Chemistry 5 The Art and Science of Chemical Analysis Introduction to Chemical Analysis



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Chemistry 5

Introduction to Chemical Analysis

  • Chemical analysis includes any aspect of the chemical characterization of a sample material.
  • Analytical Chemistry?
    • “Science of Chemical Measurements”

Areas of Chemical Analysis and Questions They Answer

  • Quantitation:
    • How much of substance X is in the sample?
  • Detection:
    • Does the sample contain substance X?
  • Identification:
    • What is the identity of the substance in the sample?
  • Separation:
    • How can the species of interest be separated from the sample matrix for better quantitation and identification?

What do Chemical Analyst Do?

  • Analyst:
  • Applies known measurement techniques to well defined compositional or characterization questions.
  • Research Analytical Chemist

What do Chemical Analyst Do?

  • Senior Analyst:
  • Develops new measurement methods on existing principles to solve new analysis problems.

What do Chemical Analyst Do?

  • Research Analytical Chemist:
  • Creates and /or investigates novel techniques or principles for chemical measurements.
  • or
  • Conducts fundamental studies of chemical/physical phenomena underlying chemical measurements.

What is Analytical Science?

  • Analytical Chemistry provides the methods and tools needed for insight into our material world…for answering four basic questions about a material sample?
  • What?
  • Where?
  • How much?
  • What arrangement, structure or form?
  • Fresenius’ J. Anal. Chem. 343 (1992):812-813
  • ©Gary Christian, Analytical Chemistry, 6th Ed. (Wiley)
  • Qualitative analysis is what.
  • Quantitative analysis is how much.
  • Fig. 1.1. Steps in an analysis
  • An analysis involves several steps and operations which depend on:
  • the particular problem
  • your expertise
  • the apparatus or equipment available.
  • The analyst should be involved in every step.
  • ©Gary Christian, Analytical Chemistry, 6th Ed. (Wiley)
  • Different methods provide a range of precision, sensitivity, selectivity, and speed capabilities.
  • ©Gary Christian, Analytical Chemistry, 6th Ed. (Wiley)
  • The sample size dictates what measurement techniques can be used.
  • ©Gary Christian, Analytical Chemistry, 6th Ed. (Wiley)

Training of Chemical Analysts (Analytical Chemists)

  • Training focuses on principles and techniques for solving measurement problems … but…
  • Chemical analysts interface multiple disciplines to the solution of chemical measurement problems
    • Physical-, organic-, inorganic-, bio-chem-, physics, math, biology, electronic, computers

Chemistry 5 Training Focuses on

  • Underlying principles of chemical measurements ( integrating all chemistry fields, math, physics, biology, electronics, and computers).
  • Developing proficiency with quantitative analysis laboratory procedures
  • Exposure to role of chemical analysis in a broad range of modern science.

Chemical Analysis Affects Many Fields

  • Physical-, Organic-, …, Chemistry:
    • “Theory guides but Experiment decides”
  • Biotechnology:
    • Distinguishing isomers with differing bioactivities.
    • Biosenors
  • Materials Science:
    • High-temperature superconductors

Chemical Analysis Affects Many Fields

  • Manufacturing:
    • Quality control of packaged foods specifications
  • Forensics:
    • Chemical features for criminal evidence

Role of Analytical Chemistry in Modern Science

  • Case Study 1.
  • Nuclear Waste Disposal
    • Nuclear Power Plants
    • Nuclear Reactors
    • Weapons Processing
    • Weapons Disposal

Nuclear Waste Disposal Case Study

  • One Disposal Plan:
    • seal waste in corrosion-resistant containers
    • bury 1000’s of feet underground (rocky strata above water table)
    • Must remain contained for> 20,000 years

Nuclear Waste Disposal Case Study

  • Technical Problems:
  • Metal Package Corrosion:
    • M + water, oxygen, oxidizers M ions + products
  • To human
  • water supply
  • Underground water

Nuclear Waste Disposal Case Study

  • Repository above water table, but some water present
  • Model exists for chemical reactions, rates, and time-dependent dispersion of products and waste
  • Predicted containment time depends on very accurate measurements of microscopic corrosion processes over short periods (weeks, months)

Nuclear Waste Disposal Case Study

  • Corrosion Model:
  • M + H2O, SO42-, O2  M+ + OH- , H2
  • CO3=, H+, F-, Cl-,  MXn+ :
  • NO2-, NO3-, S=,etc.MYm+, MZj + Prod.

Nuclear Waste Disposal Case Study

  • What Do We Need To Know?
  • Laboratory Simulation Studies
  • Water Composition at site before container placement.
  • Water Composition after exposure to container
    • Time dependence (rate of product growth over weeks/months)
    • Small changes must be measured very precisely

Nuclear Waste Disposal Case Study Analytical Chemistry Issues:

  • What species to be measured?
  • What precision is required?
  • What measurement technique?
  • What are the sources of error?

Nuclear Waste Disposal Case Study Analytical Chemistry Issues:

  • Example: CO3= Analysis
  • Species? CO3=, HCO3-, H2CO3 ?
  • Precision? +/- ( 0.1%, 0.01%, 10%)
  • Technique?
    • +/- 1-2% Ion Chromatography
    • +/- 0.1% Acid-Base Titration
  • Error Sources?
    • Acid-Base (Other Bases Interfer)
    • Ion Chromatography (pH – Dependent Results)

Nuclear Waste Disposal Case Study Analytical Chemistry Issues:

  • What Carbonate Species?
  • CO3= + H2O  HCO3- + OH-
  • HCO3- + H2O  H2CO3 + OH-
  • H2CO3  CO2(g) + H2O
  • Temperature, Pressure Dependence

Nuclear Waste Disposal Case Study Analytical Chemistry Issues:

  • If Need [CO3=] only
    • Specify pH, Temperature, Pressure
    • Use Technique Selective for CO3=
      • (Ion Chromatography)
  • If Need CO3=]+ [HCO3-] + [H2CO3]
    • Remove Interferences
    • Acid-Base Titration

Nuclear Waste Disposal Case Study Analytical Chemistry Issues:

  • What carbonate species is present as a function of pH?

Nuclear Waste Disposal Case Study Analytical Chemistry Issues: (Cont.)

  • Other Chemical Measurements:
  • Chromium: Cr2+,Cr3+, Cr2O7=, CrO4=, etc.

Nuclear Waste Disposal Case Study Analytical Chemistry Issues: (Cont.)

  • What does the Analytical Chemist need to know to solve these problems?
  • Measurement Techniques Available
    • Titrations, Optical Spectroscopy, Chromatography; etc.
  • Strengths/Weaknesses of Techniques
    • Accuracy, Precision, Interferences, Range,
  • Detection Limits, etc.

Nuclear Waste Disposal Case Study Analytical Chemistry Issues: (Cont.)

  • Underlying Chemistry/Physics of the Sample Material
    • Solution Chemistry (Acid/Base)
    • Solids Homogeneity, Structure
  • Error Analysis
    • Sources
    • Solutions

Deer Kill

  • Case Study # 2: Deer Kill
  • Problem: Dead whitetail deer near pond in the Land Between the Lakes State Park in south central Kentucky.
  • Chemist state veterinary diagnostic laboratory helped find the cause

Site Investigation

  • Careful visual observation of a two acre area around the site:
  • Observation: grass around nearby power-poles was wilted and discolored.
  • Speculation: Herbicide used on grass.
  • Ingredient: Arsenic in a variety of forms
    • CH3AsO(OH)2 very soluble in water.

Select Method

  • Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC)
  • Distillation of arsenic as arsine which is then determined by colorimetric measurements.

Representative Sample

  • Dissect both deer. Removed kidneys for analysis.
  • Laboratory Sample. Preparation
  • Cut kidney into pieces and blend in a high speed blender to homogenize the sample.

Defining Replicate Samples

  • Three 10-g samples of the homogenized tissue were placed in porcelain curcibles and dry ashed. Dry ashing serves to free the analyte from organic material and convert the arsenic present to As2O5. Samples of the discolored grass were treated in a similar manner.

Dissolving the Samples

  • The dry solid in each of the sample crucibles was dissolved in dilute HCl, which converted the As2O5 to soluble H3AsO4.

Eliminating Interferences

  • Reactions to Eliminate Interferences:
  • H3AsO4 + SnCl2 + 2HCl --> H3AsO3 + SnCl2 + H2O
  • H3AsO3 + 3Zn + 6HCl --> AsH3(g) + 3ZnCl2 + 3H2O
  • Bubble gas into collectors with silver diethyldithiocarbamate to form a colored complex compound shown below.

Measuring the Amount of Analyte

  • Spectrophotometer: Highly colored complex of arsenic was found to absorb light at a wavelength of 535 nm.

Calculating the Concentration

  • ppm = (Absorbance -.005)/0.0282
  • Deer 1: (0.61 - 0.005)/0.0282 = 22 ppm
  • Deer 2: (0.43 -0.005)/0.0282 = 15 ppm
  • Arsenic in the kidney tissue of animals is toxic at levels above about 10 ppm.
  • Grass Samples showed about 600 ppm arsenic.

Reliability of the Data

  • The data from these experiments could be analyzed using the statistical methods we will describe in Section 3.

Where Do We Begin?

  • Review of Basic Tools and Operations of Analytical Chemistry
    • The Laboratory Notebook
    • Analytical Balances, Volumetric Glassware
    • Laboratory Safety
  • Error Analysis
    • Concepts
    • Terminology
    • Evaluation of Data
    • Experimental Design
  • Review of Solution Chemistry
    • Units
    • Concentration Calculations
    • Stoichiometry
    • Balanced Chemical Reactions
  • Laboratory safety is a must!
  • Learn the rules.
  • See Appendix D.
  • ©Gary Christian, Analytical Chemistry, 6th Ed. (Wiley)


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