Direct Access "physical access"



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Cataloging Overview April 16, 2009

Direct Access “physical access”

  • Why Catalog?
  • Direct Access “physical access”
  • Indirect Access “bibliographic or bib access”
  • Cataloging and classifying materials are the ways libraries create both types of access!

Creation of a bib record = full description of the material and its contents

  • The Process
  • Creation of a bib record = full description of the material and its contents
    • Titles, authors, subject headings
    • Language, publication information, notes, summaries, audience, reading programs
  • Assignment of Call Number = Dewey Decimal number for subject organization on shelves

The goal of bibliographic control in libraries is to :

  • Bibliographic Control
  • The goal of bibliographic control in libraries is to :
    • Identify the materials the library owns
    • To manage these materials in an effective way
    • This is achieved through the creation of
    • “The Catalog”

To enable a person to find a book by

  • Functions of the Catalog by Charles A. Cutter (1876)
  • To enable a person to find a book by
    • The author
    • The title
    • The subject

2. To show what the library has

  • Functions of the Catalog by Charles A. Cutter (1876)
  • 2. To show what the library has
    • By a given author
    • On a given subject
    • In a given kind of literature

3. To assist in the choice of a book

  • Functions of the Catalog by Charles A. Cutter (1876)
  • 3. To assist in the choice of a book
    • As to the edition
    • As to the format
    • As to its character (literary or topical)

The creation of only one form of a name, subject, and series (LC Authority File)

  • Authority Files
  • The creation of only one form of a name, subject, and series (LC Authority File)
    • This brings together all works by an author, on a particular topic, and in the same series
    • Uniform Titles bring together all variations of editions and versions
    • http://authorities.loc.gov/
  • Require the exact transcription of data from the item itself so the user knows he has the correct item (Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed., 1998 revision (AACR2-98)
  • http://www.loc.gov/aba/

ISBD standardizes international cataloging

  • ISBD International Standard Bibliographic Description
  • ISBD standardizes international cataloging
    • Records produced in one country or language can be understood in other countries
    • All records can be integrated into catalogs of other locations
    • Records written or printed can be converted into machine readable form
    • http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/pubs/isbdg2004.pdf
  • Levels of Description
  • Level 1 = Minimal description
  • Level 2 = Most but not all rules applied (this level is what most libraries do)
  • Level 3 = All rules applied
  • Chief Source of Information - Books
  • Generally the title page and the colophon (usually found on the verso of the title page but in children’s books also found at the back of the book). ISBNs can be taken from any place from the book including the back cover.

Title and statement of responsibility (1xx, 245, 246, and 7xx tags)

  • 7 Areas of Description for Books
  • Title and statement of responsibility (1xx, 245, 246, and 7xx tags)
  • Edition (250 tag)
  • Publication, Distribution (260 tag)
  • Physical Description (300 tag)
  • Series (4xx and 830 tags)
  • Notes (500 tags)
  • Standard Numbers (01x-09x tags)

1. The Leader (000 tag – defines the type of material being cataloged)

  • MARC Record – 3 Parts
  • 1. The Leader (000 tag – defines the type of material being cataloged)
  • The 000 tag or leader of the MARC Bibliographic format contains coded information about the rest of the MARC record. The tag contains twenty-four character positions numbered from 00 to 23. The codes may be useful in retrieving records, sorting search results, and data management. The 000 tag is required in all records. )
    • (I cataloged a DVD but the record shows that this is a book. How do I change the icon to show it’s really a DVD?)
  • 2. The Directory (system generated)
  • 3. Variable Fields or Tags

There are 24 positions in the Leader, numbered from 00 to 23. For fuller explanation, see the MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data.

  • The Leader (1)
  • There are 24 positions in the Leader, numbered from 00 to 23. For fuller explanation, see the MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data.
  • 00-04 Record length (calculated by the computer for each record)
  • 05 Record status
  • a=increase in encoding level c=corrected or revised d=deleted n=new p=increase in encoding from prepublication (previous CIP)
  • 06 Type of record
    • a=language material c=printed music d=manuscript music e=cartographic material f=manuscript cartographic material g=projected medium i=nonmusical sound recording j=musical sound recording k=2-dimensional non projectable graphic m=computer file o=kit p=mixed materials r=3-dimensional artifact or naturally occurring object t=manuscript language material

07 Bibliographic level

  • The Leader (2)
  • 07 Bibliographic level
  • a=monographic component part b=serial component part c=collection d=subunit i=integrating resource m=monograph/items=serial
  • 08 Type of control
      • #=no specified type a=archival
  • 09 Character coding scheme #=MARC-8 a=UCS/Unicode10Indicator count (always "2")
  • 10 Indicator count (always "2")
  • 11 Subfield code count (always "2")
  • 12-16 Base address of data (calculated by the computer for each record


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