is used in numbers (twenty-two, forty-five) and compound adjectives (nineteenth-century mores, working-class rebellion, three-year-old boy). The en-dash (–) may be used, with a space on either side, as a punctuation mark – though you should minimise its use in your scholarly work. The en-dash is also used to show a span of years, e.g. 1920–45. You will find the en-dash in your ‘Insert – Symbol’ menu, or use the shortcut ALT-HYPHEN. Spelloutnumbersunder100,e.g.one,seventeen,ninety-nine.Numbersfrom100 uparegivenasfigures,e.g.107,exceptforroundnumbers and approximations,e.g.fivethousand people. Do not start a sentence with a numeral or numeric date. Either spell out the word – e.g. Three hundred and fifty-nine people died that day – or rearrange the sentence: Many people felt the disastrous impact in 1929 NOT 1929 was a disastrous year for many people. Dates should be written as24June1955.Monthsshouldbespelledoutinfull – February, not Feb. Spelloutcenturynumbers,e.g.twentiethcenturyratherthan20th century. Showa spanofyearsas 1920–45,not1920–1945.
Short quotations(up to threelineslong)can generally be run in to the main text using single quotation marks (‘blahblah’). For quotations within a quotation, use double quotationmarks:‘Allhecouldeversaywas“blahblah”,andeventhenhe onlymutteredit ’,shesaiddarkly.
Quotationsthatarefourlineslongormoremustbevisuallyseparatedfromthe maintext as a block quotation:
You can do so like this, using single spacing and a bigger left-hand indent than the main text. You may wish to leave an additional line space before and after the quotation. You should not use a different or smaller font for the indented quotation, nor should you use italics. Introduce your block quotation with a colon, and do not enclose it in inverted commas.1
Use an ellipsis ( … ) to indicate where you have omitted a word, phrase, line or paragraph from within a quotation. Note that ellipses are not needed at either end of your quotation.
Referencing Style: Using Footnotes All scholarly essays require references, which show the reader where you found the evidence and ideas on which your analysis is based. Essayswithoutreferences,orwithinadequatereferences,do notmeetthebasicrequirementsofscholarshipandwillnotreceiveapassinggrade. Therearethreemainacademicreferencingsystems:footnotes,endnotesandin-text references. Essays submitted to the Department of History should always use footnotes. Thein-textreferencingsystem,sometimesknownastheHarvardsystem,isused mainlyinthesocialsciences.Ittakestheform‘Brownarguesthattheskyisblue (Brown,2001:245)’.In historical scholarship, where sources are often complex (eg a series of documents in a unique archival collection), in-text referencing can be difficult to use, clumsy and awkward. For this reason, footnotes are the preferred form of referencing in History. (You’ll notice that book publishers tend to prefer endnotes, which place the references at the end of the document, keeping the pages of text free from clutter. But journal editors usually prefer footnotes – and so do we, because they enable us see at a glance how you are backing up your arguments.)
Tocreatea footnote, make sure your cursor is placed where the reference mark is needed, then gototheInsertmenu (inMicrosoftWord for Mac) andchooseFootnote(or,if youareusing Windows, to ReferenceandthenFootnote). A note will open at the bottom of the page where you may enter the details of your source. The footnotes will automatically be numbered consecutively from the beginning to the end of your essay.
In general, there should not be more than one footnote in any given sentence. Thereferencenumbershould goat theendofthesentence, AFTER the full stop.2 If the information contained in the sentence comes from two or more different sources, youmay include multiple references in the same footnote. Do not ‘stack up’ several footnote numbers in the same spot, like this.345 Footnotesshould besingle-spaced, in 10 point or larger font size,andseparatedfromeachotherbya singleline. Treat eachfootnotelikea newsentence: it should begin with a capital letter and end witha fullstop. Providethefollowinginformation for each source:nameoftheauthor;title ofthe source; relevant publication details;andthepage number(s)relevant to your reference. A reference to a book (one of the most common forms of footnotes) will look like this: Kirsten McKenzie, Imperial Underworld: An Escaped Convict and the Transformation of the British Colonial Order, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016, p. 16. Thefullinformationisgiveninthefirstcitation;insubsequentcitations, you should use a shorterversion, usually the author’s family name and a short title that clearly identifies the work – e.g. McKenzie Imperial Underworld, pp. 134–5. Note, in the above examples, the use of ‘p.’to refer to a single page and ‘pp.’ to refer to multiple or a range of pages. Do not use capital ‘P.’ or ‘pg’. Theformat and precise informationrequired varyaccordingtothe typeofsourceused, whetherbook,journalarticle,chapter or essayinaneditedbook, orwebsite. For detailed guidelines on how to reference your history essay, please see The History Department’s Guide to Using and Referencing Primary and Secondary Sources.
1 The footnote reference number should be placed at the end of the quotation.
2 Like this.
3 Because then it looks as if you have more than 345 footnotes in your essay!