Chapter 2—The Nature of Crime multiple choice



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Chapter 2—The Nature of Crime

MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. According to the _______ view of crime, behaviors that become crimes are essentially harmful to majority of citizens and therefore there is general agreement regarding with behaviors need to be controlled.

a.

Conflict

b.

Interactionist

c.

Consensus

d.

Constructionist

ANS: C REF: p. 44

OBJ: 1
2. Which of the following crimes is not included in the Uniform Crime Report’s list of Part I or index crimes?

a.

Criminal homicide

b.

Motor vehicle theft

c.

Simple assault

d.

Arson

ANS: C REF: p. 54

OBJ: 2
3. Which of the following is a public order crime?

a.

Prostitution

b.

Embezzlement

c.

Domestic violence

d.

Hate speech

ANS: A REF: p. 49

OBJ: 2
4. Since 1995, the number of arrests for prostitution has:

a.

Increased significantly

b.

Decreased

c.

Remained stable

d.

Increased slightly

ANS: B REF: p. 49

OBJ: 3
5. Which of the following is considered the most widely cited source of criminal statistics?

a.

National Crime Victimization Survey

b.

Self-report surveys

c.

Uniform Crime Report

d.

Bureau of Justice Statistics

ANS: C REF: p. 54-56

OBJ: 3
6. Which crime listed below is not reported in Part I or Part II of the offense section of the UCR?

a.

Drug offenses

b.

Traffic violations

c.

Liquor law violations

d.

Sex offenses

ANS: B REF: p. 54

OBJ: 2
7. A spree killer:

a.

is motivated by the quest for drug profits and street power

b.

Kills many victims in a single violent outburst

c.

Spreads their murderous outburst over a few days or weeks

d.

Kills over a long period of time but typically assume a “normal” identity between murders

ANS: C REF: p. 47

OBJ: 2
8. The UCR indicates that police clear slightly more than _____ percent of all reported Part I crimes each year?

a.

20

b.

35

c.

50

d.

65

ANS: A REF: p. 55

OBJ: 2
9. Which data source relies on a multi-stage sample of housing units to collect information about citizen's encounters with criminals?

a.

National Crime Victimization Survey

b.

Uniform Crime Report

c.

Monitoring the Future Survey

d.

National Incident-Based Reporting System

ANS: A REF: p. 58

OBJ: 3
10. One of the most important sources of self-report data is the _____ study, conducted annually using approximately 2,500 high school seniors.

a.

Monitoring the Future

b.

Juvenile Arrest

c.

National Center for Information about Crime

d.

Juvenile Social Survey

ANS: A REF: p. 60

OBJ: 3
11. Which of the following is not a problem associated with the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)?

a.

Over-reporting due to victim's misrepresentation of events

b.

Incomplete acts are lumped together with completed acts

c.

Underreporting stemming from the embarrassment of reporting crime

d.

Sampling errors which produce a group of respondents who do not represent the nation as a whole

ANS: B REF: p. 58

OBJ: 3
12. Which type of study provides the best measure of unreported crimes?

a.

Official records

b.

Prison data

c.

Self-report studies

d.

Victimization surveys

ANS: C REF: p. 59-60

OBJ: 3
13. Self-report surveys are conducted most often on which of the following groups?

a.

Juveniles

b.

Death row inmates

c.

Prisoners

d.

Police officers

ANS: A REF: p. 59-60

OBJ: 3
14. Which of the following is false about the validity of self-report data?

a.

Serious chronic offenders usually cooperate

b.

Institutionalized youth are not generally represented

c.

Polygraphs can be used to validate the accuracy of self-reports

d.

The "known group" can be used to assess validity

ANS: A REF: p. 59-60

OBJ: 5
15. Which of the following is false regarding alternative crime measures?

a.

Cohort data involves observing over time a group of people who share certain characteristics.

b.

Meta-analysis involves gathering data from a number of previous studies.

c.

Sometimes criminologists conduct controlled experiments to collect data on the cause of crime.

d.

Data mining create graphical representations of the spatial geography of crime.

ANS: D REF: p. 62

OBJ: 6
16. Which of the following variables is not positively correlated with a higher rate of crime in a population?

a.

A greater number of hours spent watching television

b.

A greater number of unwed mothers

c.

A greater proportion of people in prison

d.

A greater proportion of young males

ANS: C REF: p. 66

OBJ: 6
17. In which season do the greatest numbers of reported crimes occur?

a.

Summer

b.

Fall

c.

Spring

d.

Winter

ANS: A REF: p. 69

OBJ: 6
18. Which of the following crimes are exceptions to the warm-weather crime trend?

a.

Burglary and motor vehicle theft

b.

Murder and robbery

c.

Kidnapping and larceny

d.

Burglary and arson

ANS: B REF: p. 69

OBJ: 6
19. Which of the following is false regarding international crime trends?

a.

Many nations, especially those experiencing social or economic upheaval, have murder rates much higher than the United States.

b.

Violence against women is related to economic hardship and the social status of women.

c.

Middle Eastern nations have significantly higher rates of robbery than the United States.

d.

There are a number of countries, including Canada, which have higher rates of vehicle theft than the United States.

ANS: C REF: p. 70

OBJ: 8
20. Which country has the highest homicide rate?

a.

Brazil

b.

United States

c.

Canada

d.

Germany

ANS: A REF: p. 70

OBJ: 8
21. Which region of the United States has the highest property and violent crime rates?

a.

Northeast

b.

Midwest

c.

South

d.

West

ANS: C REF: p. 69

OBJ: 6
22. Which of the following is false?

a.

Teenagers have extremely high crime rates, whereas seniors rarely commit crimes.

b.

Immigration is negatively associated with homicides and drug-related homicides specifically.

c.

There is a clear and established relationship between the economy and crime.

d.

There is evidence that the recent drop in the crime rate can be attributed to the availability of legalized abortion.

ANS: C REF: p. 73-78

OBJ: 6
23. The peak age for property crime is 16, and the peak age for violent crime is:

a.

16

b.

18

c.

21

d.

25

ANS: B REF: p. 73-74

OBJ: 7
24. Which of the following is not an explanation regarding gender differences in the crime rate?

a.

Males are stronger and better able to commit violence.

b.

Hormones make men more aggressive.

c.

Girls are socialized to be less aggressive.

d.

Girls are granted greater personal freedom.

ANS: D REF: p. 75-76

OBJ: 7
25. Which statement regarding the relationship between age and crime is true?

a.

Elderly males are predominantly arrested for alcohol-related matters such as public drunkenness and drunk driving.

b.

There is no relationship between age and crime.

c.

Age is positively related to criminality.

d.

The age-crime relationship has changed significantly since 1935.

ANS: A REF: p. 73-74

OBJ: 7
26. Which of the following is true about the relationship between age and crime?

a.

Kids who are persistent offenders begin committing crime in their adolescence.

b.

Kids who are persistent offenders continue a stable pattern of offending activities during late adolescence.

c.

Kids who are persistent offenders begin a rapid acceleration of crime in adulthood.

d.

Early starters tend to commit more crime and are more likely to continue to be involved in criminality over a longer period of crime.

ANS: D REF: p. 73-74

OBJ: 7
27. Early criminologists pointed to ______ differences between males and females to explain the differences in crime rates.

a.

Emotional

b.

Physical

c.

Psychological

d.

emotional, physical, and psychological

ANS: D REF: p. 75

OBJ: 7
28. African Americans make up about 12 percent of the general population, yet account for approximately _____ percent of violent crime arrests.

a.

10

b.

25

c.

40

d.

60

ANS: C REF: p. 77-79

OBJ: 7
29. Which statement regarding the relationship between race and crime is true?

a.

Black violence rates are much lower in Canada and Nigeria.

b.

Many African Americans view the justice system as arbitrary and unfair.

c.

African Americans receive longer sentences than whites with the same employment status.

d.

All of these statements are true.

ANS: D REF: p. 77-79

OBJ: 7
30. In the landmark study Delinquency in a Birth Cohort, researchers found that chronic offenders committed approximately _____ percent of all offenses?

a.

5

b.

30

c.

50

d.

75

ANS: C REF: p. 79-81

OBJ: 910

TRUE/FALSE
1. It is estimated that there are 75,000 gang members in the United States.

ANS: F REF: p. 47

OBJ: 2
2. UCR data captures the so-called dark figure of crime.

ANS: F REF: p. 54

OBJ: 5
3. Apparent increases in crime rates in the UCR may actually reflect changes in the way the police record their data.

ANS: T REF: p. 54

OBJ: 3
4. The National Crime Victimization Survey has recently been undermined by budget limitations.

ANS: T REF: p. 58

OBJ: 5
5. The Monitoring the Future study is one of the most important sources of self-report data with regard to drugs.

ANS: T REF: p. 60

OBJ: 5
6. Violent crime in the United States has increased significantly in the last few years.

ANS: F REF: p. 66

OBJ: 6
7. There is evidence that reporting accuracy of self-report studies differs among racial, ethnic, and gender groups.

ANS: T REF: p. 59-60

OBJ: 5
8. Crime mapping uses multiple advanced computational methods, including artificial intelligence, to analyze large data sets that usually involve one or more data sources.

ANS: F REF: p. 62

OBJ: 5
9. Three strikes laws were inspired by the research findings of the Philadelphia birth cohort study.

ANS: T REF: p. 79-81

OBJ: 10
10. The Philadelphia Birth Cohort study found that arrest and court appearances did little to deter chronic offenders.

ANS: T REF: p. 79-81

OBJ: 10

COMPLETION
1. Immigrants have significantly ____________________ rates of incarceration than the average U.S. citizen.

ANS: lower

REF: p. 70 OBJ: 7
2. Behaviors considered illegal because they run counter to existing moral standards are known as ____________________ crimes.

ANS: public order/victimless

REF: p. 49 OBJ: 2
3. ____________________ is a Part I index crime that involves an unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury.

ANS: aggravated assault

REF: p. 47 OBJ: 2
4. A crime is said to be ____________________ when at least one person is arrested or charged with the commission of the offense.

ANS: cleared

REF: p. 55 OBJ: 2
5. Murder, _________, robbery, burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, arson, and aggravated assault make up the FBI's Part I crimes.

ANS: forcible rape

REF: p. 54 OBJ: 2
6. The three major areas of concern with regard to the accuracy of UCR data are methodological practices, reporting practices, and ____________________ practices.

ANS: law enforcement

REF: p. 56 OBJ: 3
7. The statistics for ____________________ are regarded as the most accurate aspect of the UCR.

ANS:


murder/homicide

REF: p. 56 OBJ: 5


8. The view that younger African American males are subject to greater police control when their numbers increase within the population is known as ____________________ theory.

ANS: racial threat

REF: p. 78 OBJ: 7
9. ____________________ is the term commonly used to describe persistent repeat offenders who organize their lifestyle around criminality.

ANS:


Career criminal/chronic offender

REF: p. 79 OBJ: 10


10. Employee pilferage, bribery, commodities law violations, mail fraud, computer fraud, and embezzlement are examples of _________ crimes.

ANS: white collar

REF: p. 51 OBJ: 2

ESSAY
1. There are three different approaches to defining crime. Discuss what these are and if there can be any overlap between these definitions.

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 44-46 OBJ: 1
2. Compare and contrast the UCR, NCVS, and self-report surveys in terms of measuring crime trends.

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 54-61 OBJ: 3
3. Discuss the recent trends in violent and property crime in the United States. How do these compare to violent and property crime rates internationally?

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 63-68 OBJ: 6
4. Describe the social, economic, personal, and demographic factors suggested by experts to account for the recent crime drop in the United States. Suggest one factor not mentioned in the chapter that may influence crime rates, and explain your rationale.

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 73-79 OBJ: 7
5. Describe both sides of the crime-class debate.

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 73 OBJ: 7
6. Discuss the intersection of race, class, gender, and crime.

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 73-79 OBJ: 7
7. Describe the relationship between gender and crime and the various theories that have been developed to explain this relationship. What do you believe is the most convincing explanation for the differences in the rate of male and female involvement in crime?

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 75-76 OBJ: 7
8. Elaborate the three different categories of crime through the use of examples: violent crime, public order crime, and economic crime.

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 47-51 OBJ: 6
9. Discuss the Philadelphia birth cohort study and how its findings have shaped criminal justice policy.

ANS: Answer not provided.

REF: p. 79-81 OBJ: 10
10. Discuss the significant findings with regard to the relationship between age and crime.

ANS: Answer not provided.



REF: p. 73-74 OBJ: 7









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